O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Switch case looping

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Próximos SlideShares
Switch case and looping
Switch case and looping
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 60 Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (19)

Anúncio

Semelhante a Switch case looping (20)

Switch case looping

  1. 1. http://eglobiotraining.com
  2. 2. We first define the word “programming”, it is a computer language programmers use to develop applications, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. programming is instructing a computer to do something for you with the help of a programming language. The role of a programming language can be described in two ways:  Technical: It is a means for instructing a Computer to perform Tasks  Conceptual: It is a framework within which we organize our ideas about things and processes. http://eglobiotraining.com
  3. 3. As an individual, I have learned that programming is a very broad because it composes many scripts, applications and can be used to run a program that has been part of the programming language. A programming language should both provide means to describe primitive data and procedures and means to combine and abstract those into more complex ones. http://eglobiotraining.com
  4. 4. The distinction between data and procedures is not that clear cut. In many programming languages, procedures can be passed as data (to be applied to ``real'' data) and sometimes processed like ``ordinary'' data. Conversely ``ordinary'' data can be turned into procedures by an evaluation mechanism. http://eglobiotraining.com
  5. 5. At first, programming is confusing because you have so much to understand about codes that will enable to run a program. Programming has applications and program development, the best example for this is the Internet bowser… Programming is a creative process done by programmers to instruct a computer on how to do a task. Programming languages let you use them in different ways, e.g adding numbers, etc… or storing data on disk for later retrieval. http://eglobiotraining.com
  6. 6. You have to consider languages to run or write your own program, most demanded language in programming is the DEV C++ (a full-featured Integrated Development Environment (IDE)). C++ is one of the most used programming languages in the world. Also known as "C with Classes". New to programming or thinking about it? It might surprise you to know that there are many programmers who program just for fun and it can lead to a job. http://eglobiotraining.com
  7. 7. http://eglobiotraining.com
  8. 8. Switch case statements are a substitute for long if statements that compare a variable to several "integral" values ("integral" values are simply values that can be expressed as an integer, such as the value of a char). – A switch, case, select or inspect statement is a type of selection control mechanism that exists in most imperative programming languages such as Pascal, Ada, C/C++, C#, Java, and so on. It is also included in several other types of languages. Its purpose is to allow the value of a variable or expression to control the flow of program execution via a multiway branch (or "goto", one of several labels). http://eglobiotraining.com
  9. 9.  - To improve clarity, by reducing otherwise repetitive coding, and (if the heuristics permit) also offering the potential for faster execution through easier compiler optimization in many cases. http://eglobiotraining.com
  10. 10. 1. The If – else Statement -The if statement allows the programmer to make decisions within a program. - The general format of an if statement is: If (expression) statement -Where expression represents a relational, equality, or logical expression ( conditional expression) . http://eglobiotraining.com
  11. 11. If statement (two alternatives) Form: If (condition) Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is statement; executed and statement is skipped; otherwise, statement is else skipped and statement is executed statement; If statement (One-Alternatives) Form: If (condition) Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is statement; executed and statement is skipped Format of the if statement - All if statement examples in this text indent statements. The word else Is typed without indention on a separate line. The format of the if statement makes its meaning apparent and is used solely to improve program readability; The format makes no difference to the computer http://eglobiotraining.com
  12. 12.  If we know how to write a C expression that is equivalent of a question such as “Is resting the value of expression to select a course of action. In C, the statement is the primary selection control structure  Me: it’s hard to write c expression. So, I just copy and paste it into internet.  A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. http://eglobiotraining.com
  13. 13.  1. Open Dev C++  2. Click File and choose New  3. Post your Statements  4. after you post your statement  5. Save it .choose file and save or  6. click f9 or you can see it shaped like a square http://eglobiotraining.com http://eglobiotraining.com/
