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About fr ank Lloyd wright• Frank Lloyd Wright-American architect, interior designer, writer and educator.• designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 532 works.• Believed in designing structures in harmony with humanity and its environment : organic architecture.
About fr ank Lloydwright•Philosophy best exemplified by Falling water (1935):"the best all-time work of American architecture".•a leader of the Prairie School movement ofarchitecture, developed the concept of the Usonianhome : his unique vision for urban planning in theUnited States.
Education and work forSilsbee (1885–1888)• Was admitted to the University of Wisconsin– Madison as a special student in 1886.• Joined Phi Delta Theta fraternity took part-time classes for 2 sems.
Education and work forSilsbee (1885–1888)•Worked with Allan D. Conover, a professor of civilengineering.•Arrived in Chicago in search of employment.•First impressions of Chicago: grimy neighborhoods, crowdedstreets, and disappointing architecture, yet he wasdetermined to find work.•Hired as a draftsman with the architectural firm of JosephLyman Silsbee.
Education and work forSilsbee (1885–1888)•Accredited as the draftsman and the construction supervisor—1886 Unity Chapel for Wrights family in Spring Green,Wisconsin•2 other family projects: the All Souls Church in Chicago forhis and the Hillside Home School in Spring Green.•Feeling he was underpaid at Silsbee (at $8 a week), quit andfound work as a designer at the firm of Beers, Clay, andDutton.•Soon realized was not ready to handle building design byhimself; left new job to return to Silsbee—with a raise insalary.
Education and work forSilsbee (1885–1888)•Silsbee adhered mainly to Victorian and revivalistarchitecture, Wright found his work to be more "gracefullypicturesque".•After less than a year, passed in Silsbees office, learnedthat the Chicago firm of Adler & Sullivan was looking forsomeone to make the finish drawings for the interior of theAuditorium.•Demonstrated himself as competent impressionist of LouisSullivans ornamental designs 2 short interviews later, wasan official apprentice in the firm.
Publishing• 1910 :Ausgefuhrte Bauten und Enturfe, portfolio and writings on architecture.• 1911: Ausgefuhrte Bauten, more extensive photograph collection of his work.• 1925: Portfolio, ausgefuhrte Bauten republished in Holland, including an English translation.• 1932: An Autobiography• 1932: The Disappearing City
Taliesin School ofArchitecture•1932: Wright and his wife started the Taliesin Fellowship,which then became the Frank Lloyd Wright School ofArchitecture.•The farm was a self-sustaining entity, with theapprentices growing and harvesting their own food.•They also learned drafting, construction methods, andother crafts, as well as overseeing the construction ofWright’s projects. TALIESIN WEST - LIVING ROOM SCOTTSDALE ARIZONA
“Education at Taliesinwould emphasizepainting, sculpture,music, drama, and dancein their places asdivisions ofarchitecture.” - Frank TALIESIN, FARM AND OUTBUILDINGSLloyd Wright (1931). RENDERED BY FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT (1933)
Organic Architecture Return from Japan, gave many lectures and interviews on architecture. Began describing what he called, “Organic Architecture”: The theme for the rest of his career. HOUSE RISING OUT OF THE HILL NATURALLY OLFELFT HOUSE (1958) ROUGH ROCK AND CONCRETE BLEND WITH HARSH DESERTHOUSE SITS ON ROCK “CLIFF” RISING FROM THE ENVIRONMENTS, SLATTED WINDOWS PROTECT FROM HARSHSEA AND COVERED WITH GREEN CANOPY ROOF SUN. WALKER HOUSE (1948) TALIESIN WEST
How he defined Organic Architecture changed often, ashe refined it, and also as the situation demanded.•Integral to Site - houses designed to rise up out of thesite as it belonging.•Integral to environment - built appropriately to climate.•Integral to Individual - Each building built toaccommodate the lifestyle of the inhabitants way of lifeand needs.•Integral to Materials - details of the building were thematerials themselves
“one that is integral to site; integral to environment; integral to the life of the inhabitants. A house integralwith the nature of materials wherein glass is used as glass, stone as stone, wood as wood and all the elements of environment go into and throughout the house. Into this new integrity, once there, those who live in it willtake root and grow. And most of all belonging to the nature of its being.” Frank Lloyd Wright
