• Leoncio P. Deriada is generally recognized as the
"Father of Contemporary Literature in Western
• He was born in Iloilo but spent most of his life in
Davao. He earned his BA English degree at the
Ateneo de Davao University where he graduated cum
laude in 1959. He later received his MA in English
from Xavier University in 1970 and went on to receive
his PhD in English and Literature with a specialization
in creative writing from Silliman University in 1981
• He is a multi-lingual writer having produced works in
English, Filipino, Hiligaynon, Kinaray-a and Cebuano.
• His thirteen Palanca awards include works in
English, Filipino and Hiligaynon. Of these thirteen,
five are first-prize winners.
BACKGROUND OF THE AUTHOR
LEONCIO P. DERIADA
• Night Mares is Deriada's second collection of published fiction.Three of the
stories are not really horror or fantasy. "Phone Pal from Padre Selga Street“,
"Wood“ and "Twas Brillig," the best story of the collection, is an intellectual
tour de force of literary wit and really does not fit the theme of horror and
fantasy which Deriada sets for himself in this collection.
• "'Twas Brillig is a tongue in cheek story of the kapre of Asian mythology
which Deriada sets in the framework of Lewis Carroll's Jabberwocky and the
tale of Jack and the Beanstalk
• . The kapre is a kind of Jolly Green Giant. Yet there is more to the story than
just a piece of clever and witty writing.
• It really is a myth within a myth, especially for anyone familiar with
Philippine colonial history. The knpre wears red, white and blue pckey shorts
with a field of stars, and bleeds gold and silver coins when wounded.
BACKGROUND OF THE STORY ‘TWAS BRILLIG
• He is overcome finally by bagoong, the fermented fish sauce much
loved by Filipinos and detested by Americans. What we have in this
story, I believe, is more than just a tale of fantasy.
• It is, perhaps, a new myth of the Filipino's triumph over colonial
oppressors. It is one of the best pieces of writing that Deriada has
done to the present.
• Juanito- a 10 year old Kapre Hunter
• Rizal- the carabao
• Juanito’s Mother- a devout mother
• Lolo Agaton- the herbolario
• The Kapre- a big creature/monster that lives on the hills.
At the barrio
Strange happenings pop up on their barrio about a monster that terrorizes their
barrio and is thrice as terror of the Tikbalang.
A young man with his carabao, hunt for the Kapre.
Juanito is a son of a tikbalang hunter on their barrio. His father left their
family when he was still 5 years old to capture the said tikbalang who terrorized
their barrio, but unluckily his father was not able to came back home. Juanito
idolized much his father, for him, his father was a brave man for he has that
courage to fight a tikbalang even though he put his life into death.
Juanito only lived with his mother and what their father left to them was Rizal,
a carabao who is more than a work animal for them. The bull had been his
faithful companion since his father left to capture a tikbalang.
The whole barrio knew why the carabao had been named Rizal. He was born
on December 30,the day the national hero was shot by the Spaniards. It was
colored red on the calendar and that meant it was an important day, so anybody
born on that day, Juanito's father thought, is important too. When Agaton the
herbolario, heard about the young bull's name, he was scandalized and said that
calling a carabao Rizal was both unpatriotic and blasphemous.
" I hope your next animal will not be born on November 30, Otherwise you will
have a carabao named Bonifacio, he said. Juanito's father laughed, Juanito
laughed too although he did not understand anything. He was only 5 years old.
Now Juanito was ten and Rizal was five. Rizal was the biggest bull in the
barrio and Juanito was.proud of that.News of recent strange happenings
began to pop up on their barrio about a new monster that is thrice the terror
as of the tikbalang, the people named it as a Kapre. Unsuspecting barrio folk
would see him standing on top of the obelisk of the hills to the west.
Juanito thought of the kapre. This giant was different from the kapre old
people used to know that was hairy body, hairy limbs, claws and fangs but
this new one seemed to be twice his size and thrice his terror. Neither Juanito
nor his mother had seen the kapre but news of strange happenings began to
pop up more on their barrio.Juanito at his young age was curious of what
happened and wanted to know more about the Kapre so he went to Lolo
Agaton's little home to ask him about it.
At first, Lolo Agaton thought Juanito was just crazy when he said that he
want to kill the kapre.