  14. 14. basic format for using switch case: switch ( <variable> ) { case this-value: Code to execute if <variable> == this-value break; case that-value: Code to execute if <variable> == that-value break; ... default: Code to execute if <variable> does not equal the value following any of the cases break; } The value of the variable given into switch is compared to the value following each of the cases, and when one value matches the value of the variable, the computer continues executing the program from that point. http://eglobiotraining.com
  15. 15. The condition of a switch statement is a value. The case says that if it has the value of whatever is after that case then do whatever follows the colon. http://eglobiotraining.com
  16. 16. The break is used to break out of the case statements. An important thing to note about the switch statement is that the case values may only be constant integral expressions. http://eglobiotraining.com
  17. 17. Break is a keyword that breaks out of the code block, usually surrounded by braces, which it is in. In this case, break prevents the program from falling through and executing the code in all the other case statements. http://eglobiotraining.com
  18. 18. The default case is optional, but it is wise to include it as it handles any unexpected cases. Switch statements serves as a simple way to write long if statements when the requirements are met. Often it can be used to process input from a user. http://eglobiotraining.com
  19. 19. This shows how would you use a Switch in a Program #include <iostream> using namespace std; void playgame() { cout << "Play game called"; } void loadgame() } cout << "Load game called"; void playmultiplayer() { cout << "Play multiplayer game called"; } int main() { int input; cout<<"1. Play gamen"; cout<<"2. Load gamen"; cout<<"3. Play multiplayern"; cout<<"4. Exitn"; cout<<"Selection: "; cin>> input; switch ( input ) { case 1: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playgame(); break; case 2: // Note the colon, not a semicolon loadgame(); break; case 3: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playmultiplayer(); break; case 4: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Thank you for playing!n"; break; default: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Error, bad input, quittingn"; break; } cin.get(); } http://eglobiotraining.com
  20. 20. That program will compile, but cannot be run until the undefined functions are given bodies, but it serves as a model (albeit simple) for processing input. If you do not understand this then try mentally putting in if statements for the case statements. Default simply skips out of the switch case construction and allows the program to terminate naturally. If you do not like that, then you can make a loop around the whole thing to have it wait for valid input. You could easily make a few small functions if you wish to test the code. http://eglobiotraining.com
  21. 21. Loops are used to repeat a block of code. Being able to have your program repeatedly execute a block of code is one of the most basic but useful tasks in programming -- many programs or websites that produce extremely complex output (such as a message board) are really only executing a single task many times. http://eglobiotraining.com
  22. 22. (They may be executing a small number of tasks, but in principle, to produce a list of messages only requires repeating the operation of reading in some data and displaying it.) Now, think about what this means: a loop lets you write a very simple statement to produce a significantly greater result simply by repetition. http://eglobiotraining.com
  23. 23. One Caveat: before going further, you should understand the concept of C++'s true and false, because it will be necessary when working with loops (the conditions are the same as with if statements). Three types of Loops: for, while, and do.. http://eglobiotraining.com
  24. 24. FOR For ( variable initialization; condition; variable update ) { Code to execute while the condition is true } http://eglobiotraining.com
  25. 25. The variable initialization allows you to either declare a variable and give it a value or give a value to an already existing variable. Second, the condition tells the program that while the conditional expression is true the loop should continue to repeat itself. The variable update section is the easiest way for a for loop to handle changing of the variable. It is possible to do things like x++, x = x + 10, or even x = random ( 5 ), and if you really wanted to, you could call other functions that do nothing to the variable but still have a useful effect on the code. Notice that a semicolon separates each of these sections, that is important. Also note that every single one of the sections may be empty, though the semicolons still have to be there. If the condition is empty, it is evaluated as true and the loop will repeat until something else stops it. http://eglobiotraining.com
  26. 26. Example: #include <iostream> using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endl int main() { // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get(); } This program is a very simple example of a for loop. x is set to zero, while x is less than 10 it calls cout<< x <<endl; and it adds 1 to x until the condition is met. Keep in mind also that the variable is incremented after the code in the loop is run for the first time. http://eglobiotraining.com
