FUNCTION OF BASIC INGREDIENTS IN BAKING AND PASTRY
1. TITLE :
THE FUNCTION OF BASIC INGREDIENTS IN BAKING
RULES AND REGULATIONS RELATED TO PERSONAL
HYGIENE , FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION.
FAT, in the form of solid shortening,
margarine or butter,or in the liquid
form of oil contributes tenderness,
moistness, and a smooth mouthfeel to
Shortening : .
• The flakiness of pastry comes from solid fat such as shortening or
lard rolled in layers with flour.
• In some recipes for cookies or cake, shortening is creamed with
sugar to trap air. A lighter product will result.
• Butter is made from cream
• Butter imparts a good flavor without a greasy mouth feel to baked
goods because it melts at body temperature.
• Oil is used in some muffin, bread and cake recipes.
TYPES OF FAT
Add moistness and richness
Assist in leavening to give flakiness
FUNCTION OF FAT
Sugar derived from sugarcane and beets
Sugar is simple made up of fructose,and glucose.
This two simple sugar join to create sucrose
Have different sweetness
i. Lactose is much less sweet than regular table sugar (sucrose)
ii. Fructose (or fruit sugar,one of the sugars is honey) much sweeter than
Granulated sugar (table sugar)
Divided by 3 types of sugar :
i. Very fine or ultrafine sugars
ii. Sanding sugars
iii. Pearl sugars
• Give good flavor and cream well not unlike caramel to taste
• Provide excellent smoothness and spreadability
Non nutritive sweetness
• Sugar free and no sugar added claims
TYPE OF SUGAR
White granulated sugar that has been dissolved in water before it is
Liquid sugar is darker in colour and can be used in foods where brown
colour is desired.
Example of syrups :
ii. Glucose corn syrups
iv. Malt syrups
• Produces gas for leavening when combined with an acidic ingredient
such as vinegar, lemon juice, or molasses.
• Reducing the amount of baking soda without replacing it with another
leavening agent will reduce the volume and lightness of the finished
• Baking powder contains baking soda and the right amount of acid to
react with it. Batters made with double acting baking powder rise
twice; once when dry and moist ingredients are mixed together, and
again when the product is baked.
• Yeast is a living microorganism until it is destroyed by heat.
• Using less yeast than specified in a recipe causes the dough to take
longer to reach the desired volume in the rising stages.
Flour from interior endosperm,extracted during first stream of
milling,considered highest grades of flour.
Portion of endosperm left after the patent flour is removed.
Refer to the amount of flour miled from given amount of grain
Combining all streams of the milling process or from the entire
o provides the structure in baked goods.
o The protein content of a flour affects the strength of a dough.
All Purpose Flour
o can be used for all baking purposes.
o Used to make spaghetti and other dried pasta.
Whole wheat flour
o It contains gluten-forming proteins ,so can be used alone in bread
o Give texture and flavor to some specialty breads
OTHERS WHEAT FLOUR
• Function of eggs
i. Add taste
iii. Improve the texture
v. Food value
vi. Leavening agents
The best grade (AA) has firm white and yolk that stand up high when
broken onto a flat surface.
Do not spread over a large area.
Proper storage is essential for maintaining quality.
Eggs keep for a weeks if held at 36 F ( 2 C)
GRADE AND QUALITY
o To prevent cross contamination of food it is essential to wash your hands
frequently. Examples include:
before starting work
before handling food
between handling raw and ready to eat foods
after going to the toilet
after handling raw foods
after handling waste
after eating, drinking or smoking, coughing, sneezing or touching your
after taking a break
after handling chemicals
after handling money
RULES AND REGULATION
16. In addition, it is important that staff maintain a high degree of personal
hygiene with regard their personal habits. For example:
no smoking in food areas
no coughing, sneezing, spitting over food
no strong smelling perfumes should be worn when handling foods
no nail varnish should be worn when handling food
no jewellery other than a plain wedding band or sleeper earrings
should be worn
All cuts, wounds, sores should be covered with a waterproof
Over-clothing should be clean and present no risk of contamination
Hair should be tidy and covered where necessary to prevent the risk
of it falling into food.
o A system called HACCP – Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point consists
of seven important steps to ensure food safety.
o The 7 steps of HACCP are as follows :
1. Assess hazards and potential risks.
2. Identify critical control points including cross contamination, cooking,
3. Set up procedures to make sure safety is maintained at all critical control
4. Monitor critical control points and use the correct signs, tools, and training
materials to ensure this.
5. Take corrective actions as soon as a critical control point is in jeopardy or
when any violations are pointed out by the Health Department.
6. Set up a record-keeping system to log all of your flowcharts and
7. Keep up with the system to make sure it is working.
Put all wastes into bins that are not used for anything else.
Empty the bins periodically during the day away from the
Prevent all animals from entering the processing area or
Visitors should only enter the processing room wearing
protective clothing and under supervision.
Keep food covered wherever possible.
Keep all food, tools and equipment off the floor.
Store ingredients in sealed containers.
Do not use broken or dirty equipment.
Report any signs of insects, rodents or birds to the manager.