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Events Preceding the Civil War
• Westward Expansion
• New Territories and
1850, and KansasNebraska Act
• Wilmot Proviso
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
John Brown’s Raid
Scott v. Sandford
North and South
• Election of 1860
• Secession of Southern
Daniel Boone is showing the
way Westward. Notice the
stance of the young man next
to him. How would you
describe the feeling he shows?
• Manifest Destiny was the idea
that America was destined to
become ―the great nation of
futurity.‖ Of course, that meant
the nation would expand
Westward. Furthermore, it
promoted an idea of American
racial and cultural superiority.
It also opened new
discussions about the spread
John Gast, American Progress, 1872
Although this painting was created after the war, it sums up the ideas
that Americans had had even before the war about going West.
Americans believed the country should span from sea to sea.
Although it looks like it would have been a huge mural, this painting
was only about 12 ¾ ― X 16 ¾ ― in size!
• In 1821 Mexico won its
independence from Spain. • Steve Austin
Mexico issued an invitation:
– First to bring settlers
– Agree to settle in newly
– Brought slaves
– Did not pay taxes
– Do not bring slaves
– Settled close to the
– Become Catholic or at
United States border
least pay taxes to the
• If a settler agreed to these
rules, Mexico would sell them
land for cheap. Most got the
land, but didn’t comply with
all the rules.
Santa Anna– Dictator of Mexico
– Took an army to this Texas
area to solve the issue
• The Alamo– An old mission at San Antonio
– Travis, Bowie, and Crockett
led a rebellion and sacrificed
themselves to protect Texas
from Santa Anna’s army.
• Sam Houston led a militia formed
for Texas. ―Remember the
– Houston and Santa Anna’s
– Houston won.
– Santa Anna was forced to leave
Texas became it’s own
country, the Republic of
Texas, for about a
decade, before finally
becoming a state in the
The Mexican War
• The Land
– Only thing standing in the way of Manifest Destiny
• The United States offered to buy the land for $30 million
• The War
– 3 main military companies
– Took California, New Mexico, and Nevada
– A militia run by Winfield Scott went directly to Mexico
• Most Civil War officers gained their first experience from
– Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Ulysses S. Grant,
and George Picket
• The New Offer
– Mexico was then offered $15 million.
– Take it or leave it
• ―The Spot Speech.‖
– Lincoln made a name for himself by asking where
was the exact spot that the Mexican War began.
• United States claimed that the Mexican border was
at the Rio Grande. However, Mexico stated that it
was at the Nueces River.
• Mexico claimed that the United States had invaded
their territory, which is why they fought back .
– He gained the nickname ―Spotty Lincoln.‖
• California and Texas became new
• Debate heated up over whether or not
new states would allow slavery.*
• Missouri Compromise(1820)- Proposed
by Henry Clay; kept the number of free
states and slave states equal. Missouri
would be a slave state, and Maine would
be a free state.
Slavery had already been abolished in the British Empire.
• An imaginary line was drawn across the
southern border of Missouri at latitude 36 30
N., but it only applied to the Louisiana
• Wilmot ProvisoProposed by David
Wilmot to ban slavery
in the West.
• The House passed it
in 1846, but shortly
afterwards the Senate
• California applied for admission to the Union in 1850 to be a
• The issue was so heated that Senator Henry Foote of
Mississippi pulled a gun on Senator Thomas Hart Benton of
Admission of California as a
• In 1849, the number of free states equaled
the number of slave states at 15/15.
• California being a free state would upset
the balance between free and slave states
set by the Missouri Compromise.
Clay vs. Calhoun
• ―the Great Compromiser‖
• Wanted an agreement
between the North and
• Feared that the nation
would break apart
• His plan: ―The
Compromise of 1850‖
• Senator of South Carolina
• Refused a compromise
• Demanded that fugitive or
runaway slaves be
returned to their owners
• Last reported words
1850: ―The Poor South!
