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• IATA was formed on 19 April 1945 inIATA was formed on 19 April 1945 in
Havana, Cuba.Havana, Cuba.
• HQ – 800 Place Victoria, Montreal,HQ – 800 Place Victoria, Montreal,
• Membership – 243 Airlines from more thanMembership – 243 Airlines from more than
126 nations126 nations
• DG & CEO – Tony TylerDG & CEO – Tony Tyler
• Successor of International Air TrafficSuccessor of International Air Traffic
Association founded in Hague in 1919Association founded in Hague in 1919
OF IATAOF IATA
““To represent, lead and serveTo represent, lead and serve
the airlines industrythe airlines industry.”.”
• All airline rules and regulations are definedAll airline rules and regulations are defined
by IATA.by IATA.
• The main aim of IATA is to provide safeThe main aim of IATA is to provide safe
and secure transportation to all itsand secure transportation to all its
IATA - ACTIVITIESIATA - ACTIVITIES
• IATA has many functions like:IATA has many functions like:
– Price settingPrice setting
– World wide accreditation of travel agentsWorld wide accreditation of travel agents
– Assigning three-letter and two-letter codes toAssigning three-letter and two-letter codes to
airports and airlinesairports and airlines
– IATA regulates theIATA regulates the shipping of Dangerousshipping of Dangerous
Goods and publishes the Dangerous GoodsGoods and publishes the Dangerous Goods
Regulations manualRegulations manual (DGR)(DGR)
DEFINITION OF DANGEROUSDEFINITION OF DANGEROUS
Articles or substances which are capableArticles or substances which are capable
of posing a risk to :of posing a risk to :
or the environmentor the environment
AN ACCIDENT CAUSED BY MISHANDLING OFAN ACCIDENT CAUSED BY MISHANDLING OF
• 11 MAY 1996, MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A VALUE JET11 MAY 1996, MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A VALUE JET
FLIGHT 592 WAS BEING PREPARED FOR TAKE OFF. A CARGOFLIGHT 592 WAS BEING PREPARED FOR TAKE OFF. A CARGO
LOADER PLACED A FEW BOXES OF 144 OUT-OF-DATELOADER PLACED A FEW BOXES OF 144 OUT-OF-DATE
OXYGEN GENERATORS, LOOSELY PACKED IN DOUBLEOXYGEN GENERATORS, LOOSELY PACKED IN DOUBLE
WRAP, AROUND AN AIRCRAFT TYRE IN THE CARGO HOLD.WRAP, AROUND AN AIRCRAFT TYRE IN THE CARGO HOLD.
THE AIRCRAFT STARTED TO MOVE TOWARDS THE RUNWAY.THE AIRCRAFT STARTED TO MOVE TOWARDS THE RUNWAY.
THIS MOVEMENT STARTED THE BURNING OF ONE OF THETHIS MOVEMENT STARTED THE BURNING OF ONE OF THE
OXYGEN GENERATORS AND SUBSEQUENTLY ALL OF THEMOXYGEN GENERATORS AND SUBSEQUENTLY ALL OF THEM
STARTED BURNING. THE SURFACE OF THE METALSTARTED BURNING. THE SURFACE OF THE METAL
GENERATOR GOT HOTTER AND HOTTER. THE BOX AND THEGENERATOR GOT HOTTER AND HOTTER. THE BOX AND THE
DOUBLE WRAP CAUGHT FIRE. THE AIRCRAFT CRASHED ANDDOUBLE WRAP CAUGHT FIRE. THE AIRCRAFT CRASHED AND
KILLED ALL ON BOARD.KILLED ALL ON BOARD.
• IT WAS A CLEAR EXAMPLE TO SHOW HOW MISHANDLING OFIT WAS A CLEAR EXAMPLE TO SHOW HOW MISHANDLING OF
DANGEROUS GOODS CAN CAUSE ACCIDENT.DANGEROUS GOODS CAN CAUSE ACCIDENT.
• In this example the laid down procedures for theIn this example the laid down procedures for the
handling of dangerous goods were not followed.handling of dangerous goods were not followed.
