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• The eye is a mirror which reflect the health of other systems in the human
• The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the
diagnosis of various systemic illnesses.
• Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes
mellitus and Graves’ disease.
• Awareness of the associations between the ocular manifestations and
endocrine disorders is the first step in the diagnosis and
management of these complex patients.
• Pituitary tumors are benign growths of cells in the pituitary gland .
• Small tumors of the pituitary are very common and usually without symptoms,
unless the tumor produces a hormone.
• However if the tumor enlarges,:
it can cause hormonal deficiencies by pressing on the normal pituitary cells.
If it grows even larger (> 1 cm), it can cause visual symptoms.
Depending on the size
of a pituitary tumor,
visual symptoms may
• Blurred vision (in one or both
• Loss of peripheral vision
• Double vision
A pituitary tumor can cause visual
symptoms arising from :
Pressure effects exerted on the optic
nerves, chiasma, or tracts.
Extension of the tumor into the
cavernous sinus can lead to paresis
of the third, fourth, or sixth nerves,
causing disorders of extraocular
Double vision :
Can occur when the normal eye
movements are affected.
Visual field defect in pituitary
• are caused by tumor compression
on the optic nerve or chiasm.
• Depending on the size and
location of the tumor.
• The severity and symmetry of the
visual field defect may vary as well
as the anatomical relationship of the
chiasm to the pituitary stalk.
TYPES OF VISUAL FIELD DEFECT
Monocular Visual Field Deficit.
Chiasmal Field Deficit.
Junctional Field Deficits.
Monocular Visual Field Deficit:
• Asymmetric tumors may involve
one side of the chiasm or an optic
nerve, and most commonly presents
as a supertemporal quadrantanopsia.
Chiasmal Field Deficit:
• lesions at the level of the optic
chiasm produce a bitemporal hemianopia.
• Pituitary adenomas, which grow
upward from the pituitary stalk,
compress the chiasm from below, which
preferentially involves the inferior, nasal,
and macular nerve fibers. This corresponds
to superior, bitemporal, and central vision loss.
Junctional Field Deficits:
• central scotoma in one eye with
temporal visual field loss in the other eye .
• It caused by compression to an anterior
loop to the decussating nasal fibers
within the posterior optic nerve
The doctor will examine:
• Visual acuity
• Color vision
• Peripheral vision .
• Eye movements
• The appearance of the
retina and optic nerve .
Papilledema is a rare finding in pituitary tumors.
because of the slow –growing nature of these tumors which
cause secondary optic atrophy before the tumor enlarges
sufficiently to increase ICP.
Medications to shrink the
tumor (depending on the type
of tumor cells).
Treatments for double vision
• Blocking the vision from one eye.
• Prisms in eyeglasses.
• Surgery on eye muscles to correct
the alignment of the eyes.
• Visual loss :
often improve after a pituitary tumor is treated.
Or may be permanent if it has been present for a long time or is severe.
• Visual field:
The pattern of recovery after decompression suggests at least three
phases of improvement.
The three phases of improvement :
The early fast phase (surgery to 1 week) may lead to normalization in
The early slow phase (1-4 months) is the period of most notable
A late phase (6 months to 3 years) of mild improvement doesn't appear
significant over all but maybe marked in some individuals.
the most common Hypothalmic –pituitary
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD).
Empty sella syndrome.
Oliver Mcfarlane syndrome.
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD):
It is a rare congenital anomaly
The classical triad of SOD includes:
(i) optic nerve hypoplasia .
(ii) pituitary hormone abnormalities.
(iii) midline brain defects.
Diagnosis of SOD can be made clinically
when two or more features of the triad are present.
• varying degrees of visual impairment.
• microphthalmia or anophthalmia.
• optic nerve dysplasia, or hypoplasia (wherein the optic nerve
appears small and pale).
Note...The presence of strabismus or nystagmus in a child at
birth with multiple congenital abnormalities should alert an
ophthalmologist to seek the opinion of an endocrinologist.
Empty sella syndrome:
Is defined as an intrasellar herniation of the suprasellar space with
compression of the pituitary gland.
Is classified as :
Primary… caused by combination of:
• Incomplete diaphragma sella.
• An increased CSF fluid pressure.
Secondary…when it discovers following pituitary radiation or
• Diminished visual acuity .
• Visual field defects such as peripheral field constriction,
bitemporal hemianopia, or quadrantanopia.
Note…... Patients with secondary empty sella predominantly
present with visual abnormality occurring due to arachnoidal
adhesions and traction on the optic chiasma.
Oliver Mcfarlane syndrome:
It is an extremely rare condition associated with :
chorioretinal degeneration, patients usually present with marked
decrease in vision.
