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Imperialism 2014

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Imperialism 2014

  1. 1. Imperialism in the 18th & 19th Centuries
  2. 2. IMPERIALISM (1770s-1914) Industrialized nations (Europe, U.S., Russia, and later Japan) strengthened their control over their colonies AND established transoceanic empires throughout Asia, the Pacific, and Africa. Imperialism is this extension of political and economic control of stronger nations over weaker nations
  3. 3. European Colonies - 1700
  4. 4. Industrialized nations control by 1900
  5. 5. WHY did industrialized nations seek to control other areas of the world in the 18th and 19th centuries?
  6. 6. Western nations wanted: PROFIT!!
  7. 7.  To control the trade of valuable products around the world- industrialization and growing affluence led to the need for extensive raw materials and agricultural products
  8. 8.  markets for their factory products-sometimes European factories produced more than Europeans could consume for themselves
  9. 9.  Absorb the excess population of European nations-avoid class conflict at home  Nationalism- “Great Power” status in a competitive political system (Italy and Germany)
  10. 10. ABCs for Baby Patriots-1899
  11. 11.  Missionaries, aid societies, and others wanted to “Christianize” and/or “civilize” people in less developed regions. •By 1910, 10,000 missionaries in Africa •By the 1960s, 50 million Africans were Christian
  12. 12. HOW did they do it? Industrialized nations:  Used their stronger militaries (using superior firepower, military technology, & navies)  Relied on native elites who were Western educated
  13. 13. Maxim Gun and Breech- loading rifles
  14. 14. •Steam ships and British control of Suez Canal •Underwater telegraph cables
  15. 15. Industrialized nations:  Used their wealth for influence  Had support by industrialists, military, and religious groups
  16. 16. Industrialized nations had:  Medicines and medical technology- Quinine to prevent malaria
  17. 17. JUSTIFICATION for Imperialism  Widespread belief among imperial powers that European races SHOULD dominate the world.  SOCIAL DARWINISM – survival of the world’s best races
  18. 18. Social Darwinism •Based on the ideas of Charles Darwin and the “survival of the fittest.” •European dominance involved the destruction or displacement of “backward” people or “unfit” races. •Imperial aggression was seen as both natural and progressive.
  19. 19. The Rhodes Colossus ©2012, TESCCC
  20. 20. The British Empire 19th century
  21. 21. The partition of Africa 1800s
  22. 22. Scramble for Africa  By 1914, 90% of Africa under European control  Berlin Conference in 1885 sets ground rules for European colonization of Africa  Hardest to conquer decentralized societies w/ no formal state structure- village by village
  23. 23. The partition of Africa 1914
  24. 24. • See if you can identify part of the problem with colonization.
  25. 25. Scramble for Africa  Consequences  Traditional way of life disrupted  Economic exploitation of Africans  European racism imported into Africa  Spread of European culture-education and religion  Spread of Western technology  Change to women’s roles
  26. 26. Scramble for Africa  Economic Consequences-Rise in forced labor within Africa  Forced Labor-Belgian Congo most infamous case of abuse  Cash-Crop agriculture-often led to famine for local people and dependence on foreign markets  Wage Labor-migration of labor, urbanization, mines
  27. 27. ECONOMIES of FORCED LABOR  Colonial subjects were required / forced to work as unpaid laborers on public projects like building railroads, constructing government buildings, and transporting goods.  French Africa – 10-12 days labor per year  Belgian Congo – private companies with state support terrorized natives to collect rubber  Netherlands East Indies – peasants required to turn 20% of their land into cash crop agriculture  Portuguese Mozambique – brutal enforcement of cotton production quotas
  28. 28. British control of India-British East India Company
  29. 29. Indian Rebellion1857-58 •Based on a series of Indian grievances towards the British •Led to intolerance of natives and direct control by the British government
  30. 30. Britain (United Kingdom) Includes England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland  Largest colonial empire  “Sun never sets on the British Empire”  Colonies established to protect trading interests in Africa and Asia  Two kinds of colonies  “White” Colonies (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa) Populated mainly by people that moved there from Britain  Given self-rule  “Non-white” Colonies (India, Africa)  Under indirect rule  Populated mainly by people who are native to the area  Few people from Britain actually live there – but control the government
  31. 31. What is being advertised? Where is this taking place? How can you tell? What is going on? What does it tell us about imperialism / colonialism? Who was the queen at the time? Common advertisement during Imperialism
  32. 32. A British Merchant's Home in Colonial India
  33. 33. European Imperialism in India  Consequences of British Imperialism in India  British educational system established-creates cultural divide between educated and uneducated  Spread of English language  Railroads tie India together  Rise of Indian middle class-Western educated and eventually politically active