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  1. 1. Abstract and Conclusion Research Writing WTUC May 2007
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>The summary should be two hundred words or less. </li></ul><ul><li>An abstract is a concise single paragraph summary of completed work. </li></ul><ul><li>In a minute or less a reader can learn the rationale behind the study, general approach to the problem, pertinent results, and important conclusions or new questions. </li></ul>http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html#intro
  3. 3. Writing an abstract <ul><li>Write your summary after the rest of the paper is completed. After all, how can you summarize something that is not yet written? </li></ul><ul><li>Use complete sentences and do not sacrifice readability for brevity. </li></ul><ul><li>You can keep it concise by wording sentences so that they serve more than one purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide the overall question, methods, and type of analysis in one or two sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the results. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Tips <ul><li>Summarize the study, including the following elements in any abstract. Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the study - hypothesis, overall question, objective </li></ul><ul><li>Brief description of the research/survey </li></ul><ul><li>Results, including specific data - if the results are quantitative in nature, report quantitative data; results of any statistical analysis should be reported </li></ul><ul><li>Important conclusions or questions that follow should be included </li></ul>
  5. 5. Style <ul><li>Single paragraph, and concise </li></ul><ul><li>As a summary of work done, it is always written in past tense </li></ul><ul><li>An abstract should stand on its own, and not refer to any other part of the paper such as a figure or table </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on summarizing results - limit background information to a sentence or two, if absolutely necessary </li></ul><ul><li>What you report in an abstract must be consistent with what you reported in the paper </li></ul><ul><li>Correct spelling, clarity of sentences and phrases, and proper reporting of quantities (proper units, significant figures) are just as important in an abstract as they are anywhere else </li></ul>
  6. 6. Abstract Samples <ul><li>http://researchwriting.blogspot.com/2006/05/examples-of-abstracts.html </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conclusion <ul><li>A conclusion is the last paragraph in your research paper, or the last part in any other type of presentation. </li></ul>http://www.crlsresearchguide.org/18_Writing_Conclusion.asp
  8. 8. Tip <ul><li>A conclusion is like the final chord in a song. It makes the listener feel that the piece is complete and well done. </li></ul><ul><li>The same is true for your audience. You want them to feel that you supported what you stated in your thesis. You then become a reliable author for them and they are impressed by that and will be more likely to read your work in the future. They may also have learned something and maybe have had their opinion changed by what you have written or created! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tip <ul><li>A conclusion is, in some ways, like your introduction. You restate your thesis and summarize your main points of evidence for the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>give your paper a sense of completeness, and </li></ul><ul><li>leave a final impression on the reader. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tip <ul><li>As you write your conclusion, keep your introduction in front of you. </li></ul><ul><li>Your conclusion should follow the same order of information as your introduction. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tip <ul><li>Answer the question &quot;So What?&quot; Show your readers why this paper was important. Show them that your paper was meaningful and useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize, don't summarize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't simply repeat things that were in your paper. They have read it. Show them how the points you made and the support and examples you used were not random, but fit together. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redirect your readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give your reader something to think about, perhaps a way to use your paper in the &quot;real&quot; world. If your introduction went from general to specific, make your conclusion go from specific to general. Think globally. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a new meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You don't have to give new information to create a new meaning. By demonstrating how your ideas work together, you can create a new picture. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts. </li></ul></ul>http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html