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EVERYTHING ABOUT PERSIAN RUGSPersian rugs have varied patterns and styles. They have an eminent history and origination. There arevarious types of Persian rugs which are divided according to many factors. Different parts of these rugsare classified based on their structure. Most of them are handmade, but with newer looms, machinemade technique is also presentHistory of Persian rugsPersian rugs were generally made from cotton and wool. Hence, worn out scraps and pieces of thesearea rugs have revealed a great detail about their historical presence. The pieces found significantly withorigination in the 13th and 14th AD in areas of Persian hardly offer any highlights. Some of the mostprominent rugs were seen in Eastern Turkestan which ranged back to 3rd and 5th centuries in AD.The hand woven rugs of the Seljuks of Asian countries are found in some museums now. Most of themwere found in Konya, Istanbul, Turkey, Beyshehir and other places. Pazyryk carpets are one of the mostBy RugsandBlinds.com Page 1
popularly known Persian rugs. They were discovered in excavations of 1949 in the Pazyryk valley whichis in Siberia. They were analyzed and found to be in existence since the fifth century BC.Different weaving systems show that Persian rugs were made by skilled craftsmen who have afascination of art. It is said that weaving carpet goes back to the tradition which exists since 3500 yearsin Iran. The earliest Persian area rugs used dyes from natural sources like the flowers, plants and roots.Even insect dyes were used in many.These rugs were hand woven by the talented nomadic tribes. Persian carpets have varied colors,designs, weaving style and size. Each of these rugs is unique in their own. Influences were seen in theserugs which got fragmented according the kingdom in the rule.Caliph of Baghdad and the Seljuk Turks were among the first to bring in their ideas for the designpatterns in these rugs. Mongol and Safavid dynasty came later on with more modifications for thePersian rugs. With the Afghan invasion and the dynasty of Pahlevi, these rugs attained a new status inthe rug market. Advanced Quality of Persian rugs are the best means of trading goods..Types of Persian rugs • Ishfan rugs: Ishfan was the old capital of Persia. During the Shah Abbas’s reign, these carpets were sent as a commodity with a gift to the western rulers. Floral patterns along with that of medallion and branches can be seen in these rugs. Even, hunting scenes and the motif of the tree of life was prominent in them.By RugsandBlinds.com Page 2
• Nain rugs: These rugs are manufactured in the towns of Nain. They use a good quality of wool material. They have fine patterns which have similar patterns to that of Ishfan rugs. Animals and plant motifs can be seen on these area rugs.Patterns of small flowers with branches which are intertwined structures are popular in them. Light ivory, green, blue and white are the color shades normally seen in them. Silk and wool knots, signify the patterns. • Qum rugs: These rugs have a tighter knot structure. The pile is mainly of silk, also the weft sometimes. It is named after Qum town which is a holy place. Even here, the patterns of flowers and medallion are the chief ones besides gardens, birds, hunting scenes and vases. The color shades like orange, reddish brown, turquoise, pink or dark blue is seen in the.By RugsandBlinds.com Page 3
• Kashan rugs: Two types of Kashan rugs exist. The primary one consists of cotton wraps which are not bleached. They have double wefts and use the Persian knot technique. The secondary one uses silk for wefts and the double warps. Here, the Turkish knot technique is utilized. The pattern of the medallion is chief here. • Tabriz rugs: These rugs are of high quality and come in many sizes. Patterns of teardrop, flowers, trees, vases, hunting scenes and medallion can be found on them. ‘Mahi’ is one of the famed designs on this rug. The warp of the piece is of silk and the pile mostly of wool.By RugsandBlinds.com Page 4
• Hereke and Tekke rugs: There are two kinds of Hereke rugs. One has a pile of wool with cotton warp while the other has silk pile and warp. Tekke rugs have deep red colors and geometric designs. Patterns are seen in white and blue. This rug originated in the town of Bokhara. • Kilim rugs: The kilim rugs do not have any pile. They are made from wool material mostly. Soumak rugs are a kind of this rug which generally has colorful shades. The wefts and the warps can be unbleached.By RugsandBlinds.com Page 5
• Bakhtyari rugs: These rugs have a pile of wool and warp of cotton. They are heavy and durable in nature. Patterns of flowers, animals and trees can be seen in them. Even garden motif is quite eminent here.These area rugs are woven in three parts of the Iran region namely Chahar Shutur, Chahar Kurd and Shalem Zar.Parts of Persian rugs • Pile The knots of the fabric all together are known as the pile of the Persian rug. These knots are twisted which is between the warp strands. The carpets from Iran can have Persian knot technique which includes the Senneh or the asymmetrical knot structure which is commercial. The Turkish knot system includes the Ghiordes or symmetrical knot technique. The Persian knot structure is formed by a single knot which is due to the pile being looped through the two warp strands. Then the thread is drawn back through that previous knot. There is double knot in Turkish technique. This is more durable than the Persian one and also more complicated to tie. The knot is made from the pile being looped across the two warp strands. This is drawn through the interior of the warps. • Warp This is the backbone of Persian carpet. It has strands of the fiber or yarn. They expand and stretch from top to the bottom. This is usually in a vertical form. The weaving starts after the yarn is stretched in the loom. After the rug is manufactured, they are cut apart from the loom.By RugsandBlinds.com Page 6
