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Module 4 _POM.pptx

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  1. 1. MEANING • STAFFING IS THE PROCESS OF ACQUIRING, DEVELOPING, EMPLOYING, APPRAISING, REMUNERATING AND RETAINING PEOPLE SO THAT RIGHT TYPE OF PEOPLE ARE AVAILABLE AT RIGHT POSITIONS AND AT RIGHT TIME IN THE ORGANIZATION. • ACC. TO MCFARLAND, “ STAFFING IS THE FUNCTION BY WHICH MANAGERS BUILD AN ORGANIZATION THROUGH THE RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUALS AS CAPABLE EMPLOYEES’’.
  2. 2. FEATURES • STAFFING FUNCTION IS RELATED TO EMPLOYMENT OF PERSONNEL OF ALL TYPES- MANAGERIAL AS WELL AS OPERATIVE IN THE ORGANIZATION. • GOAL ORIENTED • CONTINUOUS FUNCTION • PERVASIVE IN NATURE • COVERS WIDE RANGE OF ACTIVITIES
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE • FILLING ORGANIZATIONAL POSITIONS • DEVELOPING COMPETENCIES • RETAINING PERSONNEL
  4. 4. PROCESS 1. MANPOWER PLANNING IT IS THE STARTING POINT IN STAFFING FUNCTION. IT IS BASICALLY DEALS WITH FORECASTING OF ADDITIONAL HUMAN RESOURCES REQUIRED IN AN ORGANIZATION IN FUTURE. IT ALSO REFER AS HR PLANNING OR PERSONNEL PLANNING.
  5. 5. 2. RECRUITMENT STIMULATING A CANDIDATE TO APPLY FOR JOB IN AN ORGANIZATION.IT IS A POSITIVE PROCESS. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT: INTERNAL SOURCES (E.G.- TRANSFER, PROMOTION, REFERENCES ETC) EXTERNAL SOURCES(E.G.- NEWSPAPER, ONLINE JOB PORTALS, LABOR CONTRACTORS, CAMPUS PLACEMENTS ETC)
  6. 6. SELECTION 3. SELECTION REFERS TO CHOOSING THE MOST APPROPRIATE CANDIDATE FROM THE POOL OF CANDIDATES. BY NATURE IT’S A NEGATIVE PROCESS BECAUSE IT CHOOSE THE MOST SUITABLE ONE AND REJECT THE CANDIDATES WHOSE QUALIFICATION AND EXPERIENCE DOESNOT MEET THE SELECTION CRITERION.
  7. 7. 4. PLACEMENT AND INDUCTION • AFTER A CANDIDATE IS SELECTED FOR EMPLOYMENT, HE IS PLACED ON JOB. INITIALLY, THE PLACEMENT MAY BE ON PROBATION, THE PERIOD OF WHICH MAY RANGE FROM SIX MONTHS TO TWO YEARS. • AFTER THE INITIAL PLACEMENT OF THE CANDIDATE ON THE JOB, HIS INDUCTION IS NECESSARY, INDUCTION IS A TECHNIQUE BY WHICH A NEW EMPLOYEE IS REHABILITATED INTO THE CHANGED SURROUNDINGS AND INTRODUCED TO THE PURPOSES, POLICIES AND PRACTICES OF THE ORGANIZATION, EMPLOYEE’S JOB AND WORKING CONDITIONS.
  8. 8. 5. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TRAINING REFERS TO ENHANCING PARTICULAR SKILL OF AN EMPLOYEE WHEREAS DEVELOPMENT INVOLVES OVERALL DEVELOPMENT OF AN CANDIDATES. TRAINING IS A TIME BOUND ACTIVITY ON THE OTHER HAND DEVELOPMENT IS A ONGOING PROCESS. TRAINER PROVIDE TRAINING BUT THERE IS NO DEVELOPER IN AN ORGANIZATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEES.
  9. 9. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT • MANAGING PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES THROUGH PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL. • PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL REFERS TO EVALUATING PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES AGAINST WELL DEFINED BENCHMARKS. • E.G.- 360 DEGREE FEEDBACK SYSTEM.
  10. 10. DEFINITION • DIRECTING IS SAID TO BE A PROCESS IN WHICH THE MANAGERS INSTRUCT, GUIDE AND OVERSEE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE WORKERS TO ACHIEVE PREDETERMINED GOALS.
  11. 11. SCOPE THE DIRECTING FUNCTION THUS, INVOLVES: •TELLING PEOPLE WHAT IS TO BE DONE AND EXPLAINING TO THEM HOW TO DO IT; •ISSUING INSTRUCTIONS AND ORDERS TO SUBORDINATES TO CARRYOUT THEIR ASSIGNMENTS AS SCHEDULED; •SUPERVISING THEIR ACTIVITIES; • INSPIRING THEM TO MEET THE MANGERS EXPECTATION AND CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES; AND • PROVIDING LEADERSHIP.
  12. 12. REQUIREMENTS OF EFFECTIVE DIRECTION • HARMONY OF OBJECTIVES: HARMONIZING OF OBJECTIVES MEANS ESTABLISHING THE CONCURRENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS AND PERSONAL GOALS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE ORGANIZATION. IF A CONFLICT OCCURS BETWEEN THE ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS AND THE PERSONAL GOALS, THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GOALS BECOMES HARDER. THEREFORE IN SUCH A SITUATION IT IS UP TO THE MANAGER TO HARMONIZE OBJECTIVES THROUGH PROPER DIRECTING, TO ENSURE THE PROPER SUCCESS OF THE ORGANIZATION AND THE SATISFACTION OF THE EMPLOYEES.