Usonian houses• With the stock-market crash of 1929, Frank Lloyd Wright turned his interest to low cost housing for the masses. He called these houses, Usonian, being of the USA. The first of these was the Jacob’s house (1936).• The entire project cost $5,500, this included Wrights fee of $450. In the next 30 years over 50 houses were built, and a hundred more designed, on the precepts of the Jacob’s home. These STANDARD USONIAN WALL SECTION homes were innovated and ahead of their time, as Wright created homes to fulfill the needs of a changing American society. Following the demands of Organic Architecture, each of the houses were individual and unique. However, they did have common elements that united them. BATTEN BOARD WALLS, CLEARSTORY WINDOWS AND OVERHANGING, FLAT EAVES DEFINED THE USONIAN HOUSES SCHWARTZ HOUSE (1939)
Usonian houses• Designed on a Module system• Deep Eaves• Open Plan• Connection to Nature• Efficient design of Bedrooms and Bathrooms• Passive Heating Economical Materials
Usonian Housing PlansAs time passed, Frank Lloyd Wright adapted the Usonian concepts from the original 2’x’4’ design to six general styles. DIAGONAL DESIGN SIMILAR TO POLLIWOG LAYOUT BUT BASED ON A PARALLELOGRAM AND WALLS ANGLES RATHER THAN 90 DEGREES. Right: Snowflake House (1941) POLLIWOG DESIGN In-Line Design 2’X 4’ LAYOUT WITH 90 DEGREE “TAIL” EXTENDING house designed for narrower lots, square layout INTO GARDEN SEPARATING PUBLIC AND PRIVATE without tail. AREAS OF THE HOUSE ABOVE : GOETSCH-WINKLER HOUSE (1939) ABOVE AND TOP: JACOB’S HOUSE (1936)
Usonian Housing Plans SOLAR HEMI-CIRCLE DESIGN FIRST BUILT FOR RAISED DESIGN JACOB’S FAMILY WHEN TWO-STORY DESIGN MADE TO THEY OUTGREW THEACCOMMODATE SLOPED PROPERTY ORIGINAL USONIAN LOTS DESIGN, BUILT AROUND Above: Lloyd Lewis house (1940) A CIRCLE COURTYARD. Above right: Jacob’s House II (1940) Lower Right: David Wright House (1950) HEXAGONAL DESIGN Above: Hanna house (1936)
Broad acre City• 1935: took his concepts of organic design and Usonian Architecture and applied them to the design of the new American city.• Abandoned the crowded, unhealthy conditions of the metropolitan life.• Each residence was located on a one acre lot, giving them lots of space to have a personal garden and privacy. Above: Broad acre City Rendering(1935) Frank Lloyd Wright
• The lots were accessed by arterial roads that connected to a main highway, which had a monorail for public transportation and freight traffic.• Public venues such as government, entertainment, and recreation were located in one central location.• Various townships were designed and built based on his ideas. Above: Broadacre City Plot Design (1935) Frank LLoyd Wright ONE-ACRE PLOT PER HOUSE
Popular Successes• During latter years of his life he had become a household name.• His plans were published in home and garden magazines, was interviewed on radio and television.• Built hundreds of homes and buildings, and preached constantly the values of Usonian design and Organic Architecture.• Two buildings however Stood above the rest in the minds of the general public that made him the great American architect.
Falling Waters (1935) •Designed and under construction the same time the Jacobs house was built there is a remarkable contrast and similarities to Wrights Usonian Plan. •It was ornate, opulent and costly rather than simple and inexpensive. Both did have open plans and Falling Water was integral to its site as a building could be, truly organic.
The Guggenheim Museum• At first glance appears very different in style, but examination shows a very Organic Architecture and commonalities to Usonian houses.• Based on the Module of the circle similar the Hemi-circle House. This can be seen in plan, fencing, dome ceiling, flooring pattern, and with curving ramps for circulation around Central, rather than exterior courtyard exterior.
Bibliography• Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation Official Website• Frank Lloyd Wright, Wisconsin Historical Society• Frank Lloyd Wright Building Above: Tracy Conservancy House (1954)• Works by or about Frank Lloyd Wright in libraries (World Cat catalog)• Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust – FLW Home and Studio, Robie House Above: Pearce House (1950)
THANK YOU BY: •SANKET SINGH •SURBHI JAIN •SAUMYA SARASWAT