W1004 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION ASSIGNMENT, INFORMATICS
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STUDENT NAME: Afrah Ayub Sheikh
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TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Introduction to communication ........................................... 3
Non-verbal communication is more believable than verbal
communication .................................................................. 4
Why is non-verbal communication important?... ................ 5
How non-verbal communication can often create
misunderstanding in various intercultural settings ……….7
Conclusion of non-verbal communication .......................... 9
Reference .......................................................................... 10
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Introduction of communication:
Communication is a reconstruction and transfer of information which often involves
reading, writing speaking and listening. Furthermore, communication is also defined as
the transmission and reception of ideas attitudes and feelings i.e. Verbal and Non –
Verbal that produces a response. In simple words communication is the exchange and
flow of information and ideas from one person to another; it involves a
sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver.
Verbal Communication is the use of speaking of the words verbally.
Non Verbal Communication employs the use of body languages or actions.
A communication takes place when one individual, a sender, displays, or otherwise directs a set
of symbols to another individual, a receiver, with the aim of changing something, either
something the receiver is doing or not doing) or changing his or her world view. This set of
symbols is typically described as a message.
It is also believed that an effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the
exact information or idea that the sender intended to mean. Many of the problems that occur in
an organization are the either the direct result of people failing to communicate and/or processes,
which leads to confusion and can cause good plans to fail.
4. Why is non-verbal communication more
believable than verbal communication?
Non verbal communication is believed more than verbal communication due
to many reasons. Some of them are listed above.
Nonverbal communication can be more continuous than verbal
communication. Verbal symbols start and stop. We can say something or write
something and then we can stop talking or writing. However, it might be difficult,
if not impossible, to stop nonverbal communication.
Most people perceive nonverbal communication as more trustworthy than
verbal communication, especially when verbal and nonverbal messages are
inconsistent. If someone glares and says, “I’m glad to see you;” you are likely to
believe the nonverbal message, which communicates a lack of pleasure in seeing
As Nonverbal communication is multi channeled, it often occurs
simultaneously in two or more channels, whereas verbal communication tends to
take place in a single channel. Nonverbal communication might be seen, felt,
heard, smelled, and tasted, and we may receive nonverbal communication through
several of these channels at the same time.
One main reason is that non verbal communication is the most powerful
and effective way of communication. It cues you in to what is on another person’s
mind. The best communicators are sensitive to the power of the emotions and
thoughts communicated nonverbally.
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5. Importance of non-verbal communication:
This is a famous proverb which underscores the importance of non-verbal
communication which is especially significant in intercultural situations. Probably
non-verbal differences account for typical difficulties in communicating.
Basically, it is one of the key aspects of communication.
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It has multiple functions but it is divided into three main parts:
6. Kinesics: It refers to the facial expressions, Body
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gestures and movements.
Facial Expressions: Facial expressions are dynamic features which
communicate the speaker’s attitude, emotions, intentions, and so on. During oral
communication, facial expressions change continuously and are constantly
monitored and interpreted by the receiver as the face is the primary source of
emotions. such as smiling when happy, frowning when angry, yawning etc.
Body gestures: A body gesture is a movement made with a limb, especially
the hands, to express, confirm, emphasize or back up the speaker’s attitude or
intention. Body gestures are always perceived and interpreted together with facial
expressions. Examples are: hand signals such as waving good-bye.
Body movements: It refers to any kind of bodily movement, which transmits
a message to the observer. Every part of the human body, either in motion or
stillness, conveys a meaning which depends upon the physical, social, and cultural
context of the action.
Proxemics: It is the amount of knowledge that people feel
necessary to set between themselves and others. This deals with the physical
contact, positioning and posture.
Physical contact: It is getting physical with someone for instance when
two people meet they shake hands as a greeting, clapping on the back etc.
Positioning: It is transmitting awareness of different statuses and also
keeping a respectful distance.
Posture: It refers to the manners one shows to another, to show good
adequate by standing erect and must be full time alert of any situation. In some
cases it is very important to stay confident rather than being nervous.
Para-linguistics: It is also called as paralanguage
Para-linguistic: is a component which modifies or conveys emotion, such
as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation etc. It is sometimes defined as relating to
non phonemic properties only. Para-linguistic may be expressed consciously or
unconsciously. For example “yahoo’, “wohoo!” “yay!”” tch!”
7. Misunderstandings created by non-verbal communication:
When communications are long distant, there come a lot of cultural differences in the non verbal
communication which often creates misunderstandings between firms. Cultural differences are not
random events, they occur because cultures develop with their own geographies, climates,
economies, religions and histories, each exerting unique influence.