  13. 13. REQUIREMENTS OF EFFECTIVE DIRECTION • RELATED TO THE HUMAN FACTOR: DIRECTING MAINLY CONSISTS OF ISSUING INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBORDINATES AND GUIDING THEM. BOTH OF THESE ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO THE HUMAN FACTOR. IT IS THE HUMAN FACTOR ONLY THAT UTILIZES THE OTHER NON-PRODUCTIVE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION. BRIEFLY, IT CAN BE STATED THAT DIRECTING IS CONCERNED WITH THE PRODUCTIVE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION AND NOT WITH NON – PRODUCTIVE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION.
  14. 14. REQUIREMENTS OF EFFECTIVE DIRECTION • GROUP OF VARIOUS FUNCTIONS FACE-TO-FACE IS A SINGLE FUNCTION BUT CONSISTS OF VARIOUS FUNCTIONS THAT HELP ITS COURSE LIKE COMMUNICATION, MOTIVATION, AND PLANNING. • DIRECT SUPERVISION: EVERY SUPERIOR MUST MAINTAIN FACE TO FACE COMMUNICATION WITH HIS SUBORDINATES. IT BOOSTS THEIR MORALE, INCREASES THEIR LOYALTY AND PROVIDES THEM IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK.
  15. 15. REQUIREMENTS OF EFFECTIVE DIRECTION • EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION: COMMUNICATION IS AN INSTRUMENT OF DIRECTION. IT IS THROUGH COMMUNICATION THE LEADER GIVES ORDERS, ALLOCATES JOBS, EXPLAINS DUTIES AND ENSURES PERFORMANCE. EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION MAKES THE JOB SIMPLER AND DIRECTING EFFECTIVE AS THE ORDERS AND INSTRUCTIONS ARE PROPERLY UNDERSTOOD AND CARRIED OUT.
  16. 16. REQUIREMENTS OF EFFECTIVE DIRECTION • FOLLOWING THROUGH: DIRECTION IS NOT ONLY TELLING THE EMPLOYEES WHAT THEY SHOULD DO BUT ALSO SEEING THAT THEY DO IT IN THE DESIRED WAY. THE MANAGER SHOULD, THEREFORE, FOLLOW THROUGH THE WHOLE PERFORMANCE OF HIS SUBORDINATES NOT MERELY TO KEEP A CHECK ON THEIR ACTIVITIES BUT TO HELP THEM IN THEIR ACT , TO SHOW THEM WHERE THEIR DEFICIENCY, IF ANY, LIES AND TO REVISE THEIR DIRECTION IF ITS NEEDS REVISION, AND SO ON.
  17. 17. IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTING • IT INITIATES ACTIONS - DIRECTIONS IS THE FUNCTION WHICH IS THE STARTING POINT OF THE WORK PERFORMANCE OF SUBORDINATES. IT IS FROM THIS FUNCTION THE ACTION TAKES PLACE, SUBORDINATES UNDERSTAND THEIR JOBS AND DO ACCORDING TO THE INSTRUCTIONS LAID. WHATEVER ARE PLANS LAID, CAN BE IMPLEMENTED ONLY ONCE THE ACTUAL WORK STARTS. IT IS THERE THAT DIRECTION BECOMES BENEFICIAL.
  18. 18. IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTING • IT INGRATES EFFORTS - THROUGH DIRECTION, THE SUPERIORS ARE ABLE TO GUIDE, INSPIRE AND INSTRUCT THE SUBORDINATES TO WORK. FOR THIS, EFFORTS OF EVERY INDIVIDUAL TOWARDS ACCOMPLISHMENT OF GOALS ARE REQUIRED. IT IS THROUGH DIRECTION THE EFFORTS OF EVERY DEPARTMENT CAN BE RELATED AND INTEGRATED WITH OTHERS. THIS CAN BE DONE THROUGH PERSUASIVE LEADERSHIP AND EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION. INTEGRATION OF EFFORTS BRING EFFECTIVENESS AND STABILITY IN A CONCERN
  19. 19. IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTING • MEANS OF MOTIVATION - DIRECTION FUNCTION HELPS IN ACHIEVEMENT OF GOALS. A MANAGER MAKES USE OF THE ELEMENT OF MOTIVATION HERE TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCES OF SUBORDINATES. THIS CAN BE DONE BY PROVIDING INCENTIVES OR COMPENSATION, WHETHER MONETARY OR NON - MONETARY, WHICH SERVES AS A “MORALE BOOSTER” TO THE SUBORDINATES MOTIVATION IS ALSO HELPFUL FOR THE SUBORDINATES TO GIVE THE BEST OF THEIR ABILITIES WHICH ULTIMATELY HELPS IN GROWTH.
  20. 20. IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTING • IT PROVIDES STABILITY - STABILITY AND BALANCE IN CONCERN BECOMES VERY IMPORTANT FOR LONG TERM SUN SURVIVAL IN THE MARKET. THIS CAN BE BROUGHT UPON BY THE MANAGERS WITH THE HELP OF FOUR TOOLS OR ELEMENTS OF DIRECTION FUNCTION - JUDICIOUS BLEND OF PERSUASIVE LEADERSHIP, EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION, STRICT SUPERVISION AND EFFICIENT MOTIVATION. STABILITY IS VERY IMPORTANT SINCE THAT IS AN INDEX OF GROWTH OF AN ENTERPRISE.
