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treatment wastewater final.docx

Recycling of sugar industries wastewater
B.S.C. Project
Mohamed Magdy Hassan
Fourth level
Faculty of sugar and Integrat...
First of all, I would like to show our gratitude to my project
supervisor, Assoc.Prof. Atef Elnakeep, wh...
List of Contents
Cover page
Acknowledgements i
List of Contents ii
List of Figures iv
abstract vi
Chapter 1 1
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treatment wastewater final.docx

  1. 1. Recycling of sugar industries wastewater B.S.C. Project by Mohamed Magdy Hassan Fourth level Faculty of sugar and Integrated Industries Technology Under the supervision of Assoc.Prof /Atef Elnakeep Faculty of Engineering, Supervisor of the Engineering Division at the Faculty of Sugar and Integrated Industries Technology Assiut 2022
  2. 2. i Acknowledgement First of all, I would like to show our gratitude to my project supervisor, Assoc.Prof. Atef Elnakeep, who gave me this great opportunity. I’m heartily thankful to him for their tireless guidance, extraordinary, patience and constant encouragement. His knowledge, creativity and passion always inspire me during this work. I also thank Prof. Dr. Dina Mamdouh, (The dean of the faculty of sugar and integrated industry technology) and all staff of the faculty. Finally, but by no means least, thanks go to my parents for almost unbelievable support. They are the most important people in my world, and I dedicate project to them.
  3. 3. ii List of Contents Cover page Acknowledgements i List of Contents ii List of Figures iv abstract vi Chapter 1 1 1-1-Introduction 2 1-2-Sources of wastewater 3 1-3-IMPORTANT CONTAMINATION OF WASTEWATER 4 Chapter 2 6 2-1-Nature & Characteristic of industrial wastewater 7 2-2-Physical characteristics 12 2-3-Chemical characteristics 18 2-4-Biological characteristics 18 Chapter 3 19
  4. 4. iii 3-1-industrial wastewater treatment 20 3-2-Primary treatment (physical treatment) 20 3-3-Chemical treatment 32 3-4-Biological treatment 35 4- Conclusion 41 5-References
  5. 5. iv List of Figures Figure (1): Classification of total solids 3 Figure (2): Mechanical Screen 21 Figure (3): mechanism of Mechanical Screen Figure (4): Vacuum Flotation 21 22 Figure (5): Air Flotation 22 Figure (6): Rectangular basin 23 Figure (7): Circular basin 23 Figure (8): parallel plate 24 Figure (9): sand filter 25 Figure (10): Coagulation & Flocculation Process 28 Figure (11): Conventional Activated Sludge 31
  6. 6. v Figure (12): Sequential Batch Reactor biological treatment 32 Figure. (13,14): trickling Filter " BiologicalAir Filters " biological treatment” 33 Figure (15): Anaerobic Biological Treatment 34
  7. 7. vi Abstract Sugar industries have an important place in the Egypt economic development. However, the wastewater generated from these industries bear a high degree of pollution load. Sugar industries in Egypt generate about 1,000 L of wastewater for one ton of sugar cane or beet crushed. Wastewater from sugar industry, if discharged without treatment, poses pollution problems in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Due to high pollution load, sugar industry is considered as one of the topmost pollutions generating industries affecting our environment. Wastewater from sugar industry bears intricate properties and its treatment is considered as one of the challenging tasks for environmental engineers in terms of its treatment as well as reutilization. The brown color, high temperature, low pH, high COD, high BOD, TDS, odor problems and excessive percentage of dissolved organic and inorganic Hallmarks the sugar industrial effluent. This effluent if discharged untreated, poses problems for both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The cost effective and economical treatment of sugar industrial waste is a challenging task. Therefore, implication of appropriate and cost-effective method to meet the discharge standards is the utterly required need of time. This study gives a brief and concise overview of various advanced techniques which employed for treating sugar industrial effluents.
  8. 8. 1 chapter 1
  9. 9. 2 1. 1. Introduction Water pollution due to industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. Has caused a significant threat to human as well as surrounding environment. All sugar factories require water and consequently discharge wastewater. Beet, cane and refinery factories produce wastewater with different organic strength, with beet being by far the most aggressive effluents. Wastewater treatment plants are designed to comply with local environmental regulation and vary from country to country. The principal types of industries which contribute to water pollution are Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries, Sugar industries, Steel Plants, Coal, Soap and Detergents, Paper and Pulp, Distilleries, Tanneries, Foods Processing Plants etc. These effluents when discharged through sewage system poison the biological purification mechanism of sewage treatment and pose several pollution problems. Wastewaters are characterized by high biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total dissolve solids. Wastewater from sugar industry generally contains carbohydrates, nutrients, oil and grease, chlorides, sulphates, and heavy metal. BOD/COD causes rapid depletion of oxygen content of the waters, creates foul smell, renders the stream unfit for propagating aquatic life, drinking and for other purposes. Forced by the legislation, industries are looking for the low-cost solutions for the required reduction of pollution load. It is estimated that every year 1.8 million people die due to Suffering from waterborne diseases. A large part of these Deaths can be indirectly attributed to improper sanitation. Wastewater treatment is an important initiative which has to be taken more seriously for the betterment of the
  10. 10. 3 society and our future. Wastewater treatment is a process, wherein the contaminations are removed from waste water as well as household sewage, to produce waste stream or solid waste suitable for discharge or reuse. Wastewater treatment methods are categorized into three sub- divisions, physical, chemical and biological. Definition of wastewater: The term wastewater is now increasingly used in place of sewage. Wastewaters include both organic and mineral matter carried through liquid media. While the organic portion of the wastewater is putrescible, undergoing biological decomposition the mineral mailer may combine with water to form dissolved solids, may form unsightly sludge deposits and may contribute to the hardness of the water in the effluent. Sources of wastewater: ● Sugar industry wastewater are produced mainly by cleaning operations ● washing of milling house floor, various division of boiling house like evaporators, clarifiers, vacuum pans, etc. generates huge volume of wastewater. ● Periodical cleaning of heat exchanger and evaporators with NaOH and HCl to remove the scales on the tube surface contribute organic and inorganic pollutant loading to wastewater. ● Leakage from pumps, pipelines, certification house also contribute to wastewater produced. ● Except this wastewater is also produced from boiler blow down, spray pond overflow, and from condenser cooling which is discharged as wastewater when it gets contaminated with cane juice.
