2. Air Pollution
• Air pollution is addition of particle, gaseous and chemical into
• Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air that are
detrimental to human health and the planet as a whole.
• Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are
harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause
damage to the climate or to materials.
• The Clean Air Act authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) to protect public health by regulating the emissions of
these harmful air pollutants.
3. Air Pollution
• Air pollution can be classified into two sections – invisible and visible
• Visible air pollution, as the name suggests, can be visible. The smog
you see over a city is an example of visible pollution.
• Invisible air pollutants are less noticeable, but they can be more
deadly. Good examples of invisible air pollutants are sulfur dioxide,
carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.
• It can be further divided into Primarily and Secondary air
pollutants if we go deep.
4. Air Pollution
• Primarily air pollutants can be caused by primary sources or
secondary sources. The pollutants that are a direct result of the
process can be called primary pollutants. A classic example of a
primary pollutant would be the sulfur-dioxide emitted from factories.
• Secondary pollutants are the ones that are caused by the
intermingling and reactions of primary pollutants. Smog created by
the interactions of several primary pollutants is known as a secondary
5. Air Pollutants :
• Particulate Matter
• Air Pollution effects: Humans, Animals, Vegetation, Human Assests
6. Natural Air Pollution
• Many forest fires start from natural causes such as lightning which set trees on fire.
However, rain extinguishes such fires without causing much damage. High
atmospheric temperatures and dryness (low humidity) offer favorable
circumstance for a fire to start.
• Dust storms have also been shown to increase the spread of disease across the
globe. Virus spores in the ground are blown into the atmosphere by
the storms with the minute particles and interact with urban air pollution
7. SPM(Suspended Particulate Matter)
• SPM are finely divided solids or liquids that may be dispersed through
the air from combustion processes, industrial activities or natural
sources. This complex mixture includes both organic and inorganic
particles, such as dust, pollen, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets
8. What Causes Air Pollution?
• The solid and liquid particles suspended in our air are called aerosols.
• Air pollution happens when solid and liquid particles—
called aerosols—and certain gases end up in our air. These particles
and gases can be bad for the planet and for our health, so keeping
track of them is important.
The Burning of Fossil Fuels: Sulfur dioxide emitted from the
combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum for energy in power
plants, and other factory combustibles is one the major cause of air
10. What Causes Air Pollution?
• Billions of vehicles run on roads are powered by gasoline and diesel
engines that burn petroleum for releasing energy. Petroleum is made up of
hydrocarbons, and engines don’t burn them cleanly.
• As a result, pollutants such as PM, nitric oxide and NO2 (together referred
to as NOx), carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and lead emit from
vehicles including trucks, jeeps, cars, trains, airplanes, causing a high level
• But, their overuse is killing our environment as dangerous gases are
polluting the atmosphere. Carbon Monoxide caused by improper or
incomplete combustion and generally emitted from vehicles is another
major pollutant along with Nitrogen Oxides, that is produced from
both natural and man-made processes
11. What Causes Air Pollution?
• Agricultural Activities: Ammonia is a very common byproduct of
agriculture-related activities and is one of the most hazardous gases
in the atmosphere. The use of insecticides, pesticides, and fertilizers
in agricultural activities has grown quite a lot. They emit harmful
chemicals into the air and can also cause water pollution.
• Waste in Landfills: Landfills are land areas in which waste is deposited
or buried. These deposited or buried wastes generate methane.
Methane is a major greenhouse gas that is highly flammable and very
hazardous. E-waste is another grave concern involving a lot of
unscientific dismantlings such as chemical leaching, burning wires and
12. What Causes Air Pollution?
• Exhaust From Factories and Industries: Manufacturing industries
release a large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, organic
compounds, and chemicals into the air, thereby depleting the quality
• Mining Operations: Mining is a process wherein minerals below the
earth are extracted using large equipment. During the process, dust
and chemicals are released in the air causing massive air pollution.
• Indoor Air Pollution: Household cleaning products, painting supplies
emit toxic chemicals in the air and cause air pollution.
13. Disastrous Effects of Air pollution
• Respiratory and Heart Problems: The effects of air pollution are
alarming. They are known to create several respiratory and heart
conditions like asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, heart attacks
and strokes along with cancer, among other threats to the body.
