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The origin of the comic stories started in pre-
history with petroglyphs, pictures that show
scenes of themdaily in the walls of caves and
grutes. In the Egypt, were find pictures and
hieroglyphics in low relief telling the life
ofPharaoh. The originof the balloonspresentin the
storiescanbe attributed to thephylacteries, banners
with words writtenby themouths ofcharacters,
illustrationsseen inEuropesince the fourteenth
century. It was from thenineteenth century thatthe
textbegan toaccompany thedrawing.Thecomicsare
known as"históriaaosquadrinhos" inPortugal, as
"comics" in the United States, as "fumetti" in
Italy,as "bandesdessinées" in France, and as
"manga" in Japan
How Did Start?
In the years1895-1900appeared in theSunday
newspaperstripsin the United States, the
firstcharactersof the comic. Among which, the
first tomake a name: Yellow Kidby
Some years later, the successofYellow
produceKatzenjammerKids, the first creationto
developfullythe characteristics of themoderncomic
strip: usedballoons, andhadpermanent
The newsspread around the world. Japan
manyfamouscartoonistsinthe early twentieth
century. Theaesthetic revolutionwas in
chargeoftheLittleNemo inSlumberland, released
in1905 byWinsorMcCay, who firstworethe
perspectivein your drawings.
A SURPRISING INCREASE
At that timethe comicswere beginning
tobecomean indispensable elementin the daily
newspapers. That's whenGeorgeHerriman
launched KrazyKat,the story of apoetic world,
whilesurrealandcomic, in which, with
wereexposedrelationshipsbetween membersof a
smallcast of characters. This was the
inauguratedstorieswithanimals, which would
culminatewith the appearanceof the famousFelix
the CatbyPatSullivan, and MickeyMouse by
WaltDisney. In 1930, HergécreatedTintin, the
success of whichlasted for decades.
KRAZY KAY – GEORGE HERRIMAN
FELIX THE CAT – Pat Sullivan
BETTY BOOP – MAX FLEISCHER
MICKEY MOUSE – WALT DISNEY
TIN TIN – HERGE
The next year,BettyBoop by Max
ElzieCrislerSegar) debutedin 1931.
BUCK ROGERS - ElzieCrislerSegar
POPEYE - ElzieCrislerSegar
comics, who introducedthe adventureas the main
theme. AlexRaymondcreatedFlashGordon, Jungle
Thepioneerswere theJapanese(the '20s). In
magazineofcomicstoFunnieson Parade. Then
cametheFamousFunnies, Tip TopComics,
Withthe competitionof the SecondWorld War,
many characters, especially heroes, began
toengage inplotsof war and violence. Then
asCaptainMarvel, Human Torch, Namor-TheSub-
Mariner, and a wholelegion ofvigilantesdevotedto
the cause ofpeace and democracy.
Betweenso many, Marvel Comicscreated, under the
baton ofStanLeeandJackKirby developed Captain
America. The characterthat hasthe uniforminspired by
theAmerican flagand a shield of anindestructible
metal, it was like a personificationof the struggle
offree peoplesagainst Nazism. Thecharacter hadall the
characteristicsof an American,as asense ofjustice and
freedomand strength tofight for the preservationof
these ideals, against theenemies.
At that time, the magazine was launched Mad (which
satirized the comic classic) and also the character The
Spirit by Will Eisner. To get an idea of the importance
of the Spirit, today the biggest prize in the world of
comics is named after its creator (called Will Eisner
Awards) and is known as the Oscar of Comics.
Beyond the control of the newspapers published in
their own magazines, comics were getting more
violent and psychotic. Characters and magazines
appeared specializing in terror and violence. Against
this trend, organized parents and educators around
the world and even legislators from European
countries and especially the United States, raised his
voice against the comic. They thought the comics
negatively influenced children and wanted to ban
The situation became increasingly tense and the U.S.
government reached the point of censoring various
comic heroes. The main reason was that comics
helped negatively in the formation of young
Americans. Came to insinuate that the friendship
between Batman and Robin suggested a homosexual
relationship and it affected children.