• Neither the shipper who handed over theNeither the shipper who handed over the
dangerous goods nor the airlines who accepteddangerous goods nor the airlines who accepted
and handled the goods followed the standardand handled the goods followed the standard
• To avoid such accidents or incidents, procedureTo avoid such accidents or incidents, procedure
for dangerous goods were formulated.for dangerous goods were formulated.
IATA DGRIATA DGR
• Published by the IATA Dangerous Goods BoardPublished by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board
and are revised every year.and are revised every year.
• First Edition of DGR was published in 1956,First Edition of DGR was published in 1956,
titled IATA Restricted Articles Regulations.titled IATA Restricted Articles Regulations.
• It is a manual of industry carrier regulations to beIt is a manual of industry carrier regulations to be
followed by all IATA member airlines.followed by all IATA member airlines.
Edition of DGR will be effective from 01 JanEdition of DGR will be effective from 01 Jan
IATA DGR ARE BASED ONIATA DGR ARE BASED ON
• Annex 18 to the Chicago Convention onAnnex 18 to the Chicago Convention on
International Civil Aviation (1944).International Civil Aviation (1944).
• Technical Instructions for the SafeTechnical Instructions for the Safe
Transport of Dangerous Goods by airTransport of Dangerous Goods by air
published by the ICAO.published by the ICAO.
• There are differences between IATAThere are differences between IATA
and ICAO regulations on Dangerousand ICAO regulations on Dangerous
• IATA DGR are more restrictive thanIATA DGR are more restrictive than
ICAO requirements.ICAO requirements.
PURPOSE OF IATA DGRPURPOSE OF IATA DGR
To provide procedures for theTo provide procedures for the
shipper and the operator by whichshipper and the operator by which
articles and substances witharticles and substances with
hazardous properties can be safelyhazardous properties can be safely
transported by air on all commercialtransported by air on all commercial
air transport.air transport.
GENERAL PHILOSOPHY-GENERAL PHILOSOPHY-
3.3. Marks and LabelsMarks and Labels
6.6. Notification to Pilot-in-CommandNotification to Pilot-in-Command
7.7. Avoiding Hidden HazardsAvoiding Hidden Hazards
8.8. Incident ReportingIncident Reporting
• Correct classification ofCorrect classification of
dangerous goods.dangerous goods.
• DGR include a detailed list ofDGR include a detailed list of
dangerous goods and specify:-dangerous goods and specify:-
• UN classification of each article orUN classification of each article or
• Their acceptability for air transportTheir acceptability for air transport
• The conditions for their transport’The conditions for their transport’
• Also include generic entries to assist inAlso include generic entries to assist in
• Some dangerous goods are identified as tooSome dangerous goods are identified as too
dangerous to be carried on any a/c under anydangerous to be carried on any a/c under any
• Some others are forbidden under normalSome others are forbidden under normal
circumstances, but may be carried with specificcircumstances, but may be carried with specific
approval from from the States concerned.approval from from the States concerned.
• Some are restricted to carriage on all cargoSome are restricted to carriage on all cargo
• Most can be safely carried on passengerMost can be safely carried on passenger
aircraft provided certain requirements are met.aircraft provided certain requirements are met.
• Packaging instructions are provided with aPackaging instructions are provided with a
wide range of options for inner, outer orwide range of options for inner, outer or
single packagings.single packagings.
• Instructions normally require the use ofInstructions normally require the use of
UN performance-tested specificationUN performance-tested specification
packagings.packagings. But it is not required in theBut it is not required in the
case of goods shipped under thecase of goods shipped under the
provisions of Limited Quantity “Y”provisions of Limited Quantity “Y”
packaging instructions.packaging instructions.
4.4.Marks and LabelsMarks and Labels
• Packages are marked with requiredPackages are marked with required
• They bear the requiredThey bear the required labelslabels toto
ensure that the hazards can beensure that the hazards can be
recognized without relying onrecognized without relying on
accompanying documentation.accompanying documentation.
• The shipper must make a properThe shipper must make a proper
declaration of dangerous goods.declaration of dangerous goods.