Several million are known to have died due to the direct or indirect
effects of Air pollution.
• Child Health Problems: Air pollution is detrimental to your health
even before you take your first breath. Exposure to high air pollution
levels during pregnancy causes miscarriages as well as premature
birth, autism, asthma and spectrum disorder in young children.
14. Disastrous Effects of Air pollution
• Global Warming: Another direct effect is the immediate alterations
that the world is witnessing due to global warming. With increased
temperatures worldwide, an increase in sea levels and melting of ice
from colder regions and icebergs, displacement, and loss of habitat
have already signaled an impending disaster if actions for
preservation and normalization aren’t undertaken soon.
• Acid Rain: Harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are
released into the atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels. When
it rains, the water droplets combine with these air pollutants,
becomes acidic and then falls on the ground in the form of acid rain.
Acid rain can cause great damage to humans, animals, and crops.
15. Disastrous Effects of Air pollution
• Depletion of the Ozone Layer: Ozone exists in the Earth’s
stratosphere and is responsible for protecting humans from harmful
ultraviolet (UV) rays. Earth’s ozone layer is depleting due to the
presence of chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons in the
16. Impressive Solutions To Air Pollution
• Use the Public Mode of Transportation: Encourage people to use
more and more public modes of transportation to reduce pollution.
Also, try to make use of carpooling. If you and your colleagues come
from the same locality and have the same timings, you can explore
this option to save energy and money.
• Better Household Practices: Discard fireplaces and/or wooden stoves
used for heating homes. Use gas logs in place of wood. Also, eliminate
the use of gas-powered lawn and gardening equipment. Avoid setting
fire to garbage, dry leaves, or other materials in your yard, and
lighting bonfires in the open.
17. • Conserve Energy: Switch off fans and lights when you are going out. A
large number of fossil fuels are burnt to produce electricity. You can
save the environment from degradation by reducing the number of
fossil fuels to be burned.
• Understand the Concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Do not
throw away items that are of no use to you. Instead, reuse them for
some other purpose. For example, you can use old jars to store
cereals or pulses.
• Emphasis on Clean Energy Resources: Use of Clean energy
technologies like solar, wind and geothermal is on the rise these days.
Governments of various countries have been providing grants to
consumers who are interested in installing solar panels for their
homes. Undoubtedly, this can go a long way to curb air pollution.
18. What Are Greenhouse Gases?
• Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases. The
main gases responsible for the greenhouse effect include carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor (which all occur naturally), and
fluorinated gases (which are synthetic).
• Greenhouse gases have different chemical properties and are removed
from the atmosphere, over time, by different processes.
• Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels (coal,
natural gas, and oil), solid waste, trees and other biological materials, and
also as a result of certain chemical reactions
• Water Vapour is most abundant greenhouse gas in the earth atmosphere.
Most of the greenhouse heating of Earth atmosphere is due to Water
Vapours absorption of IR radiation emitted by Earth, then transferring the
energy to the surrounding air molecule.
20. What Are Greenhouse Gases?
• Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal,
natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from livestock and
other agricultural practices and by the decay of organic waste in
municipal solid waste landfills.
• Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities,
combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste, as well as during treatment
• Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and
nitrogen trifluoride are synthetic, powerful greenhouse gases that are
emitted from a variety of industrial processes.
21. Sources of Greenhouse Gases?
• Thermal power station based on fossil fuels, mainly coal and mineral
oil emitting huge amount of CO2.
• Numerous factories and industrial chimney wastes
• Deforestation and burning of fossil fuels
• (28.2 percent of 2018 greenhouse gas emissions) – The transportation
sector generates the largest share of greenhouse gas emissions.
Greenhouse gas emissions from transportation primarily come from
burning fossil fuel for our cars, trucks, ships, trains, and planes.
• Electricity production (26.9 percent of 2018 greenhouse gas
emissions) – Electricity production generates the second largest share
of greenhouse gas emissions. Approximately 63 percent of our
electricity comes from burning fossil fuels, mostly coal and natural
23. • Industry (22.0 percent of 2018 greenhouse gas emissions) –
Greenhouse gas emissions from industry primarily come from burning
fossil fuels for energy, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from
certain chemical reactions necessary to produce goods from raw
• Commercial and Residential (12.3 percent of 2018 greenhouse gas
emissions) – Greenhouse gas emissions from businesses and homes
arise primarily from fossil fuels burned for heat, the use of certain
products that contain greenhouse gases, and the handling of waste.