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There are 10 main causes causing misunderstandings:
Paralanguage: Vocal characteristics such as yelling, crying, whining, yawning
or even laughing transmits different messages in some cultures for instance in Japan
embarrassment is indicated by giggling. In Pakistan belch indicates satisfaction and in India
nodding head can be a no or a yes. Vocal qualifiers like volume, pitch etc which indicate loudness
means strength in Arabic cultures and softness indicates weakness and for the Germans it indicates
confidence and authority . Similarly in the case of Thais it indicates impoliteness. For Japanese it
indicates loss of control.
Eye contact and Gaze: Western cultures see directly eye to eye positively
and also advise children to look a person in the eyes. A prolonged gaze is often seen as a sign of
sexual interest. Coming to Arabic culture, they also make prolonged eye-contact as they believe it
shows interest and helps them understand truthfulness of the other person and a person who
doesn’t reciprocate is seen as untrustworthy. But in Japan, Africa, Latin American, Caribbean etc
the case is different, they avoid eye contact to show respect.
Gestures: The amount of gesturing varies from culture to culture. Some cultures are animated
other restrained. Restrained cultures often feel animated cultures lack manners and overall restraint.
8. Animated cultures often feel restrained cultures lack emotion or interest. Even simple things like
using hands to point and count differ. Pointing US with index finger; Germany with little finger;
Japanese with entire hand (in fact most Asians consider pointing with index finger can be rude)
Counting: Thumb = 1 in Germany, 5 in Japan, middle finger for 1 in Indonesia.
Facial Expressions: Majority opinions for facial expressions are identical, which means that
these do have similar meanings world-wide with respect to smiling, crying, or showing anger, sorrow,
or disgust. However, the intensity varies from culture to culture. Women smile more than men. But
too much smiling is viewed in as a sign of shallowness. Many Asian cultures suppress facial
expression as much as possible. Some see “animated” expressions as a sign of a lack of control.
General Appearance and Dress: All cultures are concerned for how they look and make
judgments based on looks and dress. Americans, for instance, appear almost obsessed with dress and
personal attractiveness. Consider differing cultural standards on what is attractive in dress and on
what constitutes modesty. For some appearance and dressing is the most important thing to judge at
Body Movement: We can make more than 750,000 possible motions which is so impossible
to categorize them all but just need to be aware the body movement and position is a key ingredient in
sending messages. We send information on attitude toward person, emotional statue and desire to
control the environment.
Postures: People sometimes modify the basic "arms barrier" by crossing just one arm,
indicating that they are uncomfortable with strangers, or they lack confidence.
Touching: Touching is experienced in many ways, such as handshakes, pats, and kisses. These
touches are used to express various feelings and emotions, either ritual or affectionate. But touching
has culturally specific meanings.
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Smell: It is fear of offensive natural smells.
Time: Each of us has the same number of hours in every day, but that time can be used
differently. Time can be saved, wasted, kept, bought, sold or even killed. Time perceptions include
punctuality and ways of social interactions
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Conclusion of the non verbal communication:
Non-verbal communication can take various forms, each of which illustrates or replaces a certain
part of the verbal communication. It is not only crucial in a plain daily communication situation
but also for the interpreter. It includes many more elements than one might think at first. When
interpreters are in a working situation where the audience will not see them, non-verbal
communication can represent a problem. The audience might even be tempted to believe that the
interpreters have not done a good job.
In order to be able to work properly, interpreters need to make sense of non-verbal cues. This is
only possible because a special part of our brain deals with the emotional part of the message. Not
only intelligence but also emotional intelligence is needed for interpreting non-verbal elements.
Whether non-verbal communication supports the interpreters in their task or presents a difficulty, it
will always play an important role.
Non verbal communication is essential to understanding not only the message but more
importantly, the feeling and the emotions behind the message. Body language and movement,
touch space and overall appearance may influence conveying of a message. Although verbal
communication maybe easier to understand, non verbal communication can emphasize a point and
clarify in areas that verbal communication cannot. Therefore non verbal communication is an
essential part of communication as a whole.
Communication is a huge part of everyday life. People have given the various forms of
communication names and definitions and it has been studied countless times. People need good
communication skills because not only is it essential for survival, but every human being from the
most outgoing to the quiet introverts, we all need interaction. And the most brilliant vocabulary in
the world would be lost without facial expression and voice inflection. And nonverbal
communication would be lost if there weren’t words to clarify the meaning behind a smile or a
wave. Some points are similar and some are different, but they all tie together to make this
wonderful thing that we all need called communication.