  27. 27. WHILE The basic structure: While ( condition ) { Code to execute while the condition is true } The true represents a boolean expression which could be x == 1 or while ( x != 7 ) (x does not equal 7). It can be any combination of boolean statements that are legal. Even, (while x ==5 || v == 7) which says execute the code while x equals five or while v equals 7. Notice that a while loop is the same as a for loop without the initialization and update sections. However, an empty condition is not legal for a while loop as it is with a for loop. http://eglobiotraining.com
  28. 28. Example: #include <iostream> using namespace std; // So we can see cout and endl int main() { int x = 0; // Don't forget to declare variables while ( x < 10 ) { // While x is less than 10 cout<< x <<endl; x++; // Update x so the condition can be met eventually } cin.get(); } The easiest way to think of the loop is that when it reaches the brace at the end it jumps back up to the beginning of the loop, which checks the condition again and decides whether to repeat the block another time, or stop and move to the next statement after the block. http://eglobiotraining.com
  29. 29. DO..WHILE are useful for things that want to loop at least once. The Structure: do { } while ( condition ) ; http://eglobiotraining.com
  30. 30. Notice that the condition is tested at the end of the block instead of the beginning, so the block will be executed at least once. If the condition is true, we jump back to the beginning of the block and execute it again. A do..while loop is basically a reversed while loop. A while loop says "Loop while the condition is true, and execute this block of code", a do..while loop says "Execute this block of code, and loop while the condition is true". http://eglobiotraining.com
  31. 31. Example: #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get(); } Keep in mind that you must include a trailing semi-colon after the while in the above example. A common error is to forget that a do..while loop must be terminated with a semicolon (the other loops should not be terminated with a semicolon, adding to the confusion). Notice that this loop will execute once, because it automatically executes before checking the condition. http://eglobiotraining.com
  32. 32. http://eglobiotraining.com
  33. 33. LOOPING STATEMENT 1 #include <iostream> int main() { using namespace std; // nSelection must be declared outside do/while loop int nSelection; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); // do something with nSelection here // such as a switch statement return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  34. 34. LOOPING STAEMENT 2 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int nSelection; double var1, var2; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  35. 35. LOOPING STATEMENT 3 if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; } return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  36. 36. LOOPING STATEMENT 3 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int nSelection; double var1, var2; while (1) { do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cout << "5) Exit" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4 && nSelection != 5); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  37. 37. LOOPING STATEMENT 4 else if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; } else { return 0; } } } http://eglobiotraining.com
  38. 38. LOOPING STATEMENT 5 #include <iostream> using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endl int main() { // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get(); } http://eglobiotraining.com
  39. 39. LOOPING STATEMENT 6 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get(); } http://eglobiotraining.com
  40. 40. LOOPING STATEMENT 7 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { int n; cout << "Enter the starting number > "; cin >> n; while (n>0) { cout << n << ", "; --n; } cout << "FIRE!n"; return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  41. 41. SWITCH CASE 1 SWITCH CASE #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { int score; cout << "What was your score?"; cin >> score; if (score <= 25) { cout << "nOuch, less than 25...!"; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  42. 42. SWITCH CASE 2 else if (score <= 50) { cout << "nYou score aint great mate.."; } else if (score <= 75) { cout << "nYour pretty good, wel done man!"; } else if (score <= 100) { cout << "nYou got to the top!!!"; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  43. 43. SWITCH CASE 3 else { cout << "nYou cant score higher than 100!!! Cheater!!!!"; } cin.ignore(); cin.get(); return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  44. 44. SWITCH CASE 4 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main(){ cout << "Enter a number between 1 and 5!" << endl; int number; cin >> number; if(number == 1){ cout << "one"; } else if(number == 2){ cout << "two"; } else if(number == 3){ cout << "three"; } else if(number == 4){ cout << "four"; } else if(number == 5){ cout << "five"; } else{ cout << number << " is not between 1 and 5!"; } cout << endl; system("pause"); } http://eglobiotraining.com