  21. 21. IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTING • COPING UP WITH THE CHANGES - IT IS A HUMAN BEHAVIOR THAT HUMAN BEINGS SHOW RESISTANCE TO CHANGE. ADAPTABILITY WITH CHANGING ENVIRONMENT HELPS IN SUSTAINING PLANNED GROWTH AND BECOMING A MARKET LEADER. IT IS DIRECTING FUNCTION WHICH IS OF USE TO MEET WITH CHANGES IN ENVIRONMENT, BOTH INTERNAL AS EXTERNAL. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION HELPS IN COPING UP WITH THE CHANGES. IT IS THE ROLE OF MANAGER HERE TO COMMUNICATE THE NATURE AND CONTENTS OF CHANGES VERY CLEARLY TO THE SUBORDINATES. THIS HELPS IN CLARIFICATIONS, EASY ADAPTIONS AND SMOOTH RUNNING OF AN ENTERPRISE.
  22. 22. IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTING • EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES - DIRECTION FINANCE HELPS IN CLARIFYING THE ROLE OF EVERY SUBORDINATE TOWARDS HIS WORK. THE RESOURCES CAN BE UTILIZED PROPERLY ONLY WHEN LESS OF WASTAGES, DUPLICATION OF EFFORTS, OVERLAPPING OF PERFORMANCES, ETC. DOESN’T TAKE PLACE. THROUGH DIRECTION, THE ROLE OF SUBORDINATES BECOME CLEAR AS MANAGER MAKES USE OF HIS SUPERVISORY, THE GUIDANCE, THE INSTRUCTIONS AND MOTIVATION SKILL TO INSPIRE THE SUBORDINATES. THIS HELPS IN MAXIMUM POSSIBLE UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES OF MEN, MACHINE, MATERIALS AND MONEY WHICH HELPS IN REDUCING COSTS AND INCREASING PROFITS.
  23. 23. DIRECTING •THE FUNCTION OF DIRECTING THUS BREAKS DOWN TO TWO PARTS: •GIVING ORDERS TO EMPLOYEES •LEADING AND MOTIVATING THEM.
  24. 24. MOTIVATION • DEFINITION: THE PROCESSES THAT ACCOUNT FOR AN INDIVIDUAL’S INTENSITY, DIRECTION, AND PERSISTENCE OF EFFORT TOWARD ATTAINING A GOAL. • KEY ELEMENTS: • INTENSITY: HOW HARD A PERSON TRIES • DIRECTION: TOWARD BENEFICIAL GOAL • PERSISTENCE: HOW LONG A PERSON TRIES
  25. 25. THEORIES • MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY GIVEN BY ABRAHAM MASLOW. • 2 FACTOR THEORY GIVEN BY FREDERICK HERZBERG. • THEORY Z AND THEORY Y GIVEN BY DOUGLAS MCGREGOR
  26. 26. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY •HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY: THERE IS A HIERARCHY OF FIVE NEEDS— PHYSIOLOGICAL, SAFETY, SOCIAL, ESTEEM, AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION; AS EACH NEED IS SUBSTANTIALLY SATISFIED, THE NEXT NEED BECOMES DOMINANT
  27. 27. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY
  28. 28. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY • PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS: ARE THE PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HUMAN SURVIVAL. IF THESE REQUIREMENTS ARE NOT MET, THE HUMAN BODY CANNOT FUNCTION PROPERLY, AND WILL ULTIMATELY FAIL. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS ARE THOUGHT TO BE THE MOST IMPORTANT; THEY SHOULD BE MET FIRST. AIR, WATER, AND FOOD ARE METABOLIC REQUIREMENTS FOR SURVIVAL IN ALL ANIMALS, INCLUDING HUMANS. CLOTHING AND SHELTER PROVIDE NECESSARY PROTECTION FROM THE ELEMENTS.
  29. 29. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY •SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS INCLUDE: •PERSONAL SECURITY •FINANCIAL SECURITY •HEALTH AND WELL-BEING •SAFETY NET AGAINST ACCIDENTS/ILLNESS AND THEIR ADVERSE IMPACTS
  30. 30. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY • SOCIAL NEEDS: ACCORDING TO MASLOW, HUMANS NEED TO FEEL A SENSE OF BELONGING AND ACCEPTANCE AMONG THEIR SOCIAL GROUPS, REGARDLESS IF THESE GROUPS ARE LARGE OR SMALL. THE INDIVIDUAL'S ABILITY TO FORM AND MAINTAIN EMOTIONALLY SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS IN GENERAL, SUCH AS: • FRIENDSHIP • INTIMACY • FAMILY
  31. 31. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY • ESTEEM NEEDS: ESTEEM PRESENTS THE TYPICAL HUMAN DESIRE TO BE ACCEPTED AND VALUED BY OTHERS. PEOPLE OFTEN ENGAGE IN A PROFESSION OR HOBBY TO GAIN RECOGNITION. THESE ACTIVITIES GIVE THE PERSON A SENSE OF CONTRIBUTION OR VALUE. THESE NEEDS ARE RELATED TO RESPECT OR PRESTIGE.