  11. 11. 4 Why do we need to treat wastewater? •To prevent groundwater pollution •To prevent marine life •Protection of public health •To reuse the treated effluent for agriculture, groundwater recharge and industrial recycle. IMPORTANT CONTAMINATION OF WASTEWATER (4):  Suspended solids: suspended solids can lead to the development of sludge deposits and anaerobic conditions when untreated wastewater is discharged in the aquatic environment.  Nutrients: both nitrogen and phosphate, along with carbon, are essential nutrients for growth. When discharged to the aquatic environment, these nutrients can lead to the growth of undesirable aquatic life. When discharged in excessive amounts on land, they can also lead to the pollution of groundwater.  Priority pollutants: organic and inorganic compounds selected on the basis of their known or suspected carcinogenicity, mutagenic, teratogenicity, or high acute toxicity. Many of these compounds are found in wastewater.  Refractory organics: these organics tend to resist conventional methods of wastewater treatment. Typical examples include surfactants, phenols, and agricultural pesticides.  Heavy metals: heavy metals are usually discharged to wastewater from commercial and industrial activities and have to be removed if the wastewater is to be reused.
  12. 12. 5  Pathogens: communicable diseases can be transmitted by the pathogenic organisms in wastewater.  Dissolved inorganic matters: inorganic constituents such as calcium, sodium and sulphate are added to the original domestic water supply as a result of water use and may have to be removed if the wastewater is to be reused.(4) The goal of study is reviewing and awaring of new technologies in the field of wastewater treatments
  13. 13. 6 Chapter 2
  14. 14. 7 2. Nature & Characteristics of Industrial Wastewater 2.1 Physical characteristics The most important physical characteristic of wastewater is its total solids content, which is composed of floating matter, settable matter, colloidal matter and matter in solution. Other important physical characteristics include odor, temperature, color and turbidity.(5) Table 1: Characteristics of Wastewater from a Sugar Plant Parameter Concentration BOD COD pH Temperature Total suspended solids Total dissolved solids Total volatile solids Oil and grease Sulphates Nitrogen Phosphorus Chlorides Calcium Magnesium 1250 mg/L 2250 mg/L 5-7 25 to 35 cº 600 mg/L 2000 mg/L 1300 mg/L 60 mg/L 500 mg/L 10 mg/L 60 mg/L 60 mg/L 180 mg/L 80 mg/L
  15. 15. 8 a) Total solids Analytically the total solids content of wastewater is defined as all the matter that remains as residue upon evaporator at 103C to 105C.matter that has a significant vapors pressure at this temperature is lost during evaporation and is not defined as solid. Settable solids are those solids that will settle to the bottom of a cone shaped container in a 60-minute period. Settable solids, expressed as ml/L, are an approximate measure of the quantity of sludge that will be removed by primary sedimentation. Total solids, or residue upon evaporation, can be further classified as non- filterable or filterable by passing a known volume of liquid through a filter. (6) The filterable-solids fraction consists of colloidal and dissolved solids. The colloidal fraction consists of the particulate matter with an approximate size range from 0.001 to 1 micro. The dissolved solids consist of both organic and inorganic molecules and ions that are present in true solution inwater. Each of the categories of solids may be further classified on the basis of their volatility at 550+50C. The organic fraction will have oxidized and will be driven off as gas at this temperature, and the inorganic fraction remains behind as ash. The volatile-solids analysis is applied most commonly to wastewater sludge to measure their biological stability. The sugar industry wastewater is characterized by its high total solids and high percentage of dissolved organic and inorganic matter.
