4. According to the Robotics Institute of America
Variable-Sequence Robot : A device that performs the successive
stages of a task according to a predetermined method easy to modify
Playback Robot :A human operator performs the task manually by
leading the Robot
Numerical Control Robot : The operator supplies the movement
program rather than teaching it the task manually.
Intelligent Robot : A robot with the means to understand its
environment and the ability to successfully complete a task despite
changes to the environment.
Classification of Robot
5. Types of Robot
• Mobile Robot
• Stationary Robot
• Autonomous Robot
• Remote-Controlled Robot
• Virtual Robots
6. Mobile Robots
Mobile robots are of two
Rolling robots have wheels to
move around they can quickly
and easily search. However they
are only useful in flat areas.
Walking Robots –
Robots on lags are usually
brought in when the terrain is
rocky. Most robot have at least 4
lags usually they have 6 or more.
7. Types of Robot
Robots are not only used to explore
areas or imitate a human being. Most
robots perform repeating task without
ever moving an inch. Most robots are
working in industry settings and are
Autonomous robots are self supporting
or in other words words self contained .
In a way they rely on their own brains
8. Types of Robot
A person guide a robot by remote
control. A person can perform
difficult and usually dangerous
tasks without being at the stop
where task are performed .
Virtual robots don’t exits in real life. Virtual
robots are just programs , building block of
software inside a computer.
9. • Advantages
• Popular in automation for safe, efficient and quality product.
• It is useful for hazardous environment. For example, Going far down into the
unknown waters and mines where humans would be crushed .
• It can work in dull and dirty environment.
• They can perform task faster than human and much more consistently and
• It has no emotion , so never get tired. Working at places without any salary and food.
• It can do repetitive work.
• People can lose jobs in factories
• It needs a supply of power
• It needs maintenance to keep it running
• It costs money to make or buy a robot
11. Robot system consists of following components:
Manipulators or the rover
12. Manipulator / Rover : This is the main body of the Robot
and consists of links, joints and structural elements of
Robot system components:
• Manipulator consists of joints and links
– Joints provide relative motion
– Links are rigid members between
– Various joint types: linear and rotary
– Each joint provides a “degree-of-
– Most robots possess five or six
• Robot manipulator consists of two
– Body-and-arm – for positioning of
objects in the robot's work volume
– Wrist assembly – for orientation of
End of Arm
18. Standard Notation Symbol for Joints:
Notation : PRP or 2PR
• Consists of a vertical column,
relative to which an arm
assembly is moved up or
• The arm can be moved in or
out relative to the column.
20. Notation : 3R
• SCARA stands for Selectively
Compliant Assembly Robot
• Similar to jointed-arm robot
except that vertical axes are
used for shoulder and elbow
joints to be compliant in
horizontal direction for
vertical insertion tasks
Standard Notation Symbol
21. Wrist Configurations
• Wrist assembly is attached to end-of-arm
• End effector is attached to wrist assembly
• Function of wrist assembly is to orient end effectors
– Body-and-arm determines global position of end effectors
• Two or three degrees of freedom:
• Notation :3R
• Sketch following manipulator configurations
• (a) TRT:R, (b) TVR:TR, (c) RR:T.
(c) RR:T(b) TVR:TR
23. End Effectors
This is the part that generally handles objects, makes connection to
other machines, or performs the required tasks.
It can vary in size and complexity from a end effectors on the space shuttle
to a small gripper
• Two types:
– Grippers – to grasp and manipulate objects (e.g., parts) during work
– Tools – to perform a process, e.g., spot welding, spray painting
25. Types of Robot Grippers
Mechanical grippers consist of 2 or more fingers that
can be actuated by the robot controller to open and
close to grasp the work piece.
Vacuum grippers, in which the suction cups are used
to hold flat objects.
Magnetized devices, for holding ferrous parts.
Adhesive devices, where an adhesive substance is
used to hold a flexible material such as fabric.
Simple Mechanical devices such as hooks and scoops.
28. Work Envelope concept
• Depending on the configuration and size of the links
and wrist joints, robots can reach a collection of
points called a Workspace.
• Alternately Workspace may be found empirically, by
moving each joint through its range of motions and
combining all space it can reach and subtracting
what space it cannot reach
38. • Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA) (2R1P): They have
two revolute joints that are parallel and allow the Robot to move in a
horizontal plane, plus an additional prismatic joint that moves vertically
39. Reference Frames
• World Reference Frame which is a universal coordinate frame, as
defined by the x-y-z axes. In this case the joints of the robot move
simultaneously so as to create motions along the three major axes.
• Joint Reference Frame which is used to specify movements of each
individual joint of the Robot. In this case each joint may be accessed
individually and thus only one joint moves at a time.
• Tool Reference Frame which specifies the movements of the
Robots hand relative to the frame attached to the hand. The x’, y’
and z’ axes attached to the hand define the motions of the hand
relative to this local frame. All joints of the Robot move
simultaneously to create coordinated motions about the Tool frame.
44. Robot system components:
• Sensors : Sensors are used to collect information about the
internal state of the robot or to communicate with the
outside environment. Robots are often equipped with
external sensory devices such as a vision system, touch and
tactile sensors etc which help to communicate with the
Robotic Control 44