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Forest and agroforesty options for building resilience in refugee situations: a landscape approach

  1. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Phosiso Sola, PhD; World Agroforestry (ICRAF) Forest and agroforesty options for building resilience in refugee situations: a landscape approach HNPW Climate Crisis Inter-Network Wed 5 Feb - Session 1, 1100-1230, "Fit for Purpose? Current Tools and Approaches to Mitigate Climate Risks in Humanitarian Settings"
  2. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Engaging in this space since 2015 Project Countries Strengthening Self-Reliance of Refugees and Host Communities Ethiopia. Sustainable Use of Natural Resources and Energy in the Refugee Context Uganda Resilient Market system: ReHope Bridge Uganda Opportunities for building nutrition-sensitive non-wood forest product value chains in Uganda Uganda Reconnaissance Survey of Kalobeyei Settlement Scheme on Rainwater Harvesting Opportunities Kenya Gender-responsive innovations for soil rehabilitation, alternative fuel and agriculture for resilient refugee and host community settlements in East Africa Kenya; Uganda; Ethiopia Fuel briquettes for Women Empowerment at Kalobeyei Refugee and Host Community Settlement, Uganda Development of Guidance Notes to Put Forward Site Specific Forestry and Tree-Based Interventions in Displacement Settings in East Africa Ken, Uga; Eth, Som, S. Sud Governing Multifunctional Landscapes in Sub-Saharan Africa (GML): Managing Trade-Offs Between Social and Ecological Impacts. (GML 6.3) Ken, Zam, DRC, Cam, Improving resilience of 280,000 settled and nomadic marginalized communities to climate and conflict- related shocks and stresses Chad, Sudan Great Lakes Regional Integrated Agriculture Development Project DRC
  3. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Partners • BMZ, GIZ • DFID • EC DEVCO, CIFOR • FAO • Global giving • IITA • WFP • Mercy corps • DFID • Mvule trust • NRC • Norway Embassy • UN Habitat • JIRCAS • Penn State University (PSU)
  4. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Background • 70.8 million displaced people by the end of 2018 (refugees, asylum seekers, IDPs) • 80 % are forest dependent, for shelter, fodder, nutrition, income and energy for cooking and heating • 2018, East and horn of Africa hosted more than 4.3 million refugees and asylum-seekers and more than 9 million IDPs
  5. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Implication on forest and tree resources • Increased pressure on the environment leading to degradation and depletion of water, forests, woodlands • Fuelwood and charcoal are the most accessible and affordable energy source for cooking and heating • Sustainable natural resources management crucial in these impacted areas • Management beyond the camp situation =>landscape
  6. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Why landscape approach to forest and tree managment • Forest and tree interventions have a huge potential to diversify and complement current livelihoods • Promoting sustainable utilisation, to maximise benefits derived from the environment while enhancing the natural resource status, ecosystem services and ecosystem function • • A tree can provide shade, windbreak, building poles, fuel, food, fodder
  7. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Fit for purpose? County /Sites Supplied by humanitarian agencies Consumption levels Ethiopia 34% of refugee households 100 tons of firewood per day Kenya Dadaab 53% of households Kakuma 15% of energy needs 935 ton per month for the entire camp of Kakuma @$1 million per year for 2.3kg/per person/day Uganda 30% of energy needs 1.1 million tonnes which is 1.6kg per person/ day compared to 2.3 by host community South Sudan Only for the vulnerable Maban, consumed about 94,600 metric tonnes of wood per year
  8. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Fit for purpose? • Energy access is a right • No food security without energy security • Nutrition studies in Africa show • Protection issue • collections distances getting longer and longer exposing especially women to SGBV • Loss of productive time
  9. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Status of forest and tree resources in refugee settings Northern Uganda • Conversion from woodland type of vegetation to settlements over time • 60% of the tree cover had been depleted in and around the settlements between 2016- 2018 Kenya • 1986, the area presently occupied by Kakuma refugee camp was an Acacia tortilis riverine forest • 2005, the original forest had been replaced by the camp • Now 0-20 km range, degradation of the woody biomass is very significant
  10. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Status of forest and tree resources in refugee settings Ethiopia • deforestation due to agriculture practice cutting of trees for construction and fuel wood South Sudan • Deforestation mainly due agricultural production, construction and charcoal making • Charcoal production prohibited but happening anyway
  11. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Status of forest and tree resources in refugee settings Population structure/frequency distribution of dominant tree species in Shimelba area
  12. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Forest and tree management options Uganda-Rhino camp
  13. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Forest and tree management options -Kenya Enclosure – enrichment planting -Kakuma Enclosure assisted natural regeneration –Dadaab
  14. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Major challenges • Most refugees have no access to land or rights to trees • Displacement settings usually one of the most marginalised and or drought/ flood prone with low agricultural potential, poor infrastructure • Tree management is inherently unsuccessful due to the dry conditions resulting in water scarcity and poor seedling survival • Forest and tree management like environment not prioritised in terms of time and budget, • adoption and follow up very low
  15. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Learning from Development projects • CRRF and devolved governance systems • Kakuma integrated socioeconomic development plan (KISDEP) • Garissa integrated socioeconomic development plan (GISDEP) • Some local economies sustained by refugee operations Opportunities Require clear land tenure, enduring institutional mechanisms to coordinate, facilitate, implement
  16. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees Key literature • Duguma L, Nzyoka J, Okia C, Watson C, Ariani C. 2019. Restocking woody biomass to reduce social and environmental pressures in refugee-hosting landscapes: Perspectives from Northwest Uganda. Working Paper No. 298. World Agroforestry, Nairobi. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5716/WP19032.PDF • FAO & UNHCR, 2018. Managing forests in displacement settings: guidance on the use of planted and natural forests to supply forest products and build resilience in displaced and host communities, by A. Gianvenuti, A. Guéret and C. Sabogal. Rome, 84 pp • ICRAF, NRC and NCA, 2018. Baseline Assessment and Formative Research Report: for Strengthening Self-Reliance of Refugees and Host Communities through Enhancing Livelihoods and Restoring Degraded Environments Project in Shire area, Northern Ethiopia • Kariuki J.G., Machua J.M., Luvanda A.M. and Kigomo J. (2008). Baseline Survey of Woodland Utilization and Degradation Around Kakuma Refugee Camp. KEFRI/JOFCA project technical report No.1. Print Maxim, Nairobi. • Manji, Farah Noorali Mohan; De Berry, Joanna Peace. 2019. Desk Review on Livelihoods and Self-Reliance for Refugees and Host Communities in Kenya (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/685581553241680189/Desk-Review-on-Livelihoods-and-Self-Reliance-for-Refugees-and-Host- Communities-in-Kenya • UNHCR, 2019. Global Trends: Forced displacement in 2018, UNHCR Annual Report: https://www.unhcr.org/5d08d7ee7.pdf
  17. Transforming Lives and Landscapes with Trees World Agroforestry (ICRAF), United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, P.O Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya Phone: +254 20 722 4000 Fax: +254 20 722 4001 Email: icraf@cgiar.org Website: www.worldagroforestry.org Thank you! p.sola@cgiar.org
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