Dwarfism with growth hormone deficiency.
THYROID EYE DISEASES
An autoimmune condition, which means that the body’s immune
system mistakenly targets its own tissues.
It occurs with :
an overactive thyroid in :
Toxic nodular goitre.
Hypothyroidism, for example
with Hashimoto’s disease.
• Autoimmune disease, in which immunoglobulins are directed
against the TSH receptors on the thyroid cellular membrane.
• Most common form of thyrotoxicosis.
• May occur at any age but mostly from 20-40.
• Is a condition that predominantly affects females.
I. Eye features.
III. Thyroid dermopathy (pretibial myxedema).
IV. Heat intolerance.
Classes 0-6, mnemonic “NO SPECS”
• Class 0: No signs or symptoms.
• Class 1: Only signs (lid retraction, stare, lid lag), no symptoms.
• Class 2: Soft tissue involvement (periorbital edema, congestion
or redness of the conjunctiva, and chemosis).
• Class 3: Proptosis .
• Class 4: Extraocular muscle involvement.
• Class 5: Corneal involvement.
• Class 6: Sight loss (optic nerve involvement).
CONJUNCTIVAL HYPERAEMIA PERIORBITAL AND LID SWELLING
Low TSH, High FT4 and/or FT3.
If eye signs are present, the diagnosis of Graves’ disease can be made without
If eye signs are absent and the patient is hyperthyroid with or without a goitre, we
need other tests for diagnosis (radioiodine, ………).
Symptoms and signs influence the management
strategy so we should assesse:
The degree of exophthalmos (exophthalmometer).
the intraocular pressure.
Extraocular muscle thickness
The degree of optic nerve compression
(electroretinogram, cortical visual evoked
potentials, and color contrast sensitivity ).
Management of opthalmopathy:
Management involves cooperation between the endocrinologist and
Keep head elevated at night to diminish periorbital edema.
If the cornea is exposed, it is important to prescribe artificial tears as
a means of corneal lubrication.
For more severely affected eyes, immunosuppressive therapy
with glucocorticoids benefit approximately 60% of patients with
If steroid therapy is not effective external x-ray therapy to the
retrobulbar area may be helpful.
If vision is threatened orbital decompression ( surgical) can be
• Is a common cause of hypothyroidism and goitre especially in children and young
• It is an autoimmune disease .
• Hypothyroidism usually has an insidious onset : patients present with complaints
of (lethargy, weight gain, dry and thickened skin ………………).
• Ophthalmologic features:
periorbital swelling (part of the generalized nonpitting skin edema of
characteristic loss of the outer third of the eyebrow.
open-angle glaucoma (deposition of a mucopolysaccharide within the
periorbital swelling loss of the outer third of the eyebrow.
PARATHYROID EYE DISEASE
There are four parathyroid
glands, which are located
behind the thyroid.
Hyperparathyroidism may be subdivided into primary,
secondary, tertiary, and pseudohyperparathyroidism.
Hyperparathyroidism causes hypercalcemia can lead to
ocular manifestations :
calcification of the conjunctiva.
calcified nodules of the eyelids.
Is usually the result of the accidental removal of the parathyroid
glands during thyroidectomy, although it may be idiopathic in origin.
The lack of parathyroid hormone produces a clinical state of
hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.
The ocular response to hypocalcemia is:
At presentation the lens develops subcapsular cataract.
Which with progression, involves the lenticular cortex.
chronic keratoconjunctivitis (especially in children with idiopathic
Adrenal eye disease
Excessive production of adrenocortical products.
Ocular involvement is poorly defined and may include :
Cataract (posterior subcapsular type) due to prolonged administration of
steroids not a feature of endogenous steroid overproduction.
elevation of intraocular pressure.
Caused by insufficiency of the
pigmentation involving the
eyelids and conjunctiva.
Papilledema caused by
Neuroblastomas arise from primitive neuroectodermal elements.
Patients may present with an abdominal mass and, because most of these
tumors secrete catecholamines.
ocular manifestation :
orbital metastatic can present with:
subconjunctival hemorrhage .
ecchymosis of the eyelids.
Horner's syndrome, usually associated with heterochromia iridis (less common
ecchymosis of the eyelids heterochromia iridis
This rare catecholamine-secreting
tumor originates in chromaffin cells.
The major ophthalmic feature
of the condition is hypertensive
swollen optic discs.
Turner syndrome is a condition in which there is an absence or structural
abnormality of one X chromosome in phenotypic females.
red–green color deficiency.
Ocular hypertension and glaucoma.
Is the most frequent form of sex chromosome aneuploidy.
Ocular manifestations include:
colobomas of the iris,
choroid and optic nerve.