  16. 16. 9 Fig. (1): Show the Classification of total solids b) Odors Odors are usually caused by gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter or by substances added to the wastewater. Industrial wastewater may contain both odors compounds that produce odors during the process of wastewater treatment. The sugar industry wastewater is characterized by its odors problem. (7)
  17. 17. 10 Table (2): shows the origin of odors in different industries Industries Origin of odors Pharmaceutical industries Fermentation produces Food industries Fermentation produces Food industries (fish) Amines, sulphides, mercaptans Rubber industries sulphides, mercaptans Textile industries phenolic compounds Paper pulp industries H2s, so2 Organics compost Ammonia, Sulphur compounds C) Temperature The temperature of wastewater is a very important parameter because of its effect on chemical reactions and reactions rates, aquatic life, and the suitability of the water for beneficial uses. Industrial establishments that use surface water for cooling water purposes are particularly with the temperature of the intake water. In addition, oxygen is less soluble in warm water than in cold water. The increase in the rate of biochemical reactions that accompanies an increase in temperature, combined with the decrease in the quantity of the of oxygen present in surface water can often cause serious depletions in dissolved oxygen concentration in the summer months when significantly large quantities of heat water are discharged to natural receiving water, these effects are magnified. It should also be realized that a sudden change in temperature can result in high rate of mortality of aquatic life. Moreover, abnormally
  18. 18. 11 high can foster the growth of undesirable water plants and wastewater fungus. (8) e) Color Color of industrial wastewater varies according to the type of the industry; the sugar industry wastewater is characterized by its brown color. Knowledge of the character and measurement of color is essential. Since most colored matter is in a dissolved state, it is not altered by conventional primary devices, although secondary treatment units, such as activated sludge and trickling filters, remove a certain percentage of some types of colored matter. Sometime color matters need chemical oxidation procedures for removal. Color of industrial wastewater varies according to the type of industry. Most colored matter is in a dissolved state. (9) f) Turbidity Turbidity, a measure of the light-transmitting properties of water, is another test used to indicate the quality of wastewater discharges and natural waters with respect to colloidal and residual suspended matter. In general, there is no relationship between turbidity and the concentration of suspended solids in untreated wastewater. There is however, a reasonable relationship between turbidity and suspended solid for the settled secondary effluent form the activated sludge process. Turbidity a measure of the light-transmitting properties of water, is another test used to indicate the quality of wastewater discharges and natural waters with respect to colloidal and residual suspended matter.(9)
  19. 19. 12 2.2 Chemical characteristics a) Organic matter Organic compounds are normally composed of combination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen together with nitrogen in some cases. Other important elements, such as sulfur, phosphorus, 11 and may also be present. Also, industrial wastewater may contain small quantities of a large number of different synthetic organic molecules ranging from simple to extremely complex in structure. Typical examples include surfactants, organic priority pollutants, volatile organic compounds and agricultural pesticides. The presence of these substances has complicated industrial wastewater treatment because many of them either cannot be or are very slowly decomposed biologically. (10) ● Fats, oil and grease Fats are among the more stable of organic compounds and are not easily decomposed by bacteria. Kerosene, lubricating oils reach the sewer from workshops and garages, for the most part they float on the wastewater, although a portion is carried into the sludge on settling solids. To an even greater extent than fats, oils, and soaps, the mineral oils tend to coat surface causing maintenance problems. If grease is not removed before discharge of wastewater, it can interface with biological life in the surface waters and create unsightly floating matter and films. The oil and grease (O&G) are a very important test used to determine the hydrocarbon content of industrial wastewater. O&G tests include free O&G and emulsified O&G measures. These tests will determine the type of treatment required. Free O&G can be removed by flotation & skimming using gravity oil separator (GOS). (10)
  20. 20. 13 ● SURFACTANTS Surfactants are large organic molecules that are slightly soluble in water and cause foaming in wastewater treatment plants and in surface waters into which the wastewater effluent is discharged. Surfactants tend to collect at the air-water interface. During aeration of wastewater, these compounds collect on the surface of the air bubbles and thus create a very stable form. (10) ● Phenols Phenols in industrial effluent have teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic effects, they are toxicity and difficult to Bio-degradation. They will do harm to environment and have been listed in the 129 priority pollutants. (10) ● Pesticides & agricultural chemicals Trace organic compounds, such as pesticides, herbicides, and other agricultural chemicals, are toxic to most life forms and therefore can be significant contaminants of surface waters. ● Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Organic compounds that have a boiling point less than 100C and a vapor pressure more than 1mm Hg at 25 C are generally considered to be volatile organic compounds. The release of these compounds in sewers and at treatment plant is of particular concern with respect to the health of collection system and treatment plant workers.
  21. 21. 14 b) Parameter of organic content ● Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) The most parameter of organic content widely used parameter of organic applied to wastewater is the 5-day BOD. The BOD5 is usually exerted by dissolved and colloidal organic matter and imposes a load on the biological units of the treatment plant. Oxygen must be provided so that bacteria can grow and oxidized the organic matter. Added BOD5 load, caused by an increase in organic waste, require more bacterial activity, more oxygen, and greater biological unit capacity for its treatment. The determination of the BOD5 involves the measurement of the dissolved oxygen used by microorganisms in the 13 biochemical oxidations of organic matter. Several dilutions of the wastewater are put into standard BOD5 bottles with water that has been saturated with oxygen and contains bacteria. A control bottle is also prepared with only water and bacteria. The bottles are put into a standard incubator for five days, hence this is called the “five-day BOD test (BOD5)”. The difference in oxygen levels between the control bottle and the bottles with oxygen remaining is used to calculate the BOD5 IN mg/L. (11) TEST RESULTS ARE USED TO: 1) Determine the approximate quantity of oxygen that will be required to biologically stabilize the organic matter present. 2) Determine the size of wastewater treatment facilities. 3) Measure the efficiency of some treatment process. 4) Determine compliance with wastewater discharge permits