• Agriculture (9.9 percent of 2018 greenhouse gas emissions) –
Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture come from livestock such
as cows, agricultural soils, and rice production.
24. Impact of green House effect
• Global Warming
• Ozone layer Depletion
• Acidification( Water Bodies)
• Smog & Air Pollution
25. Ozone Layer
• The ozone layer is found in the lower portion of the earth’s
atmosphere. “The ozone layer is a region in the earth’s stratosphere
that contains high concentrations of ozone and protects the earth
from the harmful ultraviolet radiations of the sun.”
• It has the potential to absorb around 97-99% of the harmful
ultraviolet radiations coming from the sun that can damage life on
• Ozone Thickness is measured in Dobson Unit(D.U)
• If the ozone layer was absent, millions of people would develop skin
diseases and may have weakened immune systems.
• Scientists have discovered a hole in the ozone layer over the
26. Ozone Layer Depletion
• The main reasons for the ozone hole are chlorofluorocarbons, carbon
tetrachloride, methyl bromide and hydrochlorofluorocarbons.
• “Ozone layer depletion is the gradual thinning of the earth’s ozone
layer in the upper atmosphere caused due to the release of
chemical compounds containing gaseous bromine or chlorine from
industries or other human activities.”
27. What is Ozone Layer Depletion?
• When chlorine and bromine atoms come into contact with ozone in
the stratosphere, they destroy ozone molecules. One chlorine atom
can destroy over 100,000 ozone molecules before it is removed from
the stratosphere. Ozone can be destroyed more quickly than it is
• Some compounds release chlorine or bromine when they are exposed
to intense UV light in the stratosphere. These compounds contribute
to ozone depletion, and are called ozone-depleting substances (ODS)
28. What is Ozone Layer Depletion?
• The ozone-depleting substances that contain chlorine include
chlorofluorocarbon, carbon tetrachloride, hydrochlorofluorocarbons,
and methyl chloroform.
• Whereas, the ozone-depleting substances that contain bromine are
halons, methyl bromide, and hydro bromofluorocarbons.
• Chlorofluorocarbons are the most abundant ozone-depleting
substance. It is only when the chlorine atom reacts with some other
molecule, it does not react with ozone.
29. Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion
• Chlorofluorocarbons: Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs are the main
cause of ozone layer depletion. These are released by solvents, spray
aerosols, refrigerators, air-conditioners, etc. The molecules of
chlorofluorocarbons in the stratosphere are broken down by the
ultraviolet radiations and release chlorine atoms. These atoms react
with ozone and destroy it.
• Unregulated Rocket Launches: Researches say that the unregulated
launching of rockets result in much more depletion of ozone layer
than the CFCs do. If not controlled, this might result in a huge loss of
the ozone layer by the year 2050.
30. Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion
• Nitrogenous Compounds: The nitrogenous compounds such as NO2,
NO, N2O are highly responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer.
• Natural Causes
• The ozone layer has been found to be depleted by certain natural
processes such as Sun-spots and stratospheric winds. But it does not
cause more than 1-2% of the ozone layer depletion.
• The volcanic eruptions are also responsible for the depletion of the
32. Effects Of Ozone Layer Depletion
• Effects on Human Health: The humans will be directly exposed to the
harmful ultraviolet radiations of the sun due to the depletion of the
ozone layer. This might result in serious health issues among humans,
such as skin diseases, cancer, sunburns, cataract, quick ageing and an
weakend immune system.
• Effects on Animals: Direct exposure to ultraviolet radiations leads to
skin and eye cancer in animals.
• Effects on the Environment: Strong ultraviolet rays may lead to
minimal growth, flowering and photosynthesis in plants. The forests
also have to bear the harmful effects of the ultraviolet rays.
33. Effects Of Ozone Layer Depletion
• Effects on Marine Life: Planktons are greatly affected by the exposure
to harmful ultraviolet rays. These are higher in the aquatic food chain.