  45. 45. SWITCH CASE 5 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int price_before_discount, RM, dozen, total_price; cout<< "How much is the price before discount for 1 dozen boxes of tissue?n"; cout<<"RM "; cin>>price_before_discount; cout<<"nn"; cout<< "How many dozen boxes of tissue you buy?n"; cin>>dozen; cout<<"nn"; switch (dozen) { total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (95/100)); case '1': cout<< "Total price is RM "; cout<<RM; cout<<"nn"; break; total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (88/100)); case '2': cout<< "Total price is RM "; cout<<RM; cout<<"nn"; break; total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (75/100)); case '3': cout<< "Total price is RM "; cout<<RM; cout<<"nn"; break; total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (60/100)); case '4' : cout<< "Total price is RM "; cout<<RM; cout<<"nn"; break; total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (40/100)); default : cout<< "Total price is RM "; cout<<RM; cout<<"nn"; } return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  46. 46. SWITCH CASE 6 #include <stdlib.h> #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { int n; printf("Please enter a number: "); scanf("%d", &n); switch (n) { case 1: { printf("n is equal to 1!n"); break; } case 2: { printf("n is equal to 2!n"); break; } case 3: { printf("n is equal to 3!n"); break; } default: { printf("n isn't equal to 1, 2, or 3.n"); break; } } system("PAUSE"); return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  47. 47. SWITCH CASE 7 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main(void) { char grade; cout << "Enter your grade: "; cin >> grade; switch (grade) { case 'A': cout << "Your average must be between 90 - 100" << endl; break; case 'B': cout << "Your average must be between 80 - 89" << endl; break; case 'C': cout << "Your average must be between 70 - 79" << endl; break; case 'D': cout << "Your average must be between 60 - 69" << endl; break; default: cout << "Your average must be below 60" << endl; } return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  48. 48. http://eglobiotraining.com
  49. 49. In this looping statement, I used “while” looping, and I choose to show MDAS just as an example for the program to run. If logical Expression evaluates to true, the statement executes. The logical Expression is reevaluated. The body of the loop continues to execute until the logicalExpression is false http://eglobiotraining.com
  50. 50. I have came up with this by just starting to write this code: #include <iostream> and then enter the succeeding codes, compiled and run. http://eglobiotraining.com
  51. 51. I noticed that sometimes if the program does not run, it is because some braces are not included and I accidentally put braces on the same line and it causes the program not to read its contents. Programming is sensitive, when there is missing variable or braces or some words it does not run. http://eglobiotraining.com
  52. 52. When I learned that programming is very sensitive and at the same time very detailed when it comes to entering codes, I make sure that it is clear means that I put everything important codes in it so that the program would run. http://eglobiotraining.com
  53. 53. So much codes that should be entered that even the spaces are needed programming is very specific that whatever you have entered in to it you should specify because when the statement is false it wouldn’t let you run the program, I have experienced it before I arrived at this result. http://eglobiotraining.com
  54. 54. Because of so many experiences I had before this program run, I found programming is also interesting for the more you are practicing to make a program run, the more questions that came up in my mind and try something that will fit to this or entering new codes to make matrix etc… that I know is possible. http://eglobiotraining.com
  55. 55. In this switch case missing out a break statement causes control to fall through to the next case label. Switches can always be replaced by nested if-else statements, but in some cases this may be more clumsy. Each break statement terminates the enclosing switch statement. Control flow continues with the first statement http://eglobiotraining.com
  56. 56. Unlike if-then and if-then-else statements, the switch statement can have a number of possible execution paths, A switch works with the byte, short, char, and int primitive data types. http://eglobiotraining.com
  57. 57. The switch statement evaluates its expression, then executes all statements that follow the matching case label. http://eglobiotraining.com
  58. 58. The switch statement can include any number of case instances, but no two case constants within the same switch statement can have the same value. Execution of the statement body begins at the selected statement and proceeds until the jump-statement transfers control out of the case body. http://eglobiotraining.com
  59. 59. USERNAME : Chem Batallones http://eglobiotraining.com
  60. 60. Submitted by: Batallones, Cherimay C. BM10203 http://eglobiotraining.com

×