The pursuit of justice, coupled with the end of the
war, made falling sales of comic books, because the
heroes were already the flagship of the Ninth Art at
the time. The creation of codes of ethics and attitude
on the part of publishers to combat censorship was
only give results some years later.
While the magazine market collapsed and heroes, the
newspaper strips back to the glory days came and
important characters like Asterix - The Gaul by Albert
Uderzo and René Goscinny .The Smurfs by Peyo. The
character Pogo by Walt Kelly, was very successful at
The 60s marked the market recovery heroes. This was
due to several reasons. The code of ethics, which
provided less violence had been in place for some
time, the pursuit of American justice was already low
and the publishers have heroes with more human
characteristics and philosophical, and psychological
dramas with everyday problems.
Emerged at this time characters such as Spider-Man,
the Fantastic Four and Thor - God of Thunder. All were
created by Marvel, designed by master minds of Stan
Lee and Jack Kirby.
With the market for high again heroes, comics gained
a new burst of creation. The other categories came on
the heels. Emerged female characters that inspired
women's fashion worldwide. Also, appeared as erotic
characters likeVampirela by Jean-Claude Forrest,
Jodelle by Guy Peelaert andValentina by Guido
Crepax. At the end of the decade, came the
underground genre, which addressed the underworld
of drugs and free sex, lampooning situations. In 1973,
Hagar - the horrible, is created by Dirk Browne and
saw instant success.
The Nowadays Situation
In the last decades of the twentieth century, the
heroes stood firm and won more magazines. The
creators of stories (writers and artists) became world-
famous celebrities and their names in the credits of
the stories come to rely as much as the name of a
famous actor in a movie.
Names like Frank Miller, Dan Jurgens, John Byrne,
Grant Morrison, Mark Waid, Kelley Jones, Jim Lee,
Leph Loeb, Neil Gaiman, Alan Moore and others
entered into and emerged from the other.
Alternative magazines, on-line sex-terror, have
emerged and have made it with high-level graphical
issues, always aimed at an adult people. This phase
are magazines like Zulu, Hara-Kiri and most classic of
all, Heavy Metal.
The characters continued to appear, like Tank Girl by
Jamie Hurlott, Hellblazer by Alan Moore and Sandman
by Neil Gaiman. It's that time also fever X-Men,
mutant heroes that established itself as the largest
seller of magazines today. Garfield by Jim Davis and
Calvin by Bill Waterson firmed as major characters
from newspaper strips of the late twentieth century.
At the end of the 90s, comes a good publisher, Image
Comics, founded by former employees of Marvel and
DC Comics (the two biggest producers of heroes), who
thought they did not have the space needed to create
their characters and had to follow the orders of the
editors. Image of the biggest publishing success came
of the end of the century: Spawn by Todd McFarlane,
who became as popular as Superman and Batman.
The character is enormously successful in his
magazine and lever-products like dolls, clothes, games
and even movies.
The century ends consecrating McFarlane as one of
the greats of comics, alongside geniuses like Alan
Moore (who created the masterpiece of comic book
mini-series Watchmen), Frank Miller (author of the
fantastic Batman - Dark Knight and Daredevil - man
without fear) and designer Alex Ross (who illustrated
the historical works Marvels, Kingdom Come and
Superman - Peace on Earth), who gave a reality never
before seen in the drawings of comics. Ross was the
first designer to gain as much fame as the writers of
How Did Starts in Brazil?
Many scholars want credit for the invention of the
genre cartoonist Italian Angelo Agostini, who lives in
Brazil, wrote in 1869 (long before Yellow Kid), The
Adventures of Nho Quim or impressions of a trip to
court, a true story comics.
Fifteen years later he would be responsible for the
creation of the first Brazilian comics long term, with
the Adventures of ZéCaipora.
In 1905 began to emerge other comics with the
national launch of the magazine The Tico-Tico. Came
the character Chiquinho by Loureiro. Also thanks to
the magazine, appeared Lamparina by J. Carlos.
ZéMacaco and Faustina by Alfredo Storni.Para Choque
and ViraLata by Max Yantok and Reco-Reco, Bolãoand
Azeitona by LuisSá.