If the planktons are destroyed, the organisms present in the lower
food chain are also affected.
34. Solutions to Ozone Layer Depletion
• Avoid Using Pesticides: Natural methods should be implemented to
get rid of pests and weeds instead of using chemicals. One can use
eco-friendly chemicals to remove the pests or remove the weeds
• Minimize the Use of Vehicles: The vehicles emit a large amount of
greenhouse gases that lead to global warming as well as ozone
• Use Eco-friendly Cleaning Products: Most of the cleaning products
have chlorine and bromine releasing chemicals that find a way into
the atmosphere and affect the ozone layer
35. ACID RAIN
• Acid rain, or acid deposition, is a broad term that includes any form of
precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid
that fall to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms. This
can include rain, snow, fog, hail or even dust that is acidic.
• The normal rain is mildly acidic showing a PH value of around 6 . This
mild acidity is due to dissolution of CO2 that forms carbonic acid
36. What Causes Acid Rain?
• Natural causes: Rotting Vegetation, Erupting Volcano
• Sulphur and Nitrogen particles which get mixed with the wet
components of rain.
• Sulphur and Nitrogen particles which get mixed with water are found
in two ways either man-made i.e as the emissions are given out from
industries or by natural causes like how a lightning strike in the
atmosphere releases nitrogen ions and sulphur is released from
37. • According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, which considers him the
“father of acid rain,” the word acid rain was invented in 1852 by
Scottish chemist Robert Angus Smith.
• The regular clean rain we experience, even though it is not clean i.e
water and carbon dioxide react together to form weak carbonic acid
which essentially by itself is not extremely harmful.
• H2O (l) + CO2 (g) ⇌ H2CO3 (aq)
• The pH value of regular rainwater is around 5.7, giving it an acidic
• The oxides of nitrogen and sulphur are blown away by the wind along
with the dust particles.
38. • Example – the burning of fossil fuels, unethical waste emission
• Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide undergo oxidation, and then
they react with water resulting in the formation of sulphuric acid and
nitric acid respectively.
2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2H2O (l) → 2H2SO4 (aq)
4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2H2O (l) → 4HNO3 (aq)
39. Effects of Acid Rain
• Acid rain is very harmful to agriculture, plants, and animals. It washes
away all nutrients which are required for the growth and survival of
• Acid rain affects agriculture by the way how it alters the composition
of the soil. It causes respiratory issues in animals and humans.
• When acid rain falls down and flows into the rivers and ponds it
affects the aquatic ecosystem.
• Acid rain also causes the corrosion of water pipes. Which further
results in leaching of heavy metals such as iron, lead and copper into
40. • It damages the buildings and monuments made up of stones and
Taj Mahal, one of the 7 wonders of the world, is largely affected by
acid rain. The city of Agra has many industries which emit the oxides of
sulphur and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Acid Rain has the following
reaction with the marble (calcium carbonate).
CaCO3 + H2SO4 → CaSO4 + H2O + CO2
• Statue of Liberty which is made of copper has also been damaged by
the cumulative action of acid rain & oxidation for over 30 years and is,
therefore, becoming green
41. Prevention of Acid Rain
• The only precaution that we can take against acid rain is having a
check at the emission of oxides of nitrogen and sulphur.
• We have so far seen the details of acid rain and its harmful effect on
animals, plants and the monuments.
• Being responsible citizens, one should be aware of the harmful effects
they cause and of the industries which give out nitrogen and sulphur
compound wastes unethically.
42. Weather vs. Climate
• Weather refers to atmospheric conditions that occur locally over
short periods of time—from minutes to hours or days. Familiar
examples include rain, snow, clouds, winds, floods or thunderstorms.
• Climate, on the other hand, refers to the long-term regional or even
global average of temperature, humidity and rainfall patterns over
seasons, years or decades.
• Climate data records provide evidence of climate change key
indicators, such as global land and ocean temperature increases;
rising sea levels; ice loss at Earth’s poles and in mountain glaciers;
frequency and severity changes in extreme weather such as
hurricanes, heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, floods and precipitation;
and cloud and vegetation cover changes, to name but a few.
43. What is Global Warming?
• Global warming is the long-term heating of Earth’s climate system
observed since the pre-industrial period (between 1850 and 1900)
due to human activities, primarily fossil fuel burning, which increases
heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s atmosphere.