  22. 22. 15 Chemical oxygen demand (COD) The COD test is used to measure the organic matter in industrial wastewater that contains compounds that are toxic to biological life. It oxidizes the reduced compounds in wastewater through a reaction with a mixture of chromic and sulphuric acid at high temperatures. The COD of wastewater is, in general, higher than that of the BOD5 because more compounds can be chemically oxidized than can be biologically oxidized. For many types of wastewaters, it is possible to correlate COD with BOD5. This can be very useful because COD can be determined in 3 hours, compared with 5 days for the BOD5. Once the correlation has been established, COD measurements can be used to good advantage for treatment-plant control and operation. The ratio of COD to BOD5 is usually 1.5:2 for industrial wastewater containing biodegradable material (e.g., food industry). For wastewater with ratios higher than 3, it is assumed that some oxidized material in the sample is not biodegradable. No biodegradable material sometimes is called refractory and found mainly in wastewater from chemical and pulp& paper industries. (12) ● Total organic carbon (TOC) This method measures the organic carbon existing in wastewater by injecting a sample of the WW in special device in which the carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide is measured and used to quantify the amount of organic matter in WW. This method is only used for small concentration of organic matter. (12)
  23. 23. 16 c) Inorganic Matter Several inorganic compounds of wastewater are important in establishing and controlling wastewater quality. Industrial wastewater has to be treated for removal of the inorganic constituents that are added in the use cycle. Concentrations of inorganic constituents also are increased by the natural evaporation process, which removes some of surface water and leaves the inorganic substances in the wastewater. (13) ● Alkalinity Alkalinity in wastewater results from the presence of the hydroxides. Carbonates, and bicarbonates of elements such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, or ammonia. Of these, calcium and magnesium bicarbonates are most common. Borates, silicates, phosphates, and similar compounds can also contribute to the alkalinity. The alkalinity in wastewater helps to resist changes in pH caused by the addition of acids. The concentration of alkalinity in wastewater is important where chemical treatment is chemical treatment is to be used, in biological nutrients removal, and where ammonia is to be removed by air stripping. (13)  Phosphorous ….phosphorous is also essential to the growth of algae and other biological organisms. The organically bound phosphorous is an important constituent of industrial wastewater and sludge. (13) ● PH The hydrogen ion concentration is an important quality parameter of wastewater. The concentration range suitable for the existence of most biological life is quite narrow and critical. Wastewater with an adverse concentration of hydrogen ions is difficult to treat by biological means,
  24. 24. 17 and if the concentration is not altered before discharge, the wastewater effluent may alter the concentration in the natural waters. (13) ● Nitrogen Because nitrogen is an essential building block in the synthesis of protein, nitrogen data will be required to evaluate the turbidity of wastewater by biological process. Insufficient 16 nitrogen can necessitate the addition of nitrogen to make the wastewater treatable. Where control of algal growth in the receiving water is necessary to protect beneficial uses, removal, or reduction of nitrogen in wastewater prior to discharge may be desirable. The total nitrogen, as a commonly used parameter, consists of many numerous compounds such as amines, amino acids, urea, organic-N, etc. (13) ● Sulphur Sulphate is reduced biologically under anaerobic conditions to sulfide, which in turn can combine with hydrogen to form hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide released to the atmosphere above the wastewater in sewers that are not flowing full tends to accumulate at the crown of the pipe. The accumulated H2S can then be oxidized biologically to sulfuric acid, which is corrosive to steel pipes and equipment. (13)
  25. 25. 18 ● Toxic inorganic compounds ….These are found particularly in metal plating wastewater and should be removed by pre-treatment at this site of the industry rather than be mixed with the municipal wastewater. Fluoride, another toxic anion, is found commonly in wastewater from electronics manufacturing facilities. Organic compounds present in some industrial wastewaters are also toxic. Such a copper, lead, silver, chromium, arsenic, and boron ● Heavy metals Trace quantities of many metals, such as nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead(pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and mercury (Hg) are important 17 constituents of some industrial wastewaters. The presence of any of these metals in excessive quantities will interface with many beneficial uses of the water because of their toxicity, therefore, it is frequently desirable to measure and control the concentration of these substances. 2.4 Biological characteristics Some industries have certain pathogenic organisms like slaughterhouses others have fungi as starch and yeast factories. Biological tests on wastewater determine whether pathogenic organisms are present by testing for certain indicator organisms. Biological information is needed to assess the degree of treatment of the wastewater before its discharge to the environment. Total nitrogen is a commonly used parameter that includes a number of parameters, NH3, NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2- N, urea, organic N such as amines, amino acids, proteins, etc., and process chemicals. The presence of these compounds depends on the production. (14)
  26. 26. 19 Chapter 3 Industrial wastewater treatment
  27. 27. 20 3. Industrial wastewater treatment 3.1primary.treatment.(physical..treatment) …….primary treatments in many wastewater treatment facilities in elsewhere are the most common wastewater treatment processes and contain many forms of physicochemical processing that may be categorized into a small number of basic operations called unit operations. Physicochemical processes in the primary treatments food and agricultural wastewater generally comprise a set of unit operations that are intended to remove particulates and other coarse materials from the wastewater stream prior to the secondary treatment process (mostly biological process). The removed solids are fed into either aerobic or anaerobic digesters for further volume reduction. 19 In primary treatment, only physicochemical processes are used to separate suspended solids and greases form wastewater. Primary treatment of food and agricultural wastewater usually include screening, flotation, sedimentation, and sometimes granular sand filtration that used to separate suspended solids and greases from wastewater. In a typical wastewater treatment facility for a food processing plant, wastewater is normally held in a tank for several hours, allowing the particles to settle to the bottom and the greases to float to the top. The solids drawn off the bottom and skimmed off the top receive further treatment as sludge. The clarified wastewater flows on to the next stage of wastewater treatment. The exact line up and sequence of unit operations consists of unit operations to remove suspended solids, oils and elation largely depended on the characteristics of wastewater streams, objectives of treatment, and local environmental laws.