• This will ensure that:-This will ensure that:-
– all in the transportation chain knowall in the transportation chain know
what dangerous goods they arewhat dangerous goods they are
– how to properly load and handle themhow to properly load and handle them
– what to do if an incident or accidentwhat to do if an incident or accident
occurs, either in flight or on theoccurs, either in flight or on the
6.6.Notification to Pilot-in-Notification to Pilot-in-
• The pilot must know what is on board:The pilot must know what is on board:
– To properly deal with any emergency whichTo properly deal with any emergency which
may occur.may occur.
– To convey this information to Air TrafficTo convey this information to Air Traffic
Services to aid in the response to any aircraftServices to aid in the response to any aircraft
incident or accident.incident or accident.
7.7.Avoiding Hidden HazardsAvoiding Hidden Hazards
• Information regarding “Hidden DangerousInformation regarding “Hidden Dangerous
Goods” must be conveyed to passengersGoods” must be conveyed to passengers
and shippers to assist them in recognizingand shippers to assist them in recognizing
dangerous goods that they are notdangerous goods that they are not
permitted to carry on their person, in theirpermitted to carry on their person, in their
baggage, or as cargo and which may notbaggage, or as cargo and which may not
be readily recognizable as beingbe readily recognizable as being
8.8.Incident ReportingIncident Reporting
• Incidents or accidents must beIncidents or accidents must be
reported, so that :-reported, so that :-
– An investigation by relevant authorities canAn investigation by relevant authorities can
establish the cause and take correctiveestablish the cause and take corrective
– Investigation findings can be used to makeInvestigation findings can be used to make
changes in the Regulations without delay.changes in the Regulations without delay.
• Necessary for all individuals involved inNecessary for all individuals involved in
the preparation or transport of dangerousthe preparation or transport of dangerous
• Training varies depending on job function:Training varies depending on job function:
a familiarization or a detailed training.a familiarization or a detailed training.
• Training programmes are recurrent andTraining programmes are recurrent and
are determined by appropriate nationalare determined by appropriate national
CONTENTS OF DGRCONTENTS OF DGR
The DGR begins with a preface and isThe DGR begins with a preface and is
divided intodivided into 1010 main sections, followedmain sections, followed
byby 88 Appendices.Appendices.
6.6. Packaging specifications and performance testsPackaging specifications and performance tests
7.7. Marking and LabelingMarking and Labeling
10.10.Radioactive MaterialRadioactive Material
DEFINITION OFDEFINITION OF
DANGEROUS GOODSDANGEROUS GOODS
Articles or substances which are capable ofArticles or substances which are capable of
posing aposing a riskrisk to :to :
or the environmentor the environment,,
which are shown in the list of dangerous goodswhich are shown in the list of dangerous goods
in DGR,in DGR,
which are classified according to the DGR.which are classified according to the DGR.
APPLICABILITY OF DGRAPPLICABILITY OF DGR
• All airlines which are members orAll airlines which are members or
associate members of IATA.associate members of IATA.
• All airlines which are party to the IATAAll airlines which are party to the IATA
Multilateral Interline Traffic Agreement –Multilateral Interline Traffic Agreement –
• All shippers and agents that offerAll shippers and agents that offer
consignments of dangerous goods toconsignments of dangerous goods to
these operators.these operators.
Dangerous Goods are divided inDangerous Goods are divided in 99
classes and they are listed in DGRclasses and they are listed in DGR
Classes 1,2,4,5 and 6 are divided intoClasses 1,2,4,5 and 6 are divided into
“Divisions” due to hazard variations.“Divisions” due to hazard variations.
CLASSES OF DANGEROUSCLASSES OF DANGEROUS
• Class 1Class 1 -- ExplosivesExplosives
• Class 2Class 2 -- GasesGases
• Class 3Class 3 -- Flammable LiquidsFlammable Liquids
• Class 4Class 4 -- Flammable SolidsFlammable Solids
• Class-5Class-5 -- Oxidizing subustances andOxidizing subustances and
Organic Peroxides.Organic Peroxides.