• The term is frequently used interchangeably with the term climate
change, though the latter refers to both human- and naturally
produced warming and the effects it has on our planet.
44. What is Climate Change?
• Climate change is a long-term change in the average weather patterns
that have come to define Earth’s local, regional and global climates.
These changes have a broad range of observed effects that are
synonymous with the term.
• Changes observed in Earth’s climate since the early 20th century are
primarily driven by human activities, particularly fossil fuel burning,
which increases heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s
atmosphere, raising Earth’s average surface temperature.
• Scientists use observations from the ground, air and space, along with
theoretical models, to monitor and study past, present and future
45. Impact of Climate Change on Human Beings
• Increases in temperatures are linked to more frequent and severe
• Worsened air quality that often accompanies heat waves or wildfires
can lead to breathing problems and exacerbate respiratory and
• Impacts of climate change on agriculture and other food systems can
increase rates of malnutrition and foodborne illnesses.
• Climate changes can influence infectious diseases. The spread of
meningococcal (epidemic) meningitis is often linked to climate
changes, especially drought
46. Impact of Climate Change on Human Beings
• The spread of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and
West Nile virus may increase in areas projected to receive more
precipitation and flooding. Increases in rainfall and temperature can
cause spreading of dengue fever.
• Changes in precipitation patters and extreme weather events can lead
to cascading health impacts, particularly when power, water, or
transportation systems are disrupted. Diarrheal diseases from
contaminated water and food sources are a major concern,
particularly for children.
• The effects of global climate change on mental health and well-being
are integral parts of the overall climate-related human health
47. Impact of Climate Change on Human Beings
• Patterns of infection: Climatic conditions strongly affect water-borne
diseases and diseases transmitted through insects, snails or other
cold-blooded animals. Malaria is strongly influenced by climate.
• Many regions, such as Europe, South Asia, Australia, and North
America, have experienced heat-related health impacts. Rural
populations, older adults, outdoor workers, and those without access
to air conditioning are often the most vulnerable to heat-related
illness and death
48. National & International Impact of Climate
• Climate change affects the migration of people within and between
countries around the world. A variety of reasons may force people to
migrate into other areas.
• Coastal settlements and low-lying areas are particularly vulnerable to
climate change impacts, such as sea level rise, erosion, and extreme
storms. Rising ocean temperatures and acidity may also threaten
• Indigenous groups in various regions--such as the United States, Latin
and South America, Europe, and Africa--are already experiencing
threats to their traditional livelihoods. Rising sea levels and extreme
events threaten native groups that inhabit low-lying island nations.
49. National & International Impact of Climate
• Approximately 1.4 billion people, close to one fifth of the world’s
population, live below the World Bank's measure of extreme poverty,
earning less than US $1.25 a day.
• Many people in lower-income countries cannot afford or gain access
to adaptation mechanisms such as air conditioning, heating, or
• Worldwide, women have a higher rate of mortality than men from
severe storms or other extreme events, although there is regional
variation. In some regions, working-age men who work outdoors are
more vulnerable to heat-related deaths. Women developing countries
women may be particularly vulnerable to extreme events due to
differences in poverty and physical vulnerability due to undernutrition
50. Impacts on National Security
• Climate change impacts are expected to exacerbate national security
issues and increase the number of international conflicts.
• They report: “Climate change will affect the Department of Defense's
ability to defend the Nation and poses immediate risks to U.S.
• Threatened food security in parts of Asia and sub-Saharan Africa
could also lead to conflict. Rapid population growth and changes in
precipitation and temperature, among other factors, are already
affecting crop yields. Resulting food shortages could increase the risk
of humanitarian crises and trigger population migration across
national borders, ultimately sparking political instability
51. Impacts on Africa
• Africa may be the most vulnerable continent to climate variability and
change because of multiple existing stresses and low adaptive
capacity. Existing stresses include poverty, food insecurity, political
conflicts, and ecosystem degradation.