  28. 28. 21 a) Screening from …..Wastewater form food processing or postharvest processing may contain debris, either suspended or floating on the surface. These coarse solids have to be removed at the very beginning of the wastewater treatment regimen. Screening of debris is sometimes considered as a ''preliminary'' treatment, not part of primary treatment of wastewater, however, the distinction is more semantics than anything else. Screening can be effective in the food industry to reduce the amount of relatively large solids (0.7 mm or larger) quickly and cheaply in the wastewater. The simplest type of screen is an inclined flow through type of static screen with openings of about 1.5 mm to 6 mm for fine screens with opening of 0.2 to 1.5 mm placed after the coarse or fine screens, which can reduce suspended solids to levels near those achieved by primary clarification /sedimentation. (15) Fig. (2,3): show on Mechanical Screen
  29. 29. 22 b) Flotation Flotation is a physical process of removing not only oil and grease, but also fine and light suspended particulates from wastewater. Flotation has appeal to food wastewater treatment because this source of wastewater contains a substantial amount of oil/grease flotation on the surface. The particulates in wastewater that do not settle well and take too much time for settling are also good candidates for flotation treatment. Flotation is achieved by introducing gas (usually air) in the wastewater stream through either pressure dissolved air in the feed or direct air diffusers or vacuum. The air bubbles attach themselves to the particulates causing the particulates and oil to aggregate and rise to the surface where the particulates are removed by mechanical skimmers. For oil and grease removal, the emulsified oil grease in wastewater presents a problem for utilization of flotation technology.(18) fig (4) show Vacuum Flotation fig (5) show on Air Flotation
  30. 30. 23 c) Sedimentation Sedimentation is the most common physical unit operation in Wastewater, it is a process by which the suspended solids, which have higher densities than that of water, are removed from wastewater by the action of gravity in the bottom of the settling tank or basin (also called a clarifier) within a reasonable period of time. Sedimentation uses gravitational force to separate unstable and destabilized suspended solids from wastewater. It is based on the density difference between the bulk of the liquid and the solids. Stabilized solids such as colloids can be destabilized with flocculants. Sedimentation is a very important primary treatment process, however, also used in the biological treatment, such as activated sludge and trickling filters for solid removal. The settling characteristics of the solids are determined by the types of the settling’s solids and their concentrations. (17) fig. (6) shows on rectangular basin fig. (7) show on Circular basin
  31. 31. 24 d) Flow Equalization Generally speaking, flow equalization is not a treatment process or treatment methods, it's a method to improve wastewater treatment process, where they are physicochemical processes or biological processes. The purpose of flow equalization is to balance out the process parameters, such as flow rate, organic loading, and strength of wastewater streams, PH, and temperature over a 24-hour period. Flow equalization usually involves construction of large basins to collect and hold wastewater streams, from which the wastewater is pumped to treatment facilities at a constant rate. Mixing is usually provided to ensure adequate equalization in basins. Additionally, these basins also provide some treatment functions by oxidizing the reduced compounds in the wastewater and reducing the BOD through air stripping. The mixing may be achieved by a number of ways: distribution of inlet flow or baffling, turbine mixing, diffused air aeration, and mechanical aeration. (16) Fig. (8): show on parallel plate
  32. 32. 25 e) Filtration processes Filtration is often employed in wastewater treatment, with or without prior treatment by coagulation- flocculation and sedimentation, for removal of flocks from primary and secondary wastewater treatment processes, solids remaining in effluents from primary and secondary wastewater treatment processes, and precipitates from physicochemical treatment of phosphate from the advanced wastewater treatment stage. Earlier application of filtration for wastewater treatment borrowed heavily from design and operational experience with potable water treatment. Fig. (9): show on sand filter
  33. 33. 26 3.2 Secondary Treatment "Chemical Treatment" 3.2.a) Chemical Pre-treatment ● Neutralization Industrial wastewaters often contain acidic or alkaline components which require neutralization before discharge or treatment. For wastewater discharged to receiving waters, a pH between 6 and 9 is frequently specified by regulatory |agencies. For wastewater entering biological treatment processes, the pH should be maintained between 6.5 and 8.0 for optimum growth of the microorganisms. Aerobic biological processes generate CO, which also affects the pH of the system. Spent acid, especially sulfuric acid, constitutes the majority of plant wastewater requiring neutralization. Lime is the most widely used alkaline material for neutralization acid wastes because of its low cost. The solid lime, however, maybe slows to react and may form insoluble precipitates such as CaSO4.Sodium carbonate (soda ash), sodium hydroxide, and ammonia react faster with acids than lime but they are more expensive. Alkaline wastewaters are F12 usually neutralized with sulfuric acid or with waste acids from other operations. A flue gas can also be used to neutralize alkaline wastes since the CO, in flue gas forms carbonic acid when contacted with water. (19) ● Oxidation/Reduction Oxidants are used in wastewater treatment as a first step in the removal of heavy metals to oxidize organics or as a last step in a treatment process, to oxidize odoriferous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide or to oxidize inorganics such as cyanide and for disinfection.