  32. 32. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY • SELF ACTUALIZATION NEED: HIS LEVEL OF NEED REFERS TO WHAT A PERSON'S FULL POTENTIAL IS AND THE REALIZATION OF THAT POTENTIAL. MASLOW DESCRIBES THIS LEVEL AS THE DESIRE TO ACCOMPLISH EVERYTHING THAT ONE CAN, TO BECOME THE MOST THAT ONE CAN BE. INDIVIDUALS MAY PERCEIVE OR FOCUS ON THIS NEED VERY SPECIFICALLY. FOR EXAMPLE, ONE INDIVIDUAL MAY HAVE THE STRONG DESIRE TO BECOME AN IDEAL PARENT. IN ANOTHER, THE DESIRE MAY BE EXPRESSED ATHLETICALLY. FOR OTHERS, IT MAY BE EXPRESSED IN PAINTINGS, PICTURES, OR INVENTIONS.
  33. 33. HERZBERG 2 FACTOR THEORY •THE TWO-FACTOR THEORY (ALSO KNOWN AS HERZBERG'S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY AND DUAL-FACTOR THEORY) STATES THAT THERE ARE CERTAIN FACTORS IN THE WORKPLACE THAT CAUSE JOB SATISFACTION, WHILE A SEPARATE SET OF FACTORS CAUSE DISSATISFACTION.
  34. 34. HERZBERG 2 FACTOR THEORY • HYGIENE FACTORS- HYGIENE FACTORS ARE THOSE JOB FACTORS WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL FOR EXISTENCE OF MOTIVATION AT WORKPLACE. THESE DO NOT LEAD TO POSITIVE SATISFACTION FOR LONG-TERM. BUT IF THESE FACTORS ARE ABSENT / IF THESE FACTORS ARE NON-EXISTENT AT WORKPLACE, THEN THEY LEAD TO DISSATISFACTION. IN OTHER WORDS, HYGIENE FACTORS ARE THOSE FACTORS WHICH WHEN ADEQUATE/REASONABLEIN A JOB, PACIFY THE EMPLOYEES AND DO NOT MAKE THEM DISSATISFIED. THESE FACTORS ARE EXTRINSIC TO WORK. HYGIENE FACTORS ARE ALSO CALLED AS DISSATISFIERS OR MAINTENANCE FACTORS AS THEY ARE REQUIRED TO AVOID DISSATISFACTION.
  35. 35. HERZBERG 2 FACTOR THEORY •VARIOUS HYGIENE FACTORS ARE: •PAY •COMPANY POLICIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES •FRINGE BENEFITS •PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITIONS •STATUS •INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS •JOB SECURITY
  36. 36. HERZBERG 2 FACTOR THEORY •MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS- ACCORDING TO HERZBERG, THE HYGIENE FACTORS CANNOT BE REGARDED AS MOTIVATORS. THE MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS YIELD POSITIVE SATISFACTION. THESE FACTORS ARE INHERENT TO WORK. THESE FACTORS MOTIVATE THE EMPLOYEES FOR A SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE. THESE FACTORS ARE CALLED SATISFIERS. THESE ARE FACTORS INVOLVED IN PERFORMING THE JOB. EMPLOYEES FIND THESE FACTORS INTRINSICALLY REWARDING.
  37. 37. HERZBERG’S 2 FACTOR THEORY •VARIOUS MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS ARE: •RECOGNITION •SENSE OF ACHIEVEMENT •GROWTH AND PROMOTIONAL OPPORTUNITIES •RESPONSIBILITY •MEANINGFULNESS OF THE WORK
  38. 38. MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y •IN 1960, DOUGLAS MCGREGOR FORMULATED THEORY X AND THEORY Y SUGGESTING TWO ASPECTS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR AT WORK, OR IN OTHER WORDS, TWO DIFFERENT VIEWS OF INDIVIDUALS (EMPLOYEES): ONE OF WHICH IS NEGATIVE, CALLED AS THEORY X AND THE OTHER IS POSITIVE, SO CALLED AS THEORY Y.
  39. 39. MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y • ASSUMPTIONS OF THEORY X: • AN AVERAGE EMPLOYEE INTRINSICALLY DOES NOT LIKE WORK AND TRIES TO ESCAPE IT WHENEVER POSSIBLE. • SINCE THE EMPLOYEE DOES NOT WANT TO WORK, HE MUST BE PERSUADED, COMPELLED, OR WARNED WITH PUNISHMENT SO AS TO ACHIEVE ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS. A CLOSE SUPERVISION IS REQUIRED ON PART OF MANAGERS. THE MANAGERS ADOPT A MORE DICTATORIAL STYLE.
  40. 40. MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y • CONTD. • MANY EMPLOYEES RANK JOB SECURITY ON TOP, AND THEY HAVE LITTLE ORNO ASPIRATION/ AMBITION. • EMPLOYEES GENERALLY DISLIKE RESPONSIBILITIES. • EMPLOYEES RESIST CHANGE. • AN AVERAGE EMPLOYEE NEEDS FORMAL DIRECTION
  41. 41. MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y •ASSUMPTIONS OF THEORY Y: •EMPLOYEES CAN PERCEIVE THEIR JOB AS RELAXING AND NORMAL. THEY EXERCISE THEIR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EFFORTS IN AN INHERENT MANNER IN THEIR JOBS. •EMPLOYEES MAY NOT REQUIRE ONLY THREAT, EXTERNAL CONTROL AND COERCION TO WORK, BUT THEY CAN USE SELF-DIRECTION AND SELF-CONTROL IF THEY ARE DEDICATED AND SINCERE TO ACHIEVE THE ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES.