In the middle of 1930, Adolfo Aizen launched the
Youth Supplement, with which Brazil has introduced
in the American stories. The success led to further edit
two magazines: Mirim and Lobinho.
In 1937, Roberto Marinho went into the business with
The Globe Youth and two years later launched the
comic book, that name would also be synonymous
with comic books.
In the 50's, began to be published in Brazil by
EditoraAbril, the comics Disney. The magazine
Sesinho, SESI, allowed the appearance of stamped
figurines of comics in the country, as Ziraldo, Fortuna
and Joselito Matos.
To face strong competition from USAheroes, were
translated into the comic adventures of heroes of
national youth radio soap operas such as O Vingador
by P. Amaral and Fernando Silva.Jeronimo – O Heroi
do Sertão byMoisés Weltmanand Edmundo
Rodrigues. Characters imported had their Brazilian
versions, like the Phantom.
From the decade of 60, multiplied publications and
Brazilian characters. Highlight for Pererê of Ziraldo
(who later would create O MeninoMaluquinho),
Gabolaby Peroti, Sacarrolha byPrimaggio and the
whole series of characters Maurício de Sousa, like:
Monica, Cascão and Cebolinha.
Mauricio de Sousa is the biggest name of national
comics. It was the only living exclusively from the
profits of their publications. The Monica is the most
successful of its kind in the country, at all times.
Turned a line of products ranging from sandals, to
noodles, passing school supplies, clothes, etc…Has
also been produced cartoon feature film with the
The newspaper Pasquim was famous for his comic-
strip, especially the Jaguar. The cartoonist Henfil also
excels at that time. Daniel Azulay also created and
maintained a Brazilian hero, Captain Liana, who
represented one of the best moments of national
EditoraAbril begins to publish the heroes of Marvel
and DC Comics in Brazil, with the magazines and
Captain America Heroes TV. Later, with Batman,
Superman, Spiderman and Incredible Hulk, among
From the 80, the major Brazilian newspapers begin to
enter works of national authors in their strips before
uniquely American. Amongthem, wehighlight Miguel
Paiva (Radical Chic), Glauco (Geraldão), Laerte (Piratas
do Tietê), Angeli (Chiclete com Banana), Fernando
Gonsalves (Níquel Náusea) andLuis Fernando
Verissimo (As Cobras). Also the Brazilian edition of
Mad magazine begins to publish works with Brazilian
In the '90s the Brazilian market grows a little more.
New comic book heroes come to be edited in the
country, especially the newly created Image Comics.
EditoraAbril still ahead of rivals and publishes Spawn
Brazil enters the twenty-first century with the comic
market expanding. EditoraGlobo continues to publish
highly successful comics of Monica; EditoraAbril
continues strong with the American comic book
heroes Marvel, DC and Image, the American Heavy
Metal magazine launches its Brazilian edition, to
‘’Metal Pesado’’, and publishers smaller publish
materials from other sources. Some cartoonists
national launch magazine caricature ´´Bundas’’
Woodcut—occasionally known as xylography—
is a relief printing artistic technique in
printmaking in which an image is carved into the
surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts
remaining level with the surface while the non-
printing parts are removed, typically with gouges.
The areas to show 'white' are cut away with a
knife or chisel, leaving the characters or image to
show in 'black' at the original surface level. The
block is cut along the grain of the wood (unlike
wood engraving where the block is cut in the end-
grain). The surface is covered with ink by rolling
over the surface with an ink-covered roller
(brayer), leaving ink upon the flat surface but not
in the non-printing areas.
Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper
to a frame around the woodblocks (where a
different block is used for each color). The art of
carving the woodcut can be called "xylography",
but this is rarely used in English for images alone,
although that and "xylographic" are used in
connection with blockbooks, which are small
books containing text and images in the same
block. Single-leaf woodcut is a term for a
woodcut presented as a single image or print, as
opposed to a book illustration.
Division of labour
In both Europe and the Far East, traditionally the
artist only designed the woodcut, and the block-
carving was left to specialist craftsmen, called
block-cutters, or Formschneider in Germany,
some of whom became well known in their own
right - among the best known are the 16th century
Hieronymus Andreae (who also used
"Formschneider" as his surname), Hans
Lützelburger and Jost de Negker, all of whom ran
workshops and also operated as printers and
publishers. The formschneider in turn handed the
block on to specialist printers. There were further
specialists who made the blank blocks.