"You sound just like your father. The day before he sought out the tikbalang in
those mountains, he came here and convinced me how brave he was. Well,
young man you cannot convinced me" Lolo Agaton said
Juanito told then that he was not afraid of that kapre, he is different to his
father.He will drive away the kapre and cut its arm or ear.
"So you want to play hero. Juanito. I can see that you are not quite a man
yet.You are just a little boy."
"I am a man! I am ten years old"
"The kapre is enough to make you and your crazy carabao run home"
Heeehehe.A man at ten years!
Until the throat of Lolo Agaton clogged in a fit of coughing.Juanito told then
that whis what he get for making fun at him.
Until at last Lolo Agaton told Juanito where to find the Kapre. The herbolario
took Juanito's hand and led him to the top of the low hill and pointed out where
the kapre lives. Juanito expected the old man to cough again, but he did not. It
was Juanito who struggled with his breath while listening. Lolo Agaton told him
that the kapre is not pure Filipino. Juanito then ask for anting-anting that will
make him invisible. It is because it is not fair for him to face squarely the giant.
"Brave men do not use anting-anting"
"I'm just a little man"
"If you want to kill the Kapre, you need a bigger knife"
"I'll use my father's espading "
"I think this joke is going too far Juanito " the old man suddenly become
serious. Let's go back to the house.I am thirsty, go untie your carabao and go
home. Your mother must be wondering where you are"
Juanito went home,her mother wondered why it took Juanito whole morning
to feed the carabao .Juanito told then that he went to see the herbolario and
ask about the kapre. Her mother was shocked and told him not to talk again
about that monster.
Juanito took his lunch, It was an overcooked green vegetable leaf and rice.
Beside it was a jar of bagoong, the jar used was actually nescafe.Juanito
opened it and smell the appetizing salted fish. But he was not satisfied of the
food. Juanito loves to hear rich people food and wonders why if these people
eats bagoong too.Juanito ate with his fingers but his mouth tasted nothing. He
was thinking of the kapre on how to destroy him, or at least stop him from
making his periodic visits to the barrio. He could not understand why old man
Agaton refused to give him an amulet.
After eating, Juanito prepared all the things he needed including his father's
spading and also wrapped bagoong. Her mother seen him and asked of why
his father's blade is with him.Juanito told her mother that he will look for the
kapre at that very afternoon. The woman raised her hands to her head and
exclaimed, " Maria santissima! No, no,Juanito! Don't go! I lost your father to
the horrid tikbalang and the tikbalang is nothing more than an enchanted
horse. I don't want to lose you to that!
" I have to go. Everybody is afraid of the kapre". I am not
Juanito prepared for the momentous trip of his life as his mother watched him
desperately. He brought with him the spading, bagoong and slingshot. Putting
on a wide buri and ready to go. His mother give him a rosary beads darkened
by a thousand and one feelings of Ave Maria before she went to sleep.
"No,Mother," Juanito said, waving his hand.The kapre is not repelled by that. He
might be a Catholic.
His mother told him that not the sling nor the spading would protect him but
it is something blessed by the church.
"Yes, there is something that will drive that monster away." Juanito unwrapped
the espading,placed the Nescafe jar inside the sack,wrapped the espading in it
again and he was ready to go.Hours later, Rizal was descending the last hill
towards the west. On the carabao's back, Juanito looked at the dark mountain
range .He held the carabao's rope tight as his heart beat and he was sweating
On their way, the bull smelled brook water at the edge of the valley .While
Juanito glanced at the direction of their home, he imagined that at time her
mother might be finished cooking dried mudfish and rice. Pictured her bending
over the stove , with her rosary beads. He felt hungry and he thought of the jar
of bagoong inside the sack but suddenly, Rizal stopped. His ears stiffened and
bent towards the edge of the valley. They heard the sound of strange animals.
They were horrid-looking creatures but they are harmless. Juanito kicked Rizal's
side and the carabao moved on.
At last they were at the brook. They felt the cold wind blew from that
forest.Rizal dashed towards the water for he was extremely thirsty like his master
A weird hissing sound came from the other side of the brook,that made Rizal
step back and Juanito almost fell at the bull's back into the shallow water.It was a
half-snake half lizard creature, the toves!Juanito knew them from the stories.Then
a thumping sound came from the forest and earth shook. Juanito held his breath
while handling the slingshot Rizal moved back into the safety grassy valley.