• By 2050, between 350 million and 600 million people are projected to
experience increased water stress due to climate change. Urban
population is also projected to triple, increasing by 800 million
people, complicating urban poverty and access to basic services
52. Impacts on Asia
• Glaciers in Asia are retreating at faster rates than ever documented in
historical records. Some glaciers currently cover 20% of the land that
they covered a century ago. Melting glaciers increase the risks of
flooding and rock avalanches from destabilized slopes.
• Climate change is projected to decrease freshwater availability,
especially in central and southeast Asia, particularly in large river
basins. With population growth and increasing demand from higher
standards of living, this decrease could adversely affect more than a
billion people by 2050.
• Increased flooding from the sea and, in some cases, from rivers
threatens coastal areas, especially heavily populated delta regions in
south and southeast Asia.
53. Impacts on Australia and New Zealand
• Water security problems are projected to intensify with a 1°C global
average warming in southwestern and southeastern Australia, and in the
northern and some eastern parts of New Zealand.
• Biodiversity within some ecologically rich sites, including the Great Barrier
Reef and Queensland Wet Tropics, will be at significant risk by 2050.
• Increased drought and fire are projected to cause declines in agricultural
and forestry production over much of southern Australia and the northern
and eastern parts of New Zealand.
• Extreme storm events are likely to increase the failure of dikes, levees,
drainage, and sewerage systems. They are also likely to increase the
damage from storms and fires.
• More heat waves are likely to cause more deaths and more electrical
54. Impacts on Europe
• Wide-ranging impacts of climate change are already being documented in
Europe, including retreating glaciers, sea level rise, longer growing seasons,
species range shifts, and heat wave-related health impacts.
• In southern Europe, higher temperatures and drought may reduce water
availability, hydropower potential, summer tourism, and crop productivity,
hampering economic activity more than other European regions.
• In central and eastern Europe, summer precipitation is projected to
decrease, causing higher water stress. Forest productivity is projected to
decline. The frequency of peatland fires is projected to increase.
• In northern Europe, climate change is initially projected to bring mixed
effects, including some benefits such as reduced demand for heating,
increased crop yields, and increased forest growth
55. Kyoto Protocol
• The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that
commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the
scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part
two) that human-made CO2 emissions are driving it.
• The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and
entered into force on 16 February 2005.
• The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to reduce
the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in
the atmosphere to "a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system"
56. Kyoto Protocol
• The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities: it acknowledges that individual countries have different
capabilities in combating climate change, owing to economic development,
• The Protocol's first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. All 36
countries that fully participated in the first commitment period complied with the
• A second commitment period was agreed in 2012, known as the Doha
Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, in which 37 countries have binding targets:
• Australia, the European Union (and its then 28 member states, now 27), Belarus,
Iceland, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Belarus,
Kazakhstan, and Ukraine have stated that they may withdraw from the Kyoto
Protocol or not put into legal force the Amendment with second round targets.
57. Kyoto Protocol Chronology
• 1992 – The UN Conference on the Environment and Development is held in
Rio de Janeiro. It results in the Framework Convention on Climate Change
("FCCC" or "UNFCCC") among other agreements.
• 1995 – Parties to the UNFCCC meet in Berlin (the 1st Conference of Parties
(COP) to the UNFCCC) to outline specific targets on emissions.
• 1997 – In December the parties conclude the Kyoto Protocol in Kyoto,
Japan, in which they agree to the broad outlines of emissions targets.
• 2004 – Russia and Canada ratify the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC bringing
the treaty into effect on 16 February 2005.
• 2011 – Canada became the first signatory to announce its withdrawal from
the Kyoto Protocol.
• 2012 – On 31 December 2012, the first commitment period under the
58. Kyoto Protocol Chronology
• The main goal of the Kyoto Protocol is to control emissions of the main
anthropogenic (human-emitted) greenhouse gases (GHGs) in ways that
reflect underlying national differences in GHG emissions, wealth, and
capacity to make the reductions.
• The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is the "stabilization of greenhouse
gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would stop dangerous
anthropogenic interference with the climate system."
59. The Clean Development Mechanism
• The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), defined in Article 12 of the
Protocol, allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-
limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to
implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries.
• Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits,
each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards
meeting Kyoto targets.
• The mechanism is seen by many as a trailblazer. It is the first global,
environmental investment and credit scheme of its kind, providing a
standardized emissions offset instrument, CERs