• to identify different lubricants according to
• to present illustrations of types of lubricants
• to give knowledge about preventive
maintenance for manufacturing
• To provide examples of standard procedures
3. BASIC LUBRICATION
• Lubricant - reduces friction between
moving metal surfaces. It cools surfaces
and resists being displaced by the
pressure, keeping the metal parts
separated. It also prevent corrosion,
block contaminants and can serve as a
5. TYPES OF LUBRICANTS
1. Oils cover a broad class of fluid lubricants which
has particular physical properties and
• Naphthenic oils – contain little wax and their low
pour point makes them good lubricants for most
• Paraffinic oils – are very waxy which makes them
useful for hydraulic equipment and other
7. • Greases are ideal for lubricating bearings,
gaskets, seals and other moving parts. It
consists of oil or synthetic fluid (~80%), a
thickening agent (~10%) and additives
• - The consistency of greases is
usually ranked by their relative hardness
on a scale set by the National Lubricating
Grease Institute (NLGI).
9. • Solid lubricantsare usually fine powders,
such as Molybdenum Disulfide (Moly),
graphite and Teflon (PTFE). They can be
used alone, or as additives in grease or
dispersions, or as dry film bonded
• Rust remover is used mainly to dissolve
rust. It is also used as an excellent
12. • Dry lubricant is a grease product that
dries in a few minutes and leaves a
protective film. Since it dries rapidly, it
doesn’t attract dust, so there is no mess.
It is recommended to be used on rubber,
car door gaskets, handsaws, miter saw,
and saw sliders, window sashes and
14. •Penetrating lubricant – its lubricating
properties persist even after having
removed residues, as it penetrates
into metal. It is ideal for door hinges,
even the fridge, hard to open pliers,
ski bindings and others as it does not
hold dirt and dust.
16. • Synthetic lubricants are more inert, generate less
waste, are capable of a wider range of temperatures
and have a longer life than petroleum materials.
• Synthetic oils are used to lubricate instrument
bearings, hydraulics, air compressors, gas and
steam turbines and other applications. They have
excellent viscosity temperature characteristics,
good resistance to oxidation and an extremely
wide operating temperature range.
17. • Synthetic greases can last a lifetime,
making them very cost-effective. They
are chemically inert, and their high
thermal stability makes the useful for
aerospace, electrical, automotive and
other high-tech or industrial applications.
19. •Silicones are very stable and very
inert lubricants, which provide a wider
range of operating temperatures than
non-silicone synthetic lubricants.
Other advantages include water
repulsion and electrical insulation.
21. KINDS, USES AND PROPERTIES OF CLEANING SOLVENTS
Kinds of Cleaning Solvents
Solutions are homogenous mixture of two or more
components: can be gaseous, liquid or solid.
The dissolved material in a solution is termed as solute
while the dissolving medium is called solvent.
Solvent is a component of a solution that dissolves
solute and is usually present in large proportion or
Soluble in water
25. • Properties of Cleaning Solvents
When there is a similarity of
electrical properties (e.g. high dipole
element between solute and solvent) the
solute-solvent attractions are particularly
strong. When there is dissimilarity, solute-
solvent attractions are weak.
26. USES OF CLEANING SOLVENTS
- used to wash oil /
greasy tools /
- used to wash
other parts of
- used to
- used to remove
spilled paint on the
floor, walls and tools
SOAP & WATER
- used to wash / clean
upholstered furniture such as
seats, tables, cabinets, etc.
29. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTICES IN
HANDLING CLEANING SOLVENTS
o You should never use compressed air to clean your
clothes, hands or body. The pressure can cause the
cleaning solvents and dirt particles to penetrate your skin,
resulting in infection and or blood poisoning.
o Do not use compressed air to clean an object
immediately after it has been removed from a hot cleaning
tank. Rinse the cleaning solvents away with water.
o Do not use carbon tetrachloride as cleaning solution.
30. o The fumes when inhaled can cause serious
internal injury and possibly result in death.
o In steam-cleaning place the object is to be
cleaned on a platter and wear a face shield and
rubber gloves for protection against loose debris.
o Use the appropriate gloves.
o Keep all inflammable cleaning solvents in closed
tin containers and whenever possible, store them in
a separate area.
31. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
Three main types of Tools & Equipment:
Hand tools – your hand supplies the
energy to operate them
Machine or power tools – uses either
electricity, compressed air, or hydraulic
pressure to make them operate
33. Tips and Techniques
• o The best way to keep the tools in good condition is
to just clean them
• o If mortar builds up on the tools, special cleaners may
Advantages of proper usage:
1. Efficiency of the work
2. High quality of the work
3. Speed of accomplishment
34. WATER AND MORE
• o Water is the best cleaning agent for small and larger tools.
• o If mortar has hardened on the tools, and water is not
sufficient to remove it, muriatic acid can be used to clean the
• o If the mortar sits too long and builds up on the mortarboard,
any kind of concrete dissolve will work to clean it.
• o A non-porous, smooth surface with a concave at the middle
portion helps the mortar board to keep water for greater
• o Masonry mortar does not bond to the working surfaces.
35. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
o Preventive maintenance using preservatives can keep
wooden tools in top shape by preventing the wood from
o Linseed oil is recommended for wooden levels and
wooden handles. It protects against splitting and spilling
when the wooden part gets wet repeatedly due to
o However, some metal tools like trowels are prone to
rust. But if they are used almost everyday, rust and other
unwanted elements will wear off naturally which keeps
them clean always.
36. ROUTINE SERVICE
o If a hammer handle becomes loose, it should be replaced
immediately. The hammers should be sharpened by a
o Good maintenance of your carbon chisel lets you cut faster
o If you need to tighten up a wooden handle, insert another
wedge into the end of the handle or immerse the hammer
head into a bucket of water overnight to expand the wood.
o For striking tools with carbide tips, storing properly is
37. MAINTAIN AND SERVICE MOTORIZED PRODUCT
• Frequently used equipment also needs a
squirt of grease. They require minimum
and periodic maintenance. You have to
change the engine oil occasionally. Tire
pressure should be checked regularly for
safety reason as well.
38. LESSON 2 : STORE TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
A. Tools and equipment inventory
Ø Inventory – detailed list of all the items in stock
Some companies often spend more time in tracking
and managing their inventory. This creates a difficult
situation of attempting to manage inventory at
multiple job locations.
40. Depending on the company, owners or managers
may require employees to use own tools for certain
For example, construction companies may require
employees to have their own items such as a
hammer, painting equipment or welding supplies.
This reduces inventory management.
Whatever is the type of company or shop, inventory
taking is very important.
41. REASON FOR MAINTAINING TOOLS AND
• The most important point to consider is to purchase
• Special consideration is given to balance so that the
tool, equipment will be properly maintained and
• The initial cost of a minimum number of tools is high
but there is accompanying warranties and guarantees
satisfaction and many years of service.
42. POINTS TO CONSIDER
• Create a sign out sheet for all shop
• Conduct an audit for long-term jobs.
• Restrict shop tool access to one
• Use a barcode system to track inventory.