  42. 42. MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y CONTD.: •IF THE JOB IS REWARDING AND SATISFYING, THEN IT WILL RESULT IN EMPLOYEES’ LOYALTY AND COMMITMENT TO ORGANIZATION. •AN AVERAGE EMPLOYEE CAN LEARN TO ADMIT AND RECOGNIZE THE RESPONSIBILITY. IN FACT, HE CAN EVEN LEARN TO OBTAIN RESPONSIBILITY. •THE EMPLOYEES HAVE SKILLS AND CAPABILITIES. THEIR LOGICAL CAPABILITIES SHOULD BE FULLY UTILIZED. IN OTHER WORDS, THE CREATIVITY, RESOURCEFULNESS AND INNOVATIVE POTENTIALITY OF THE EMPLOYEES CAN BE UTILIZED TO SOLVE ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS.
  43. 43. LEADERSHIP •LEADERSHIP HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS "A PROCESS OF SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN WHICH ONE PERSON CAN ENLIST THE AID AND SUPPORT OF OTHERS IN THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF A COMMON TASK“.
  44. 44. AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP • AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP: THE AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP STYLE OR AUTOCRATIC LEADER KEEPS STRICT, CLOSE CONTROL OVER FOLLOWERS BY KEEPING CLOSE REGULATION OF POLICY'S AND PROCEDURES GIVEN TO FOLLOWERS. TO KEEP MAIN EMPHASIS ON THE DISTINCTION OF THE AUTHORITARIAN LEADER AND THEIR FOLLOWERS, THESE TYPES OF LEADERS MAKE SURE TO ONLY CREATE A DISTINCT PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIP. DIRECT SUPERVISION IS WHAT THEY BELIEVE TO BE KEY IN MAINTAINING A SUCCESSFUL ENVIRONMENT AND FOLLOWER SHIP. IN FEAR OF FOLLOWERS BEING UNPRODUCTIVE, AUTHORITARIAN LEADERS KEEP CLOSE SUPERVISION AND FEEL THIS IS NECESSARY IN ORDER FOR ANYTHING TO BE DONE.
  45. 45. PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP • PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP: THE WAY A PATERNALISTIC LEADER WORKS IS BY ACTING AS A FATHER FIGURE BY TAKING CARE OF THEIR SUBORDINATES AS A PARENT WOULD. IN THIS STYLE OF LEADERSHIP THE LEADER SUPPLIES COMPLETE CONCERN FOR HIS FOLLOWERS OR WORKERS. IN RETURN HE RECEIVES THE COMPLETE TRUST AND LOYALTY OF HIS PEOPLE. WORKERS UNDER THIS STYLE OF LEADER ARE EXPECTED TO BECOME TOTALLY COMMITTED TO WHAT THE LEADER BELIEVES AND WILL NOT STRIVE OFF AND WORK INDEPENDENTLY. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THESE CO-WORKERS AND LEADER ARE EXTREMELY SOLID. THE WORKERS ARE EXPECTED TO STAY WITH A COMPANY FOR A LONGER PERIOD OF TIME BECAUSE OF THE LOYALTY AND TRUST.
  46. 46. BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP • BUREAUCRATIC LEADERS WORK "BY THE BOOK." THEY FOLLOW RULES RIGOROUSLY, AND ENSURE THAT THEIR PEOPLE FOLLOW PROCEDURES PRECISELY. • THIS IS AN APPROPRIATE LEADERSHIP STYLE FOR WORK INVOLVING SERIOUS SAFETY RISKS (SUCH AS WORKING WITH MACHINERY, WITH TOXIC SUBSTANCES, OR AT DANGEROUS HEIGHTS) OR WHERE LARGE SUMS OF MONEY ARE INVOLVED. BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP IS ALSO USEFUL IN ORGANIZATIONS WHERE EMPLOYEES DO ROUTINE TASKS (AS IN MANUFACTURING). • THE DOWNSIDE OF THIS LEADERSHIP STYLE IS THAT IT'S INEFFECTIVE IN TEAMS AND ORGANIZATIONS THAT RELY ON FLEXIBILITY, CREATIVITY, OR INNOVATION.
  47. 47. CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP •A CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE CAN RESEMBLE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BECAUSE THESE LEADERS INSPIRE ENTHUSIASM IN THEIR TEAMS AND ARE ENERGETIC IN MOTIVATING OTHERS TO MOVE FORWARD. THIS ABILITY TO CREATE EXCITEMENT AND COMMITMENT IS AN ENORMOUS BENEFIT.
  48. 48. DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP • DEMOCRATIC LEADERS MAKE THE FINAL DECISIONS, BUT THEY INCLUDE TEAM MEMBERS IN THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS. THEY ENCOURAGE CREATIVITY, AND TEAM MEMBERS ARE OFTEN HIGHLY ENGAGED IN PROJECTS AND DECISIONS. • THERE ARE MANY BENEFITS OF DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP. TEAM MEMBERS TEND TO HAVE HIGH JOB SATISFACTION AND ARE PRODUCTIVE BECAUSE THEY'RE MORE INVOLVED IN DECISIONS. THIS STYLE ALSO HELPS DEVELOP PEOPLE'S SKILLS. TEAM MEMBERS FEEL IN CONTROL OF THEIR DESTINY, SO THEY'RE MOTIVATED TO WORK HARD BY MORE THAN JUST A FINANCIAL REWARD.