From the forest of low trees emerged the kapre, his presence wreaking as
much disturbance as would by the coming of a tornado. The gross creatuure
brushed the trees aside and the animals went to different directions and created
noise. When the kapre had come out fully, he stood in front of Juanito and
burbled.Juanito stared at the kapre and realized that it was as tall as the obelisk
of the Japanese memorial and it was not ugly.
The kapre went near and tried to pick up Juanito from the carabao's
back.Juanito jumped.and the kapre only caught his buri hat. Juanito and the
carabao ran in opposite directions.The kapre burbled louder and kicked the earth.
Juanito found himself in a wide area where he had seen strange looking animals.
The kapre seemed to have decided that the boy was more appetizing than the
Juanito heard the kapre coming so he prepared his slingshots. He tried to
shot the kapre's leg but he missed it until all his pocket of pebbles were
Juanito used the espading of his father with all his strength and struck the
kapre's body but no blood goes out from it, instead gold and silver coins
rolled out at the kapre's wound. Juanito was stunned of what he saw. It
looked like there's nothing happened, the kapre just picked up the coins and
put it back to his body.
The kapre was back to his ferocious self again.He tried to grab Juanito with
his fingers curved like claws. But before his hands could reach the boy, Rizal
appeared and attacked the kapre's leg with his horns that made the kapre lost
his balance and fell down.Juanito suddenly remembered the jar of bagoong
so before the kapre could rise, Juanito sprinkled it's contents on the kapre's
face.and the air was thickened with the smell of rotten salted fish. The kapre
screamed as if the fishy sauce had been hydrochloric acid.
The kapre was afraid of that bagoong.Juanito laughed when he realized that
a simple bagoong could down that monster. No anting-anting could have
done better. The kapre tried to stand up but he could not. He sat on the
ground desperately wiping the bits of rotten fish.
Juanito gripped the espading and told the kapre to cut off its head.
The kapre cried as Juanito raised the spading. To his utter disbelief the kapre
made the sign of the cross.Juanito couldn't believe that a kapre was a believer
after all and he was a Catholic. He could not possibly cut off the head of the
fellow Catholic even if it was a monster. What would his devout mother say.
" Well, I won't cut off your head" "You have to thank your guardian angel for that.
You have to promise never to bother us anymore.
“ Thank you, thank you. Master Juanito. I promise not to come back. Cross my
heart.. Oh I can’t breathe.Please don’t use that poison again. My tribe can never
be immune to that.” He coughed. “ May I go now?’
Juanito told then a condition that he will let go the kapre if he will take home
something from him so that the people will believe him it’s because Rizal cannot
talk. The kapre pulled back the elastic band and let Juanito take his hair.Juanito
reached the last hill for home. He looked back at the hill for a last glimpse
wondered where the kapre was then. He saw a multitude of people of their barrio
gathering at the foot of the hill. Juanito saw her mother beside old man Agaton.
Juanito raised the kapre’s brownish hair and shouted that he defeated the
kapre. The whole barrio rejoiced for his victory .Juanito jumped off Rizal’s
back, holding the hair and ran down the hill. Rizal was not interested in this
type of welcome. He ran down the hill, too and galumped towards the brook.
Juanito’s mother embraced his little hero.
Meanwhile, In his waterhole, Rizal sat thinking. “ What are they so excited
for? To think that it was me who downed the kapre.”
“ Some people are not recognized of their victory because nobody believes
that they can also do what others can”
Parece que tem um bloqueador de anúncios ativo. Ao listar o SlideShare no seu bloqueador de anúncios, está a apoiar a nossa comunidade de criadores de conteúdo.
Atualizámos a nossa política de privacidade.
Atualizámos a nossa política de privacidade de modo a estarmos em conformidade com os regulamentos de privacidade em constante mutação a nível mundial e para lhe fornecer uma visão sobre as formas limitadas de utilização dos seus dados.
Pode ler os detalhes abaixo. Ao aceitar, está a concordar com a política de privacidade atualizada.