  34. 34. 27 ● Coagulation it takes place in rapid mix, or flash mix basins they are very rapid, the primary function of rapid mix basin is to disperse the coagulant so that it contacts all of the wastewater. Two theories have been advanced to explain basic mechanisms involved in the stability and instability of colloid systems. Chemical theory assumes that colloids are aggregates of definite chemical structural units, it occurs because of specific chemical reactions between colloidal particles and the chemical coagulant added. Physical theory proposes that reduction of forces tending to keep colloids apart occurs through the reduction of electrostatic forces, such as the zeta potential good coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation is difficult to obtain in wastewater treatment. (19) ● Flocculation The purpose of flocculation is to form aggregates or flocs from the finely divided matter. The flocculation of wastewater by mechanical or air agitation may be worthy of consideration when it is desired to (19) :  Increase the removal of suspended solids and BOD5 in primary settling facilities.  Condition wastewater containing certain industrial wastes  Improve the performance of secondary settling tanks, especially the activated sludge
  35. 35. 28 Fig. (10) show on Coagulation & Flocculation Process 3.2.b) chemical precipitation Chemical precipitation in wastewater treatment involves the addition of chemicals it alters the physical state of dissolved and suspended solids and facilities their removal by sedimentation. The degree of clarification obtained depends on the quantity of chemical used and care with which the process is controlled. From80 to 90 percentof the total suspended matter, 50 to 80 percent of the BOND5 and 80 to 90 percent of bacteria can be removed by chemical precipitation. (19)
  36. 36. 29 3.3 Tertiary Treatment (Biological Treatment) 3.3.1 Biological wastewater treatment Often associated with secondary wastewater and intends to treat the dissolved and colloidal organics after primary treatment. The goal of all biological wastewater treatment system is to coagulate and remove or reduce the non-settling organics solids and dissolved organic load from the effluents by using microbial communities to degrade the organic load through biochemical reactions. Biological wastewater treatment is generally a major part of secondary treatment design wastewater and characterized by reduction of the communities to degrade the organic load through biochemical reactions and reduction of oxygen demand of influent wastewater to a given level of purification. The microorganisms responsible for reducing the organic maters and consequently the oxygen demand of inorganic wastewater is classified based on the way in which they utilize oxygen: aerobic (need oxygen for their metabolism), anaerobic (thrive in the absence oxygen), or facultative (can live with oxygen and live without it through their metabolisms). Aerobic biological treatment dominates secondary wastewater treatment scenes and is performed in the presence of oxygen by aerobic microorganisms (principally bacteria) that metabolize the organic matter in the wastewater. Anaerobic processes sometimes are also used in the secondary biological treatment of wastewater. Anaerobic processes employed to treat high-strength wastewater, such as high-strength food processing wastewater streams when the prospect of difficulty associated with oxygen supply to the reactor and large biomass produced in an aerobic process is deemed uneconomical.
  37. 37. 30 Aerobic biological treatment a) Activated sludge Processes Activated sludge is a secondary treatment process in which wastewater has normally received primary sedimentation is allowed to flow through the aeration tank or " reactor " where aerobic bacterial culture is maintained in suspension. The reactor contents are referred to as the " mixed liquor " The aerobic environment in the reactor is achieved by the use of diffused or mechanical aeration, which also serves to maintain the mixed liquor in a completely mixed regime. After a specified period of time, the mixture of new cells and old cells is passed into a settling tank, where the cells are separated from the treated wastewater. A portion of the settled cells is recycled to maintain the desired concentration of organisms in the reactor, and a portion is wasted. The portion wasted corresponds to the new growth of cell tissue, associated with a particular wastewater. The major types of activated sludge treatment processes used for secondary treatment are: Conventional Activated Sludge with variation of the conventional systems, Extended Aeration. Tod Sludge and variation of the conventional. b) Conventional Activated Sludge The conventional activated sludge system contains a tank for wastewater aeration followed by a settler and a solid recycle line. The wastewater flows through under constant aeration in the presence of activated sludge and exits at the end of the tank after 4-8 hours of residence time. As the flow passes through the tank, the high oxygen demand gradually will decrease. The oxygen concentration in the reactor should be 0.5-2 mg / l throughout, where values over 2 mg / l are considered lost energy. Most conventional plants use tapered aeration to
  38. 38. 31 adjust the air rate along the reactor length to satisfy the local oxygen demand. Fig. (11): show on Conventional Activated Sludge Extended Aeration This is the modified form of a conventional activated sludge process in which the production of Excess sludge is minimized by oxidation and an increase in residence time, i.e., through the larger size of the aeration tank. The retention time is extended to 1-2 days, which results in a very low net yield of sludge due to its consumption by endogenous respiration. The main advantage of the extended aeration system is in having the minimum of sludge handling facilities as compared with other conventional activated sludge processes. The sludge in extended aeration effluents is very light, of non - degradable nature, and settles with
  39. 39. 32 difficulty. Therefore, settling tanks are provided with a longer retention time of approximately 4 hours versus 2 hours for the conventional treatment process. Sequential Batch Reactor " SBR Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) is a fill - and - draw activated - sludge treatment system. The unit processes involved in the SBR and conventional activated - sludge systems are identical. Aeration and sedimentation / clarification are carried out in both systems. However, there is one important difference. In conventional plants, the processes are carried out simultaneously in separate tanks, whereas in SBR operation the processes are carried out sequentially in the same tank. (20) All SBR systems have five steps that are carried out in sequence as follows: 1) Fill 2) React (aeration), 3) settle (sedimentation / clarification), 4) Draw (decant) 5) Idle in that there is no need for a return activated. (20) Fig. (12): show on Sequential Batch Reactor biological treatment