• Class 6Class 6 -- Toxic and InfectiousToxic and Infectious
• Class 7Class 7 -- Radioactive MaterialRadioactive Material
• Class 8Class 8 -- CorrosivesCorrosives
• Class 9Class 9 -- Miscellaneous DangerousMiscellaneous Dangerous
HOW CAN YOU RECOGNIZEHOW CAN YOU RECOGNIZE
DANGEROUS GOODSDANGEROUS GOODS
• Each class has hazard symbols, known asEach class has hazard symbols, known as
a placard or label, that represent thea placard or label, that represent the
danger of that class. Labels must bedanger of that class. Labels must be
attached to small containers (e.g. drums,attached to small containers (e.g. drums,
boxes, bottles, cylinders). Placards mustboxes, bottles, cylinders). Placards must
be attached to large containers (e.g.be attached to large containers (e.g.
trucks, trailers, tote tanks, rail cars).trucks, trailers, tote tanks, rail cars).
Class 1 - ExplosivesClass 1 - Explosives
1.11.1 Articles and substances havingArticles and substances having
mass explosion hazardmass explosion hazard
1.21.2 Articles and substances having aArticles and substances having a
projection hazardprojection hazard
1.31.3 Articles and substances having aArticles and substances having a
minor blast or projection hazardminor blast or projection hazard
1.41.4 Articles and substances whichArticles and substances which
present no significant hazardpresent no significant hazard
1.51.5 Very insensitive substances whichVery insensitive substances which
have a mass explosion hazardhave a mass explosion hazard
1.61.6 Extremely insensitive articles whichExtremely insensitive articles which
dodo not have a mass explosionnot have a mass explosion
Class 2 - GasesClass 2 - Gases
2.12.1 Any gas which when mixed with air in certainAny gas which when mixed with air in certain
proportions, form a flammable mixture. Eg.proportions, form a flammable mixture. Eg. Butane,Butane,
Hydrogen, Propane, Acetylene, LightersHydrogen, Propane, Acetylene, Lighters
2.22.2 Any non-flammable, non-toxic gas orAny non-flammable, non-toxic gas or
refrigerated liquefied gas. Eg.refrigerated liquefied gas. Eg. Carbon dioxide,Carbon dioxide,
Neon, Fire Extinguisher, liquefied Nitrogen orNeon, Fire Extinguisher, liquefied Nitrogen or
2.32.3 Gases known to be toxix or corrosive to humansGases known to be toxix or corrosive to humans
and known to pose a health risk. E.g.and known to pose a health risk. E.g. Aerosols ofAerosols of
low toxicity, tear gas deviceslow toxicity, tear gas devices..
Class 3- FlammableClass 3- Flammable
33 Any liquid having a closed-Any liquid having a closed-
cup flash point of 60 Deg C orcup flash point of 60 Deg C or
below and liquid desensitizedbelow and liquid desensitized
E.g.E.g. Certain paints, Varnishes,Certain paints, Varnishes,
Alcohols, some Adhesives,Alcohols, some Adhesives,
Acetone, petrol etc.Acetone, petrol etc.
Class 4 – FlammableClass 4 – Flammable
4.14.1 Flammable solid.Flammable solid. Any solid material, which is readilyAny solid material, which is readily
combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire throughcombustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through
friction.friction. Matches, sulphur, celluloid etcMatches, sulphur, celluloid etc
4.24.2 Spontaneously Combustible.Spontaneously Combustible. Substances liable toSubstances liable to
spontaneous heating or to heating up in contact with airspontaneous heating or to heating up in contact with air
and then liable to catch fire. E.g.and then liable to catch fire. E.g. while or yellowwhile or yellow
phosphorous, magnesium diamidephosphorous, magnesium diamide
4.34.3 Dangerous when wet.Dangerous when wet. Substances which are liable toSubstances which are liable to
become spontaneously flammable by interaction withbecome spontaneously flammable by interaction with
water. Eg.water. Eg. Calcium carbide, sodium.Calcium carbide, sodium.
Class 5 – OxidizingClass 5 – Oxidizing
Substances and OrganicSubstances and Organic
• 5.1 Oxidizer. A substance that yields5.1 Oxidizer. A substance that yields
oxygen readily to stimulate theoxygen readily to stimulate the
combustion of other material. E.g.combustion of other material. E.g.