This is why woodcuts are sometimes described by
museums or books as "designed by" rather than
"by" an artist; but most authorities do not use this
distinction. The division of labour had the
advantage that a trained artist could adapt to the
medium relatively easily, without needing to learn
the use of woodworking tools.
There were various methods of transferring the
artist's drawn design onto the block for the cutter
to follow. Either the drawing would be made
directly onto the block (often whitened first), or a
drawing on paper was glued to the block. Either
way, the artist's drawing was destroyed during the
cutting process. Other methods were used,
In both Europe and the Far East, such as Japan
and China, in the early twentieth century some
artists began to do the whole process themselves.
In Japan, this movement was called Sōsakuhanga,
as opposed to the Shin hanga movement, which
retained the traditional methods. In the West,
many artists used the easier technique of linocut
Methods of printing
Compared to intaglio techniques like etching and
engraving, only low pressure is required to print.
As a relief method, it is only necessary to ink the
block and bring it into firm and even contact with
the paper or cloth to achieve an acceptable print.
In Europe fruitwood like pear or cherry was
in Japan, the wood of the
cherry species Prunusserrulata was preferred.
There are three methods of printing to consider:
Stamping: Used for many fabrics and most
early European woodcuts (1400–40).
These were printed by putting the
paper/fabric on a table or other flat surface
with the block on top, & pressing or
hammering the back of the block
Rubbing: Apparently the most common
method for Far Eastern printing on paper
at all times. Used for European woodcuts
and block-books later in the fifteenth
century, and very widely for cloth. Also
used for many Western woodcuts from
about 1910 to the present. The block goes
face up on a table, with the paper or fabric
on top. The back is rubbed with a "hard
pad, a flat piece of wood, a burnisher, or a
A traditional Japanese
tool used for this is called a baren. Later in
Japan, complex wooden mechanisms were
used to help hold the woodblock perfectly
still and to apply proper pressure in the
printing process. This was especially
helpful once multiple colors began to be
introduced, and needed to be applied with
precision atop previous ink layers.
Printing in a press: presses only seem to
have been used in Asia in relatively recent
times. Printing-presses were used from
about 1480 for European prints and block-
books, and before that for woodcut book
illustrations. Simple weighted presses may
have been used in Europe before the print-
press, but firm evidence is lacking. A
deceased Abbess of Mechelen in 1465 had
uras et ymagines ... cum 14
aliislapideisprintis" - "an instrument for
printing texts and pictures ... with 14
stones for printing" which is probably too
early to be a Gutenberg-type printing press
in that location.
In Europe, Woodcut is the oldest technique used
for old master prints, developing about 1400, by
using, on paper, existing techniques for printing
on cloth. One of the more ancient woodcuts on
paper that can be seen today is The Fire Madonna
(Madonna delFuoco, in Italian), in the Cathedral
of Forlì, in Italy.
The explosion of sales of cheap woodcuts in the
middle of the century led to a fall in standards,
and many popular prints were very crude. The
development of hatching followed on rather later
than engraving. Michael Wolgemut was
significant in making German woodcuts more
sophisticated from about 1475, and Erhard
Reuwich was the first to use cross-hatching (far
harder to do than engraving or etching). Both of
these produced mainly book-illustrations, as did
various Italian artists who were also raising
standards there at the same period. At the end of
the century Albrecht Dürer brought the Western
woodcut to a level that, arguably, has never been
surpassed, and greatly increased the status of the
single-leaf woodcut (i.e. an image sold
As woodcut can be easily printed together with
movable type, because both are relief-printed, it
was the main medium for book illustrations until
the late-sixteenth century. The first woodcut book
illustration dates to about 1461, only a few years
after the beginning of printing with movable type,
printed by Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg. Woodcut
was used less often for individual ("single-leaf")
fine-art prints from about 1550 until the late
nineteenth century, when interest revived. It
continued to be important for popular prints until
the nineteenth century in most of Europe, and later
in some places.