  49. 49. LAISSEZ FAIRE LEADERSHIP •THIS FRENCH PHRASE MEANS "LEAVE IT BE," AND IT DESCRIBES LEADERS WHO ALLOW THEIR PEOPLE TO WORK ON THEIR OWN. THIS TYPE OF LEADERSHIP CAN ALSO OCCUR NATURALLY, WHEN MANAGERS DON'T HAVE SUFFICIENT CONTROL OVER THEIR WORK AND THEIR PEOPLE. •LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADERS MAY GIVE THEIR TEAMS COMPLETE FREEDOM TO DO THEIR WORK AND SET THEIR OWN DEADLINES. THEY PROVIDE TEAM SUPPORT WITH RESOURCES AND ADVICE, IF NEEDED, BUT OTHERWISE DON'T GET INVOLVED.
  50. 50. SERVANT LEADERSHIP • THIS TERM, CREATED BY ROBERT GREENLEAF IN THE 1970S, DESCRIBES A LEADER OFTEN NOT FORMALLY RECOGNIZED AS SUCH. WHEN SOMEONE AT ANY LEVEL WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION LEADS SIMPLY BY MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE TEAM, HE OR SHE CAN BE DESCRIBED AS A "SERVANT LEADER." • SERVANT LEADERS OFTEN LEAD BY EXAMPLE. THEY HAVE HIGH INTEGRITY AND LEAD WITH GENEROSITY. IN MANY WAYS, SERVANT LEADERSHIP IS A FORM OF DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP BECAUSE THE WHOLE TEAM TENDS TO BE INVOLVED IN DECISION MAKING. HOWEVER, SERVANT LEADERS OFTEN "LEAD FROM BEHIND," PREFERRING TO STAY OUT OF THE LIMELIGHT AND LETTING THEIR TEAM ACCEPT RECOGNITION FOR THEIR HARD WORK.
  51. 51. TASK ORIENTED LEADERSHIP •TASK-ORIENTED LEADERS FOCUS ONLY ON GETTING THE JOB DONE AND CAN BE AUTOCRATIC. THEY ACTIVELY DEFINE THE WORK AND THE ROLES REQUIRED, PUT STRUCTURES IN PLACE, AND PLAN, ORGANIZE, AND MONITOR WORK. THESE LEADERS ALSO PERFORM OTHER KEY TASKS, SUCH AS CREATING AND MAINTAINING STANDARDS FOR PERFORMANCE.
  52. 52. TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP •THIS LEADERSHIP STYLE STARTS WITH THE IDEA THAT TEAM MEMBERS AGREE TO OBEY THEIR LEADER WHEN THEY ACCEPT A JOB. THE "TRANSACTION" USUALLY INVOLVES THE ORGANIZATION PAYING TEAM MEMBERS IN RETURN FOR THEIR EFFORT AND COMPLIANCE. THE LEADER HAS A RIGHT TO "PUNISH" TEAM MEMBERS IF THEIR WORK DOESN'T MEET AN APPROPRIATE STANDARD.
  53. 53. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP •TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS ARE INSPIRING BECAUSE THEY EXPECT THE BEST FROM EVERYONE ON THEIR TEAM AS WELL AS THEMSELVES. THIS LEADS TO HIGH PRODUCTIVITY AND ENGAGEMENT FROM EVERYONE IN THEIR TEAM. •THE DOWNSIDE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IS THAT WHILE THE LEADER'S ENTHUSIASM IS PASSED ONTO THE TEAM, HE OR SHE CAN NEED TO BE SUPPORTED BY "DETAIL PEOPLE."
  54. 54. COMMUNICATION • DEFINITION: THE PROCESS OF PASSING ANY INFORMATION FROM ONE PERSON TO THE OTHER PERSON WITH THE AID OF SOME MEDIUM IS TERMED AS COMMUNICATION.
  55. 55. COMMUNICATION-PROCESS Information Receiver Feedback Sender
  56. 56. PROCESS • THE PROCESS OF SENDING THE MESSAGE THE FIRST PARTY OR THE SENDER FIRST THINKS OF INFORMATION, WHATEVER HE INTENDS TO COMMUNICATE OR TRANSFER TO THE OTHERS. THEN HE PUTS THE INFORMATION OR THE MESSAGE IN WORDS OR PREPARE A CONTENT. THE PROCESS OF PUTTING THE THOUGHTS IN WORDS IS CALLED ENCODING. FINALLY THE CONTENT AFTER BEING READY IS TRANSMITTED TO THE RECEIVER.
  57. 57. PROCESS • THE PROCESS OF RECEIVING THE MESSAGE THE MESSAGE REACHES THE SENDER, WHO THEN DECODES THE MESSAGE OR IN SIMPLER TERMS BREAKS THE INFORMATION, UNDERSTANDS IT AND RESPONDS TO THE RECEIVER. THE SENDER ALSO GIVES FEEDBACK TO THE RECEIVER AFTER HE HAS UNDERSTOOD THE COMPLETE INFORMATION.
