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Patterns of Kanban Maturity

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14 different styles of Kanban Board and how they map to levels of Organizational Maturity. How to stimulate evolutionary change

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Patterns of Kanban Maturity

  1. 1. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Patterns of Kanban Appropriate designs for your level of organizational maturity Presenter: David J. Anderson Lean Kanban North America San Diego May 2016
  2. 2. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method
  3. 3. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method Simple Underlying Principles 1. Intangible Goods (professional services) businesses can be managed like physical, tangible goods businesses 2. Represent intangible goods with tangible artifacts 3. Make invisible work & workflows visible 4. Control & limit inventory of intangible goods
  4. 4. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method Service Delivery Principles 1. Understand and focus on your customers’ needs and expectations 2. Manage the work, let people self-organize around it 3. Evolve your management policies to improve customer & business outcomes
  5. 5. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Seeing Services Learn to view what you do now as a set of services. Don’t reorg, just see things differently! Examples: HR provides services throughout the organization, but they also need services from IT Marketing provides services to product development but they need services from Sales and from IT IT provides services to Customer Support. There is an interdependency between Customer Support, QA, and IT Engineering. Different feature teams or product teams may have dependencies on each other Many groups are dependent upon specialist individuals
  6. 6. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F O M N K J I Pull For each service implement a Kanban “pull” system Ideas D Dev Ready G 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 F B CPull Pull * There is capacity here UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ Pulling work from development will create capacity here too – the pull signals move upstream! Now we have capacity to replenish our ready buffer
  7. 7. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Commitment is deferred E D Commitment point F F FF F F F G Pull Wish to avoid aborting after commitment Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ We are committing to getting started. We are certain we want to take delivery. Ideas remain optional and (ideally) unprioritized
  8. 8. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Discovery Kanban Prepares Options Ready for Engin- eering F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Min & Max limits ensure sufficient options are always available Committed WorkOptions Discarded O Reject P Q $$$ spent acquiring options $$$ spent converting options Embedded Options Done Delivery KanbanDiscovery Kanban
  9. 9. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Roles Ready for Engin- eering F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Service Delivery ManagerService Request Manager Discarded O Reject P Q Marshals Options Manages Flow Done
  10. 10. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method Change Management Principles 1. Start with what you do now  Understanding current processes, as actually practiced  Respecting existing roles, responsibilities & job titles 2. Gain agreement to pursue improvement through evolutionary change 3. Encourage acts of leadership at all levels
  11. 11. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method General Practices 1. Visualize (with a kanban board 看板) 2. Limit work-in-progress (with kanban かんばん) 3. Manage flow 4. Make policies explicit 5. Implement feedback loops 6. Improve collaboratively, evolve experimentally (using models & the scientific method)
  12. 12. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Strategy Review Risk Review Monthly Service Delivery Review Bi-WeeklyQuarterly Kanban Meeting Daily Operations Review Monthly Replenishment & Commitment Meeting Weekly Delivery Planning Meeting Per delivery cadence change change change change change change change change change info info info info info info info info info change info Kanban Cadences
  13. 13. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Kanban Design Patterns
  14. 14. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Personal Kanban Backlog F E G D Next Done 3 In-progress 3∞ ∞
  15. 15. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Aggregated Personal Kanban Backlog F E Team Member G D Next Done 3 In-progress 3 Joe Peter Steven Joann per person∞ ∞per person At this level, we are still focused on organizing & managing people rather than enabling people to self-organize around the work & managing its flow
  16. 16. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Team Kanban Backlog F E G D Next Done 3 In-progress 3∞ ∞ GY PB DE Avatar for each team memberStill at a single team level but maturing to focus on managing work and less on managing workers