The art reached a high level of technical and
artistic development in East Asia and Iran. In
Japan woodblock printing is called "mokuhanga",
and was introduced in the seventeenth century for
both books and art. The popular "floating world"
genre of ukiyo-e originated in the second half of
the seventeenth century, with prints in monocrome
or two colours. Sometimes these were hand-
coloured after printing. Later prints with many
colours were developed. Japanese woodcut
became a major artistic form, although at the time
it was accorded a much lower status than painting.
It continued to develop through to the twentieth
Coloured woodcuts first appeared in ancient
China. The oldest known are three Buddhist
images dating to the 10th century. European
woodcut prints with coloured blocks were
invented in Germany in 1508 and are known as
chiaroscuro woodcuts (see below). However,
colour did not become the norm, as it did in Japan,
in the ukiyo-e and other forms.
In Europe and Japan, colour woodcuts were
normally only used for prints rather than book
illustrations. In China, where the individual print
did not develop until the nineteenth century, the
reverse is true, and early colour woodcuts mostly
occur in luxury books about art, especially the
more prestigious medium of painting. The first
known example is a book on ink-cakes printed in
1606, and colour technique reached its height in
books on painting published in the seventeenth
century. Notable examples are the Treatise on the
Paintings and Writings of the Ten Bamboo Studio
of 1633, and the Mustard Seed Garden Painting
Manual published in 1679 and 1701.
In Japan colour technique, called nishiki-e in its
fully developed form, spread more widely, and
was used for prints, from the 1760s on. Text was
nearly always monochrome, as were images in
books, but the growth of the popularity of ukiyo-e
brought with it demand for ever increasing
numbers of colors and complexity of techniques.
By the nineteenth century most artists worked in
colour. The stages of this development were:
Sumizuri-e (墨摺り絵, "ink printed
pictures") - monochrome printing using
only black ink
Benizuri-e (紅摺り絵, "crimson printed
pictures") - red ink details or highlights
added by hand after the printing
process；green was sometimes used as
Tan-e (丹絵) - orange highlights using a
red pigment called tan
Aizuri-e (藍摺り絵, "indigo printed
pictures"), Murasaki-e (紫絵, "purple
pictures"), and other styles in which a
single color would be used in addition to,
or instead of, black ink
Urushi-e (漆絵) - a method in which glue
was used to thicken the ink, emboldening
the image; gold, mica and other substances
were often used to enhance the image
further. Urushi-e can also refer to
paintings using lacquer instead of paint;
lacquer was very rarely if ever used on
Nishiki-e (錦絵, "brocade pictures") - a
method in which multiple blocks were
used for separate portions of the image,
allowing a number of colors to be utilized
to achieve incredibly complex and detailed
images; a separate block would be carved
to apply only to the portion of the image
designated for a single color. Registration
marks called kentō (見当) were used to
ensure correspondence between the
application of each block.
In the 19th century a number of different methods
of colour printing using woodcut (technically
Chromoxylography) were developed in Europe.
George Baxter patented in 1835 a method using an
intaglio line plate (or occasionally a lithograph),
printed in black or a dark colour, and then
overprinted with up to twenty different colours
from woodblocks. Edmund Evans used relief and
wood throughout, with up to eleven different
colours, and latterly specialized in illustrations for
children's books, using fewer blocks but
overprinting non-solid areas of colour to achieve
blended colours. Artists such as Randolph
Caldecott, Walter Crane and Kate Greenaway
were able to draw influence from the Japanese
prints now available and fashionable in Europe to
create a suitable style, with flat areas of colour.
In the 20th century, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner of the
Die Brücke group developed a process of
producing colored woodcut prints using a single
block applying different colors to the block with a
brush à la poupée and then printing (halfway).
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek
ἰ δέαidéa "idea" + γράφωgráphō "to write") is a
graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept.
Some ideograms are comprehensible only by
familiarity with prior convention; others convey
their meaning through pictorial resemblance to a
physical object, and thus may also be referred to
The term "ideogram" is commonly used to
describe logograms in writing systems such as
Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sumerian cuneiform and
Chinese characters. Dongba script used without
Geba decorating is an example of a real ideogram
(it is also a pictogram).