  58. 58. TYPES •VERBAL COMMUNICATION •WRITTEN COMMUNICATION •GESTURAL COMMUNICATION
  59. 59. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION •PERCEPTUAL AND LANGUAGE DIFFERENCES •INFORMATION OVERLOAD •INATTENTION •TIME PRESSURES •DISTRACTION/NOISE •EMOTIONS •COMPLEXITY IN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE •POOR RETENTION •POOR LISTENING AND PREMATURE EVALUATION
  60. 60. BARRIERS • PERCEPTUAL AND LANGUAGE DIFFERENCES: PERCEPTION IS GENERALLY HOW EACH INDIVIDUAL INTERPRETS THE WORLD AROUND HIM. ALL GENERALLY WANT TO RECEIVE MESSAGES WHICH ARE SIGNIFICANT TO THEM. BUT ANY MESSAGE WHICH IS AGAINST THEIR VALUES IS NOT ACCEPTED. A SAME EVENT MAY BE TAKEN DIFFERENTLY BY DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS.
  61. 61. BARRIERS • INFORMATION OVERLOAD:MANAGERS ARE SURROUNDED WITH A POOL OF INFORMATION. IT IS ESSENTIAL TO CONTROL THIS INFORMATION FLOW ELSE THE INFORMATION IS LIKELY TO BE MISINTERPRETED OR FORGOTTEN OR OVERLOOKED. AS A RESULT COMMUNICATION IS LESS EFFECTIVE. • INATTENTION: AT TIMES WE JUST NOT LISTEN, BUT ONLY HEAR. REPETITIVE MESSAGES SHOULD BE IGNORED FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION. • TIME PRESSURES: OFTEN IN ORGANIZATION THE TARGETS HAVE TO BE ACHIEVED WITHIN A SPECIFIED TIME PERIOD, THE FAILURE OF WHICH HAS ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES. IN A HASTE TO MEET DEADLINES, THE FORMAL CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION ARE SHORTENED, OR MESSAGES ARE PARTIALLY GIVEN, I.E., NOT COMPLETELY TRANSFERRED. THUS SUFFICIENT TIME SHOULD BE GIVEN FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION.
  62. 62. BARRIERS • DISTRACTION/NOISE: COMMUNICATION IS ALSO AFFECTED A LOT BY NOISE TO DISTRACTIONS. PHYSICAL DISTRACTIONS ARE ALSO THERE SUCH AS, POOR LIGHTNING, UNCOMFORTABLE SITTING, UNHYGIENIC ROOM ALSO AFFECTS COMMUNICATION IN A MEETING. • EMOTIONS: EMOTIONAL STATE AT A PARTICULAR POINT OF TIME ALSO AFFECTS COMMUNICATION. IF THE RECEIVER FEELS THAT COMMUNICATOR IS ANGRY HE INTERPRETS THAT THE INFORMATION BEING SENT IS VERY BAD. WHILE HE TAKES IT DIFFERENTLY IF THE COMMUNICATOR IS HAPPY AND JOVIAL (IN THAT CASE THE MESSAGE IS INTERPRETED TO BE GOOD AND INTERESTING). • POOR RETENTION: HUMAN MEMORY CANNOT FUNCTION BEYOND A LIMIT. ONE CANT ALWAYS RETAIN WHAT IS BEING TOLD SPECIALLY IF HE IS NOT INTERESTED OR NOT ATTENTIVE. THIS LEADS TO COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWN.
  63. 63. BARRIERS • COMPLEXITY IN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: GREATER THE HIERARCHY IN AN ORGANIZATION (I.E. MORE THE NUMBER OF MANAGERIAL LEVELS), MORE IS THE CHANCES OF COMMUNICATION GETTING DESTROYED. ONLY THE PEOPLE AT THE TOP LEVEL CAN SEE THE OVERALL PICTURE WHILE THE PEOPLE AT LOW LEVEL JUST HAVE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THEIR OWN AREA AND A LITTLE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT OTHER AREAS. • POOR LISTENING AND PREMATURE EVALUATION: THERE ARE VERY FEW PEOPLE WHO ARE GOOD LISTENERS. LISTENING DEMANDS FULL ATTENTION AND SELF – DISCIPLINE. IT ALSO MEANS PREMATURE EVALUATION OF OTHER PERSON’S STATEMENTS. A COMMON TENDENCY IS TO JUDGE , TO APPROVE OR DISAPPROVE WHAT IS BEING SAID RATHER THAN TRYING TO UNDERSTAND THE SPEAKER’S FRAME OF REFERENCE.
  64. 64. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • CREATE A ENVIRONMENT OF TRUST AND CONFIDENCE: FOR THIS THE MANAGEMENT SHOULD LIVE UP TO ITS WORDS. IT SHOULD CREATE SOUND POLICIES, COMMUNICATE THEM AND FOLLOW THEM. • BE CLEAR ABOUT THE OBJECTIVE OF THE COMMUNICATION: THE COMMUNICATOR SHOULD EXAMINE THE TRUE PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION. THE IDEAS, MEDIA, TIME OF COMMUNICATION SHOULD BE TUNED TO THE NEEDS AND OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION. • BE SENSITIVE TO COMMUNICATION SITUATION: THE SENDER MUST ASSESS THE IMPORTANCE AND TIMING IN RELATION TO THE RECEIVER. IF THE RECEIVER IS BUSY THEN IT SHOULD BE SEND LATER ON.