  17. 17. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Poorly Understood or Emergent Workflow F E G D Next Done 3 In-progress 6 ∞ GY PB DE Wide in-progress column with tickets positioned left-to-right with estimate of completeness Horizontal position shows percentage complete
  18. 18. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja A Proposed Projects B D E F K H G Projects-in-progress Complete 0% Complete 100% C Simple Portfolio Visualization J I M N O L Tickets represent Projects, MVPs or MMFs Horizontal position shows percentage complete
  19. 19. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja A Strategic 40% budget Operational 40% budget Tactical 20% budget Allocation of personnel Total = 100% B D E F K H G Projects-in-progress Complete 0% Complete 100% C Color may indicate cost of delay (or other risk) Visualizing Risk in a Portfolio Kanban Size of ticket indicates budget A total of 4 risk dimensions are shown on this board Schedule progress Business contribution capacity allocation Cost of Delay (and class of service) Project size or budget Horizontal position shows percentage complete
  20. 20. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja A Proposed Projects D E F K H G Projects-in-progress Complete 0% Complete 100% C Earned Value Portfolio Visualization J I M N O L percentage scope complete Percentagebudget/scheduleused Size of ticket indicates budget B Safe Management Attention RequiredAt Risk
  21. 21. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja O P R N M L J Per Person WIP Limit Done F E I Pending G D GY PB DE MN AB Dev/Build/ Test/Deploy Dev Ready GY GY PB PB MN MN DE DE AB AB K Bench Specify ∞∞ ∞ Unbounded Queue Delayed WIP At this level, we are focused on managing work and enabling people to self-organize around it but we aren’t limiting WIP in the system as a whole. Hence, service delivery will not be predictable Moving beyond a single team to a service delivery workflow
  22. 22. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Decoupled Cadences & Constant WIP Backlog F E G D Committed Ready For Delivery In-progress 6 ∞ ∞ GY PB DE Delivered ∞ Replenishment The frequency of system replenishment should reflect arrival rate of new information and the transaction & coordination costs of holding a meeting The frequency of delivery should reflect the transaction & coordination costs of deployment plus costs & tolerance of customer to take delivery WIP limit should be sufficient to keep the team busy until the next replenishment meeting Delivery CONWIP
  23. 23. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Aggregated Team Kanban Done Pool of Ideas F E I Next Deploy- ment Ready G D GY PB DE MN 5 ∞ P1 AB Ongoing Development Testing Done Ongoing Done 3 3 Team 1 Kanban ∞ ∞ Team 2 Kanban
  24. 24. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Aggregated Team Kanban Done Pool of Ideas F E I Next Deploy- ment Ready G D GY PB DE MN 5 ∞ P1 AB Ongoing Development Testing Done Ongoing Done 3 3∞ ∞ Also known as “infinite done queues”
  25. 25. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Aggregated Team Kanban Done Pool of Ideas F E I Next Deploy- ment Ready G D GY PB DE MN 5 ∞ P1 AB Ongoing Development Testing Done Ongoing Done 3 3 Infinite limits on Done columns means that there really isn’t a kanban pull system present. This style of proto-kanban controls multi-tasking but doesn’t limit workflow WIP ∞ ∞
  26. 26. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Q P O M L K J I Kanban can be represented with slots Ideas D Engin- eering Ready G Ongoing Development Testing Done Test Ready F B CPull Pull * UAT Deploy- ment Ready An empty slot signals pull Pull Pull Pull I Physical slot is a kanban The tickets on the board are not the kanban. Believing the tickets are the kanban is a common misconception This board and the next two all look different but they all visualize the same identical kanban system
  27. 27. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F O M N K J I Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Colors are used to denote state Physical token such as a magnet is a kanban Moving done items down below a line is an optional enhancement seen in some implementations
  28. 28. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F O M N K J I Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Override on kanban limit introduces additional “blocked – issue” kanban People working on blocked item “A” have been redirected to work on item “I”
  29. 29. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F O M N K J I Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Using physical slots in the previous example has been shown to create inertia to modification & improvement Using movable tokens allows for WIP limits to be easily modified and provides a natural signal token mechanism