Ammonium nitrate, calcium chlorate,Ammonium nitrate, calcium chlorate,
• 5.2 Organic Peroxide. An organic5.2 Organic Peroxide. An organic
material that can be ignited readily bymaterial that can be ignited readily by
external flame and then burns with anexternal flame and then burns with an
accelerating rate. Eg.accelerating rate. Eg. tert-Butyltert-Butyl
Class 6 – Toxic and InfectiousClass 6 – Toxic and Infectious
6.16.1 Toxic SubstanceToxic Substance. Liquids or solids which. Liquids or solids which
are dangerous if inhaled, swallowed orare dangerous if inhaled, swallowed or
absorbed through skin. E.g.absorbed through skin. E.g. Arsenic, Nicotine,Arsenic, Nicotine,
Cyanide, Pesticides etc.Cyanide, Pesticides etc.
6.26.2 Infectious Substance.Infectious Substance. Substances whichSubstances which
are known or reasonably expected to containare known or reasonably expected to contain
pathogens and cause disease in humans or inpathogens and cause disease in humans or in
animals. E.g.animals. E.g. Virus, Bacteria, Rabies, someVirus, Bacteria, Rabies, some
specimens, Medical and clinical wastesspecimens, Medical and clinical wastes
Class 7 – RadioactiveClass 7 – Radioactive
77 Category ICategory I WhiteWhite.. MaximumMaximum
surface Radioactive level Lesssurface Radioactive level Less
than or equal to 0.005 mSv/h,than or equal to 0.005 mSv/h,
Transport Index = 0 E.g. CobaltTransport Index = 0 E.g. Cobalt
60, Caesium 131, etc.60, Caesium 131, etc.
77 Category II YellowCategory II Yellow. MSRL. MSRL
greater than 0.005 and lessgreater than 0.005 and less
than or equal to .5. E.g. Cobaltthan or equal to .5. E.g. Cobalt
60, Caesium 131 etc.60, Caesium 131 etc.
Class 7 – contd….Class 7 – contd….
77 Category III YellowCategory III Yellow. MSRV. MSRV
greater than 0.5 and less orgreater than 0.5 and less or
equal to 2. Transport Indexequal to 2. Transport Index
between 0 and 1.between 0 and 1.
77 Radioactive Fissile MaterialRadioactive Fissile Material
Criticality Safety Index. E.g.Criticality Safety Index. E.g.
Uranium 233 and 235,Uranium 233 and 235,
plutoniuim 239 and 241.plutoniuim 239 and 241.
Class 8 - CorrosivesClass 8 - Corrosives
88 Corrosive Material. A liquid orCorrosive Material. A liquid or
solid that will cause severesolid that will cause severe
damage when in contact withdamage when in contact with
living tissue or, in the case ofliving tissue or, in the case of
leakage will materially damage orleakage will materially damage or
even destroy other goods or theeven destroy other goods or the
means of transport. E.g.means of transport. E.g. BatteryBattery
acids, sulphuric and other acids,acids, sulphuric and other acids,
sodium hydroxide, potassiumsodium hydroxide, potassium
hydroxide, Mercury etc.hydroxide, Mercury etc.
Class 9 – MiscellaneousClass 9 – Miscellaneous
Dangerous GoodsDangerous Goods
• 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods. Any9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods. Any
substance which presents a danger duringsubstance which presents a danger during
air transportation that is not covered byair transportation that is not covered by
other classes. E.g.other classes. E.g. Asbestos, Garlic Oil,Asbestos, Garlic Oil,
ICE, vehicles.ICE, vehicles.
• 9. Magnetised Material. Materials which9. Magnetised Material. Materials which
have high magnetic field of strength.have high magnetic field of strength. E.g.E.g.
Magnetrons, non shielded permanentMagnetrons, non shielded permanent
magnets without keeper bars installed.magnets without keeper bars installed.
Class 9 – Contd…Class 9 – Contd…
• 9. Environmentally Hazardous9. Environmentally Hazardous
Substances. E.g. SomeSubstances. E.g. Some
pesticides not meeting thepesticides not meeting the
definition of other class.definition of other class.