This leads the warp end to get fringe. Persian rugs have warp generally made from wool, silk or cotton. • Weft Here the yarn strand is inserted in the warp strands, horizontally. This is done by weaving the strands from the warp strands by in and out method. The thread is put up in perpendicular manner. The same material is used as the warp while making the wefts. It is visible at the rear of the rug. The weft strands can be dyed. The shoots are basically the weft strands that go between the knot rows. • Edge Finish The either edge of the Persian rug is covered with a running stitch, which is known as overcast. This finish is also known as the selvage. This saves the rug from the general wear and tear.Design patterns in Persian rugsPersian rugs are very much cherished by people due to the lovely design patterns seen on them. Thereare different kinds of them here also. Every rug is unique and has its own characteristic. If the rug ishandmade, then two rugs may or may not be identical. • Floral designs and curvilinear patterns The chief imagery of central medallion can be found in them. It is said that this pattern is inspired by the religious beliefs of the weavers. This normally stems from the dome structure found in the mosques. The king, Shah Abbas of Safavid dynasty was majorly the influence for many designs in the Persian rugs. The display of lily in the middle of the Persian rug, alone, is connected to the tendrils which are delicate. Persian rugs have a set of design patterns which reflect the elements of nature. You can often see designs of delicate and small flowers which intertwine with leaf and vine pattern. Even certain depiction of plants is found in these rugs. Shah Abbasi was responsible in providing the boost to the rug factories in Iran and introducing many skilled craftsmen in producing these rugs. The Herati rugs have the pattern of central diamond which forms the medallion and also the border to the next medallion seen in the rug. Likewise, a similar medallion is also seen on the insides of this design pattern.By RugsandBlinds.com Page 7
• Geometric patterns The Shiraz, Heriz and Hamadan rugs in the Persian rug category have beautiful geometric designs. These patterns are basically the line patterns seen in linear, horizontal or vertical form. They can form the border or the surface look of these rugs. You can find various designs which are influenced from the religious practices of the regions in Iran. Many tribal designs can also be found in the Persian rug. These were made by the nomadic tribes and therefore, relative patterns can be seen in them. In the original and primeval rugs of this type, the color consistency was not perfect. Similarly, even the designs were slightly different from each other in construction. This gave the ‘first copy’ to the rugs. • Pictorial designs These designs are more difficult and rarer than the geometric or the floral patterns. The standard curves and borders is not the only element present in these rugs. Persian rugs can have patterns which are more intricate and charming. Here, the craftsmen should be more skilled in weaving the desirable design on the surface. It is the history and the culture of Iran that has a major influence on the Persian rugs. A fine blend of all kinds of patterns, all together, is often preferred in these rugs. To preserve the heritage of these regions, pictorial designs are one of the best patterns to be seen in the Persian rug.Traditional regions of Persian rug production in IranThe chief centers of Persian rug production were distributed among four major places. Most of the rugswere from Tabriz (1500-1550). These Persian rugs have the design of a central medallion. The corners ofthis piece also have such patterns but often splayed over the display of vines. The scenic design ofhunters and animals can be seen in them.Kashan rugs (1525-1650), are generally made from silk. Hunting scenes of animals can be seen in them.The Herati rugs came into being during the same period as that of the Kashan. They are made in Indiaand Lahore. These pieces have a red field. A scrolling pattern of ornamental vines and palmettes are themost common with them. You can see blue and dark green borders here.By RugsandBlinds.com Page 8
The Kerman rugs (1600-1650) are known for the ‘vase technique’. Garden carpets, ogival lattice rugs arepopular in this category. Designs of water channels and leaves are found in them. The Victoria andAlbert Museum in London is one of the hubs, where many Persian rugs are preserved. Even theStockholm Museum and the Museum of fine arts in Boston are known to have few pieces. Los AngelesCountry Museum too has some Persian rugs.Installation of Persian rugsPersian rugs can be installed in any part of the room. They have a traditional appeal in them. Hence,they are one of the best in traditional rugs. But in contemporary times, even modern rugs of this typehave come up. They can look good as a focal point rug in the main halls and even bedroom. Guests willbe impressed beyond measure with this area rug in their room.Even in a kid’s room and living room, these rugs will look absolutely stunning. The quality and durabilityof these rugs make them special. Kitchen rugs and bathroom rugs of this kind will speak greatly aboutthe home interiors. You should have rug pads and anti-slip pads before placing the rug on the floor. Youshould be careful about the material used in these rugs. Also, the size and the patterns on them hold alot of significance.By RugsandBlinds.com Page 9