  30. 30. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F FF F F J I Declaring a kanban quantity is even simpler Ideas D I Engin- eering Ready G 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 F B CPull PullThese are the virtual kanban * These are the virtual kanbanThese are the (virtual) kanban These WIP limits serve the same function as the magnets or slots This board has even less maintenance overhead than the magnet board UAT Deploy- ment Ready ∞ ∞ A “virtual kanban” pull signal is created by subtracting the column number from tickets currently in the column
  31. 31. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Discovery Kanban Prepares Options Engin- eering Ready F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Min & Max limits ensure sufficient options are always available Discarded O Reject P Q Done Delivery KanbanDiscovery Kanban
  32. 32. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Single Service, Multiple Classes of Service Allocate capacity with kanban limit per color 5 4 4 5 2= 20 total Allocation 10 = 50% ... +1 = +5% 4 = 20% 6 = 30% Input Buffer In Prog DoneDoneIn Prog DevelopmentAnalysis Build Ready Test Release Ready
  33. 33. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja 3 Services Aggregated Together 5 4 4 5 2 = 20 total Change Req 12 Maintenance 2 Production Defect 6 Allocation Total = 20 Input Buffer In Prog Done Build Ready Test Release ReadyDoneIn Prog DevelopmentAnalysis Released
  34. 34. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Change Requests 3 1 Prod. Defects Maintenance Usability Improvement 2 1 Improving Liquidity through Labor Pool Flexibility Teams F E Engin- eering Ready G D GY PB DE MN 2 P1 AB Ongoing Analysis Testing Done Verification Acceptance 3 3 Ongoing Development Done 3 Joe Peter Steven Joann David Rhonda Brian Ashok Team Lead Junior who will be rotated through all 4 teams Generalist or T-shaped people who can move flexibly across rows on the board to keep work flowing It’s typical to see splits of fixed team workers versus flexible system workers of between 40-60% Roughly half the labor pool are flexible workers Promotions from junior team member to flexible worker with an avatar clearly visualize why a pay rise is justified. Flexible workers help manage liquidity risk better!
  35. 35. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Organizational Maturity
  36. 36. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
  37. 37. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Personal Kanban Aggregated Personal Kanban Team Kanban Emergent/Undefined Workflow Per Person WIP Limit CONWIP Physical space kanban Physical token kanban Virtual Kanban Classes of service Capacity allocation Liquidity optimization Aggregated teams Patterns of Kanban Board Designs
  38. 38. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Risk Hedging Risk Management Benefits of improving maturity
  39. 39. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Learning&improvement Formula for evolutionary change …  Stressor  Reflection Mechanism  Leadership Stressor ReflectionMechanism Kanban Meeting Risk Review & SDR Ops Review Strategy Review Personal WIP Limit Column WIP Limit Row WIP Limit Strategy vs Capability Visualization Replenishment & Delivery Planning Personal Reflection
  40. 40. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Conclusion
  41. 41. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Team Kanban Practitioner KanbanSystem Design Enterprise Services Planning Lean Kanban Class Curricula Kanban Management Professional KanbanCoachingProfessional AccreditedKanbanTrainer
  42. 42. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Thank you!
  43. 43. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja About David Anderson is an innovator in management of 21st Century businesses that employ creative people who “think for a living” . He leads a training, consulting, publishing and event planning business dedicated to developing, promoting and implementing new management thinking & methods… He has 30+ years experience in the high technology industry starting with computer games in the early 1980’s. He has led software organizations delivering superior productivity and quality using innovative methods at large companies such as Sprint and Motorola. David defined Enterprise Services Planning and originated Kanban Method an adaptive approach to improved service delivery. His latest book, published in June 2012, is, Lessons in Agile Management – On the Road to Kanban. David is Chairman & CEO of Lean Kanban Inc., a business operating globally, dedicated to providing quality training & events to bring Kanban and Enterprise Services Planning to businesses who employ those who must “think for a living.”
  44. 44. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Appendices
  45. 45. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Books
  46. 46. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja 2010 – Kanban “blue book”
  47. 47. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja 2012 Lessons in Agile Management The heavily under-rated book that underpins the Kanban Coaching Masterclass and most of the theory behind the Kanban Method
  48. 48. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja 2014 Kanban from the Inside
  49. 49. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja

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