  65. 65. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • ELIMINATING DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTION: THE ORGANIZATION SHOULD ENSURE THAT IT IS RECRUITING RIGHT INDIVIDUALS ON THE JOB. IT’S THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE INTERVIEWER TO ENSURE THAT THE INTERVIEWEE HAS COMMAND OVER THE WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LANGUAGE. • USE OF SIMPLE LANGUAGE: USE OF SIMPLE AND CLEAR WORDS SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED. USE OF AMBIGUOUS WORDS AND JARGONS SHOULD BE AVOIDED. • REDUCTION AND ELIMINATION OF NOISE LEVELS: NOISE IS THE MAIN COMMUNICATION BARRIER WHICH MUST BE OVERCOME ON PRIORITY BASIS. IT IS ESSENTIAL TO IDENTIFY THE SOURCE OF NOISE AND THEN ELIMINATE THAT SOURCE.
  66. 66. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • ACTIVE LISTENING: LISTEN ATTENTIVELY AND CAREFULLY. THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN “LISTENING” AND “HEARING”. ACTIVE LISTENING MEANS HEARING WITH PROPER UNDERSTANDING OF THE MESSAGE THAT IS HEARD. BY ASKING QUESTIONS THE SPEAKER CAN ENSURE WHETHER HIS/HER MESSAGE IS UNDERSTOOD OR NOT BY THE RECEIVER IN THE SAME TERMS AS INTENDED BY THE SPEAKER. • EMOTIONAL STATE: DURING COMMUNICATION ONE SHOULD MAKE EFFECTIVE USE OF BODY LANGUAGE. HE/SHE SHOULD NOT SHOW THEIR EMOTIONS WHILE COMMUNICATION AS THE RECEIVER MIGHT MISINTERPRET THE MESSAGE BEING DELIVERED. • SIMPLE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE SHOULD NOT BE COMPLEX. THE NUMBER OF HIERARCHICAL LEVELS SHOULD BE OPTIMUM. THERE SHOULD BE A IDEAL SPAN OF CONTROL WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION. SIMPLER THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, MORE EFFECTIVE WILL BE THE COMMUNICATION.
  67. 67. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • AVOID INFORMATION OVERLOAD: THE MANAGERS SHOULD KNOW HOW TO PRIORITIZE THEIR WORK. THEY SHOULD NOT OVERLOAD THEMSELVES WITH THE WORK. THEY SHOULD SPEND QUALITY TIME WITH THEIR SUBORDINATES AND SHOULD LISTEN TO THEIR PROBLEMS AND FEEDBACKS ACTIVELY. • GIVE CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK: AVOID GIVING NEGATIVE FEEDBACK. THE CONTENTS OF THE FEEDBACK MIGHT BE NEGATIVE, BUT IT SHOULD BE DELIVERED CONSTRUCTIVELY. CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK WILL LEAD TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE SUPERIOR AND SUBORDINATE.
  68. 68. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • PROPER MEDIA SELECTION: THE MANAGERS SHOULD PROPERLY SELECT THE MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION. SIMPLE MESSAGES SHOULD BE CONVEYED ORALLY, LIKE: FACE TO FACE INTERACTION OR MEETINGS. USE OF WRITTEN MEANS OF COMMUNICATION SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED FOR DELIVERING COMPLEX MESSAGES. FOR SIGNIFICANT MESSAGES REMINDERS CAN BE GIVEN BY USING WRITTEN MEANS OF COMMUNICATION SUCH AS : MEMOS, NOTICES ETC. • FLEXIBILITY IN MEETING THE TARGETS: FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN AN ORGANIZATION THE MANAGERS SHOULD ENSURE THAT THE INDIVIDUALS ARE MEETING THEIR TARGETS TIMELY WITHOUT SKIPPING THE FORMAL CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION. THERE SHOULD NOT BE MUCH PRESSURE ON EMPLOYEES TO MEET THEIR TARGETS.
  69. 69. GRAPEVINE • GRAPEVINE IS AN INFORMAL CHANNEL OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION. IT IS CALLED SO BECAUSE IT STRETCHES THROUGHOUT THE ORGANIZATION IN ALL DIRECTIONS IRRESPECTIVE OF THE AUTHORITY LEVELS. • GRAPEVINE GENERALLY DEVELOPS DUE TO VARIOUS REASONS. ONE OF THEMIS THAT WHEN AN ORGANIZATION IS FACING RECESSION, THE EMPLOYEES SENSE UNCERTAINTY. ALSO, AT TIMES EMPLOYEES DO NOT HAVE SELF-CONFIDENCE DUE TO WHICH THEY FORM UNIONS. SOMETIMES THE MANAGERS SHOW PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT AND FAVOR SOME EMPLOYEES GIVING A SEGREGATED FEELING TO OTHER EMPLOYEES. THUS, WHEN EMPLOYEES SENSE A NEED TO EXCHANGE THEIR VIEWS, THEY GO FOR GRAPEVINE NETWORK AS THEY CANNOT USE THE FORMAL CHANNEL OF COMMUNICATION IN THAT CASE. GENERALLY DURING BREAKS IN CAFETERIA, THE SUBORDINATES TALK ABOUT THEIR SUPERIOR’S ATTITUDEAND BEHAVIOR AND EXCHANGE VIEWS WITH THEIR PEERS. THEY DISCUSS RUMORS ABOUT PROMOTION AND TRANSFER OF OTHER EMPLOYEES.

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