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Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory

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Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory

  1. 1. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory<br />
  2. 2. Question!<br /> How does the world around the child <br /> help or hinder development?<br />
  3. 3. Ecological Systems Theory<br />Development is the result <br />of the relationships between people and their environments.<br />
  4. 4. Implications <br />Cannot evaluate a child’s development only in the immediate environment.<br />Must also examine the interactions among the larger environments that a child develops in.<br />
  5. 5. The FOUR layers<br />Microsystem: Relationships with direct contact to the child<br />Mesosystem: Connection between relationships of child’s microsystem<br />Exosystem: Structures in which child the child does not have direct contact<br />Macrosystem: Cultural context<br />
  6. 6. Based on Bronfenbrenner, U. 1979. The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.<br />
  7. 7. Microsystem<br />Variables that the child is directly exposed to<br />Relationships: Family, school, religious institution, neighbors<br /><ul><li>Family: Most influential and durable influence on child</li></ul>Environment: Geographic, Material structures<br />Child’s body<br /><ul><li>General health
  8. 8. Brain functioning – physiological and psychological
  9. 9. Emotions
  10. 10. Cognitive System</li></li></ul><li>Most of the child’s behavior is learned in the microsystem<br />The microsystem consists of bi-directional influences<br /><ul><li>Parents actively shape the development of the child
  11. 11. Children actively shape their environment
  12. 12. Personal attributes influence responses from other people
  13. 13. Children actively select and avoid specific environments
  14. 14. Bi-directional relationships are the foundation for a child’s cognitive and emotional growth</li></li></ul><li>Mesosystem<br />Interconnections between the microsystems<br />Interactions between the family and teachers<br />Relationship between the child’s peers and the family<br />
  15. 15. Exosystem<br />Institutions of society that indirectly affect a child’s development<br />Parent’s workplace<br />Funding for education<br /><ul><li>These impact a child’s development by influencing structures in the microsystem</li></li></ul><li>Macrosystem<br />Cultural context<br />Provides the values, beliefs, customs, and laws of the culture in which a child grows up<br />Influences how parents, teachers, and others raise a child<br />May be conscious or unconscious<br />Influences the societal values, legislation, and financial resources provided by a society to help families function<br />Influences the interactions of all other layers<br />
  16. 16. Properties of the four layers<br />Each layer has an effect on a child’s development<br />Each layer is complex <br />Conflict within any layer ripples throughout other layers<br />
  17. 17. Critique<br />Strengths<br /><ul><li>Integrates multiple influences on child development </li></ul>Weaknesses<br /><ul><li>Does not provide detailed mechanisms for development</li></li></ul><li>Implications for Education<br />Primary relationship must be intended to last a lifetime<br /><ul><li>Teachers need to work to support the primary child-adult relationship
  18. 18. Schools should create an environment that welcomes and nurtures families
  19. 19. Education should foster societal attitudes that value all work done on behalf of children</li>