  40. 40. 33 Trickling Filter " BiologicalAir Filters " The concept of a trickling filter grew from the use of contactfilters, which were watertight basins filled with broken stones. In operation, the contact bed was filled with wastewater from the top, and the wastewater was allowed to contact the media for a short time. The bed was then drained and allowed to rest before the cycle was repeated; a typical cycle required 12 hours (6 hours for operation and hours of resting). Fig. (13,14): show on Trickling Filter "Biological Air Filters " biological treatment”
  41. 41. 34 3.4 Anaerobic Biological Treatment. Anaerobic Contact Process Some industrial wastes that are high in BOD, can be stabilized very efficiently by anaerobic treatment. In the anaerobic contact process, untreated wastes are mixed with recycled sludge and then digested in a reactor sealed off from the entry of air. After digestion, the mixture is separated in a clarifier or vacuum flotation unit, and the supernatant is discharged as effluent, usually for further treatment. Settled anaerobic sludge is then recycled to seed the incoming wastewater. The disadvantages and advantages of the anaerobic treatment as compared to aerobic treatment that the slow growth rates required a relatively long detention time in the digester for adequate waste stabilization to occur. Most of the organic waste is converted to methane gas, which is combustible and therefore a useful end product. The high temperature necessary to achieve adequate treatment are often listed as disadvantages of the anaerobic treatment process; however, high temperature is necessary only when sufficiently long mean cell - residence time cannot be obtained at nominal temperatures. Fig. (15): show on Anaerobic Biological Treatment
  42. 42. 35 5. Conclusion  From reviewing study, there were many conclusions:  The physicochemical value of the sugar industry effluent is very high which cross the standard limit.  It should be facing this problem due to their effects on the ecology system.  Physio-chemical and biological methods are generally used to treat the sugar industries’ effluent.  The treated effluent of sugar industries is well balanced in chemicals if it is diluted with other fresh water and can be used for irrigation purpose.  Effluents which are released from sugar industry after treatment may be utilized for industrial processing again.  No industrial development can be expected without any adverse impact on environment and sustainable development would only be possible if the adverse effects are minimized through strict maintenance and control measures
  43. 43. 36 6. References: 1. Hammer, M.J. and Hammer Jr, M.J. (2011), “Water and Wastewater Technology”, (7th edition), Prentice-Hall, USA,pp159. 2. Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (2002). Wastewater Engineering - Treatment and Reuse (4Th edition). McGraw-Hill, New York,pp243. 3. Qasim, S.R. (1998). Wastewater Treatment Plants: Planning, Design & Operation (2nd edition). CRC Press, Sweden,pp283. 4. Tebbutt, T.H.Y. (1998). Principles of Water Quality Control (5th edition). Butterworth-Heinemann,Britain,pp154. 5. Viessman, W. and Hammer, M.J. (1998). Water Supply and Pollution Control (6th edition). Prentice-Hall, United kingdom,pp78. 6. Czysz W. and Schneider W., (1989) Wastewater Technology: Origin, Collection, Treatment and Analysis of Wastewater, Springer - Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, pp103-10 7. Wrang & Howard, (2004) " Hand book of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment " USA, pp96-97. 9.Csuros M., Csuros C. (1999). Microbiological Examination of Water and Wastewater. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 324 pp. 10.Industrial & Hazardous. )1991(Waste Treatment, Nelson Leonard Nemerow , Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,pp325.
  44. 44. 37 11.M.A. Mullkk, )1976(Wastewater Treatment Processes in the Middle East, Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C.pp 23 12. Metcalf & Eddy, )1991(Wastewater Engineering, Treatment Disposal & Reuse, Third Edition, United States American,pp748. 13. Nelson Leonard Nemerow,)1991( Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,pp472. 14. Nancy Riikonen, )1992(Industrial Wastewater Source Control, Mc Graw - Hill Publications Co. New York,635. 15. Vincent Cavaseno,)1980( .Industrial Wastewater & Solid Waste Engineering,. 16. Russell L. Culp, )1978(Handbook of Advanced Wastewater Treatment, Second Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold Environmental Engineering Series. New York,pp89. 18. Ralph L. Stephenson, )1998(The industrial Wastewater Systems Handbook, Lewis Publishers, New York,pp213. 19. W.W. Eckenfelder, )1970( Water Pollution Control, The Pemberton Press, Jenkins Publishing Company, New York. 20. NPDES Compliance Inspection Manual,) ,1994(, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental and Compliance Assurance September. 21. Environics Management of Environmental Systems, (2001)Environmental Inspection Procedures Manual. September. 22. Barron B., Rosenbaum M., Balcerzak P., Angenent L. (2010). A Curriculum for High School Science Education. Microbial Fuel Cells: A living Battery. Cornell University, p.89
  45. 45. 38 23. Clauwaert P., Van der Ha D., Boon N., Verbeken K., Verhaege M., Rabacy K .. Verstraete W. (2007). Open air bio cathode enables effective electricity generation with microbial fuel cells, Environmental Science and Technology. 41 (21, 7564-7569 24. Energy - Saving Wastewater Treatment: Taking a Sequencing Batch Reactor as an Example. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 108 (6), 1260-1267. 25. Flodman, A., (2002 ) . Air emissions of methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia when storing dewatered sewage sludge. Master Thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences , Uppsala , Sweden , 53p. 26. Lefebvre O. , Al - Mamun A. , Ng H.Y. ( 2008 ) . A microbial fuel cell equipped with a bio cathode for organic removal and denitrification . Water Science & Technology , 58 ( 4 ) , 881-885 . 27. Mathuriyal A.S., Sharma V.N. (2010) . Treatment of Brewery Wastewater and Production of Electricity through Microbial Fuel Cell Technology. International Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry , 6 (1 ) , 71-80 .
  46. 46. 39 .