In the history of writing symbols proceeded from
ideographic (such as an icon of a bull's head in a
list inventory, denoting that the following numeral
refers to head of cattle) to logographic (an icon of
a bull denoting the Semitic word ʾālep"ox"), to
phonetic (the bull's head used as a symbol in rebus
writing, indicating the glottal stop at the beginning
of the word for "ox", namely, the letteraleph).
Bronze Age writing systems used a combination
of these applications, and many signs in
hieroglyphic as well as in cuneiform writing could
be used either logographically or phonetically.
For example, the Akkadian sign AN (�) could be
an ideograph for "deity", an ideogram for the god
Anum in particular, a logograph for the Akkadian
stem il- "deity", a logograph for the Akkadian
word šamu "sky", or a syllabogram for either the
syllable an or il.
Although Chinese characters are logograms, two
of the smaller classes in the traditional
classification are ideographic in origin:
Simple ideographs (指事字zhǐshìzì) are
abstract symbols such as 上shàng "up" and
下xià "down" or numerals such as 三sān
Semantic compounds (会意字huìyìzì) are
semantic combinations of characters, such as
明míng "bright", composed of 日rì "sun" and
月yuè "moon", or 休xiū "rest", composed of
人rén "person" and 木mù "tree". In the light of
the modern understanding of Old Chinese
phonology, researchers now believe that most
of the characters originally classified as
semantic compounds have an at least partially
As primeiras manifestações artísticas (pinturas rupestres) deram origem e
se tornaram modelo para as artes visuais e escritas, em uma época que os
nossos antepassados queriam simplesmente, demonstrar o que viam,
sentiam e faziam.
Anos depois, já na civilização egípcia, foram descobertos os primeiros
hieróglifos que contavam sobre a vida de um Faraó.
Em 1895, as primeiras histórias em quadrinhos foram aparecendo e os
primeiros personagens fazendo parte da vida dos americanos aos domingos.
O primeiro de todos foi Yellow Kid de Richard Outcalt.
A partir desse, vários foram surgindo e diferentes personagens foram
entrando no gosto da população.
Vários heróis dos que vemos e que somos fãs hoje em dia, surgiram por
conta de ocasiões como a Segunda Guerra Mundial, por exemplo, fez com
que a empresa Marvel, criasse e desenvolvesse os ―super heróis‖.
Com o passar dos anos, os criadores de histórias em quadrinhos, foram
melhorando seus heróis para chamar mais atenção das pessoas e com isso,
elas admirassem suas ―crias‖ e assim o público que adorava as obras
comprava mais produtos relacionados às histórias em quadrinhos e isso
gerava lucro aos autores.
O foco não ficou só por conta dos quadrinhos de aventura, terror e ação.
Alguns cartunistas inovaram e começaram a desenvolver histórias de
humor como, por exemplo, as personagens: Garfield, Calvin, Hagar, entre
No Brasil, as histórias em quadrinhos começaram, segundos estudiosos,
com Agostini em 1869 (bem antes da criação deYellow Kid). Se nos
Estados Unidos, eles tinham seus heróis, no Brasil não foi diferente.
Alguns até foram ―importados‖ do país norte americano.
As histórias em quadrinho no Brasil, também usavam muito do humor e
histórias infantis. O principal cartunista brasileiro foi Mauricio de Sousa o
criador da personagem Mônica e de sua turma, na década dos anos 60.
Já na década de 80, vieram as personagens de um humor mais ―adulto‖, que
se caracterizam de uma forma mais informal como: Geraldão (Glauco), e a
personagem feminina Radical Chic (Miguel Paiva) . Esse tipo de humor foi
criticado por muitos, porém de outro lado, adorado ao mesmo tempo.
Hoje em dia história como ―A Turma da Monica‖, ainda fazem sucesso
com o público alvo infanto-juvenil.
A sociedade espera que apareçam mais ―Mauricios‖ de Sousa, ―Ziraldos‖,
entre outros e ajudem a contemplar cada vez mais esse país rico em
criativos cartunistas e personagens que marcaram épocas.