  47. 47. 40 ‫الملخص‬ ‫ومع‬ .‫مصر‬ ‫في‬ ‫االقتصادية‬ ‫التنمية‬ ‫في‬ ‫مهمة‬ ‫مكانة‬ ‫السكر‬ ‫صناعة‬ ‫تحتل‬ ،‫ذلك‬ ‫مي‬ ‫فإن‬ ‫اه‬ ‫السكر‬ ‫مصانع‬ ‫تنتج‬ .‫التلوث‬ ‫عبء‬ ‫من‬ ‫عالية‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫تتحمل‬ ‫الصناعات‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الناتجة‬ ‫الصرف‬ ‫حوالي‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫في‬ 1000 ‫البنجر‬ ‫أو‬ ‫السكر‬ ‫قصب‬ ‫من‬ ‫واحد‬ ‫لطن‬ ‫الصحي‬ ‫الصرف‬ ‫مياه‬ ‫من‬ ‫لتر‬ ‫صناعة‬ ‫من‬ ‫العادمة‬ ‫المياه‬ ‫تشكل‬ .‫المطحون‬ ،‫السكر‬ ‫دون‬ ‫تصريفها‬ ‫تم‬ ‫إذا‬ ،‫معالجة‬ ‫تلوث‬ ‫مشاكل‬ ‫من‬ ‫كل‬ ‫في‬ .‫والبرية‬ ‫المائية‬ ‫البيئية‬ ‫النظم‬ ‫نسبة‬ ‫الرتفاع‬ ‫ا‬ً‫نظر‬ ،‫التلوث‬ ‫تؤثر‬ ‫التي‬ ‫ا‬ً‫ث‬‫تلو‬ ‫األكثر‬ ‫الصناعات‬ ‫من‬ ‫السكر‬ ‫صناعة‬ ‫تعتبر‬ ‫المهام‬ ‫من‬ ‫معالجتها‬ ‫وتعتبر‬ ‫معقدة‬ ‫خصائص‬ ‫السكر‬ ‫صناعة‬ ‫من‬ ‫الصرف‬ ‫مياه‬ ‫تحمل‬ .‫بيئتنا‬ ‫على‬ ‫استخدامه‬ ‫إعادة‬ ‫وكذلك‬ ‫معالجتها‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫من‬ ‫البيئة‬ ‫لمهندسي‬ ‫الصعبة‬ ‫اللون‬ .‫ا‬ ،‫البني‬ ‫الحر‬ ‫درجة‬ ‫ارة‬ ،‫المرتفعة‬ ‫الحموضة‬ ‫درجة‬ ،‫المنخفضة‬ ‫الكيميائى‬ ‫الكود‬ ،‫المرتفع‬ ‫الطلب‬ ‫األوكسجين‬ ‫الب‬ ‫يولوجي‬ ،‫العالي‬ ‫الصلبة‬ ‫المواد‬ ،‫الذائبة‬ ‫العضوية‬ ‫وغير‬ ‫العضوية‬ ‫المواد‬ ‫من‬ ‫الزائدة‬ ‫والنسبة‬ ‫الرائحة‬ ‫مشاكل‬ ،‫الذائبة‬ ‫الصناعية‬ ‫السكر‬ ‫لمخلفات‬ ‫المميزة‬ ‫السمات‬ ‫وهي‬ ‫تصريفها‬ ‫تم‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫السائلة‬ ‫النفايات‬ ‫هذه‬ . ‫دون‬ ،‫معالجة‬ ‫االقتصادية‬ ‫المعالجة‬ ‫تعتبر‬ .‫والبرية‬ ‫البحرية‬ ‫البيئية‬ ‫النظم‬ ‫من‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫مشاكل‬ ‫تطرح‬ ‫فإنها‬ .‫صعبة‬ ‫مهمة‬ ‫للسكر‬ ‫الصناعية‬ ‫للنفايات‬ ‫التكلفة‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫من‬ ‫والفعالة‬ ،‫لذلك‬ ‫معاي‬ ‫لتلبية‬ ‫التكلفة‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫من‬ ‫وفعالة‬ ‫مناسبة‬ ‫طريقة‬ ‫تضمين‬ ‫فإن‬ ‫الت‬ ‫ير‬ ‫هو‬ ‫فريغ‬ ‫التقنيات‬ ‫مختلف‬ ‫عن‬ ‫وموجزة‬ ‫موجزة‬ ‫لمحة‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫تقدم‬ .‫للوقت‬ ‫ا‬ً‫م‬‫تما‬ ‫المطلوبة‬ ‫الحاجة‬ ‫للسكر‬ ‫الصناعية‬ ‫المخلفات‬ ‫معالجة‬ ‫في‬ ‫المستخدمة‬ ‫المتقدمة‬ ‫عملية‬ ‫المعالجة‬ ‫الصناعي‬ ‫الصرف‬ ‫محطة‬ ‫داخل‬ ‫تتم‬ ‫على‬ :‫مرحلتين‬ 1 . ‫اولية‬ ‫معالجة‬ ‫الفيزيائية‬ ‫بالطرق‬ ‫الحجم‬ ‫كبيرة‬ ‫الملوثات‬ ‫من‬ ‫التخلص‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫وفيها‬ ‫والكيميائية‬ . 2 ‫ثانويه‬ ‫معالجه‬. ‫المواد‬ ‫من‬ ‫التخلص‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫وفيها‬ ‫العضوية‬ ‫الموجودة‬ ‫المياه‬ ‫في‬ ‫ال‬ ‫معالجة‬ ‫طريق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫هوائية‬ ‫ومعالجة‬ ‫هوائية‬ ‫وهذا‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫عنه‬ ‫يتحدث‬ ‫ما‬ ‫المشروع‬
  48. 48. 41 ‫بكالوريوس‬ ‫مشروع‬ ‫السكر‬ ‫صناعة‬ ‫من‬ ‫الناتجة‬ ‫الصرف‬ ‫مياه‬ ‫تدوير‬ ‫إعادة‬ ‫الطالب‬ ‫اعداد‬ ‫حسن‬ ‫مجدي‬ ‫محمد‬ ‫الرابع‬ ‫المستوي‬ ‫التكاملية‬ ‫والصناعات‬ ‫السكر‬ ‫صناعة‬ ‫تكنولوجيا‬ ‫كلية‬ ‫اشراف‬ ‫تحت‬ ‫النقيب‬ ‫عاطف‬ ‫د‬.‫أ‬ ‫كلية‬ ‫الهندسة‬ - ‫مشرف‬ ‫التكاملية‬ ‫والصناعات‬ ‫السكر‬ ‫صناعة‬ ‫تكنولوجيا‬ ‫بكلية‬ ‫الهندسية‬ ‫الشعبة‬ ‫أ‬ ‫سيوط‬ 2022