God knows what will
become of her now!‖
Compromise of 1850
• Composed of FIVE parts:
1. Allowed California to enter Union as free
2. Formed territories of New Mexico and
Utah, and decision of slavery based on
3. Ended slave trade in Washington, D.C.
4. Created a strict slave law
5. Settled a border dispute between Texas
and New Mexico
Fugitive Slave Act Modified
• All citizens required to report runaway
• Helping fugitive slaves would result in a
$1000 fine and jail
• Judges given rewards for sending
runaway slaves back to South
• Antislavery advocates in North outraged
• Forced even non-slaveholders to be a part
of the slavery system
• Antislavery Bestseller
• Published in 1852
• Showed the evils of
slavery and Fugitive
• Popular in North and
hated in the South
• Southern complaint: did
not give a true picture of
• Made more northerners
see slavery as immoral
Tensions build in Kansas
• Proslavery and
moved into the
• Many farmers from
moved to the territory
in hopes of gaining
• Proposed by Stephen
• Established territories
of Kansas and
• Gave settlers popular
sovereignty to decide
on slavery issue.
• After hearing about the events that took
place in Kansas, Abraham Lincoln
predicted that bloodshed would occur.
• At this time, he was a young lawyer from
• Many northerners were unhappy
with the Kansas-Nebraska Act
because it repealed the Missouri
Two Governments in Kansas
• Elections in 1855,
• Refused to abide by
laws of the proslavery
• New laws were
• Established their own
passed that made
helping slaves escape
punishable by death
• Proslavery raid on the town of Lawrence.(Antislavery
• John Brown, an abolitionist, struck back by
murdering five proslavery settlers. (Pottawatomie
• These events led to even more violence, and by
1856, more than 200 people had been killed.
Violence in the
*In his "Crime Against Kansas" speech, Sumner identified two Democratic senators
as the principal culprits in this crime—Stephen Douglas of Illinois and Andrew Butler
of South Carolina. He characterized Douglas to his face as a "noisesome, squat, and nameless animal . . . not a proper model for an American
senator." Andrew Butler, who was not present, received more elaborate treatment.
Mocking the South Carolina senator's stance as a man of chivalry, the
Massachusetts senator charged him with taking "a mistress . . . who, though ugly to
others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in
his sight—I mean," added Sumner, "the harlot, Slavery."
Senator Charles Sumner of
Massachusetts criticized Andrew
Butler of South Carolina for
Butler’s proslavery views.
• Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston
Brooks, responded a few days later by
marching into the Senate chamber and
beating Sumner with a cane. *
• Scott was a slave from
Missouri who had lived in
Wisconsin and Illinois.
(two free states)
• After Scott returned to
Missouri, his owner died.
Scott sued for his freedom.
• This led to the Supreme
Court case known as Dred
Scott v. Sandford.
What unusual thing do you notice about his
signature? What do you know about the culture of
the time period that might cause this?
• Scott’s lawyers argued that he
had lived in a free territory, so
he was a free man.
• Court ruled that Scott could
not file a lawsuit because he
was not a citizen.
• Court decision stated that
slaves were considered to be
• The Supreme Court also ruled
that Congress could not outlaw
slavery, which made the
The Republican Party
• Formed to give a voice against slavery.
• Supporters of the new party fed up with
Whigs and Democrats.
• Main goal was to keep slavery out of
Republicans did not
yet have the
Lincoln v. Douglas for Senate in
• Slavery was morally
• Wanted to prevent the
spread of slavery.
• Douglas won the election
by a slim margin.
• Western territories should
decide slavery issue by
• Personally disliked
John Brown’s Raid
• John Brown who led
another raid, this time on
a Federal arsenal at
Harper’s Ferry, Virginia,
hoping to start a slave
• Although Brown took
control of the arsenal, the
rest of the plan fell apart.
U.S. Marine Col. Robert
E. Lee led the group that
captured Brown. Brown
was later hanged.
Presidential Election of 1860
• Democratic party split in two:
• Southern democrats -supported slavery in
the territories. Represented by John
• Northern democrats- refused to support
slavery in the territories. Represented by
Election of 1860
• Constitutional Union party- established to
try and heal the split between the North
and South. Represented by John Bell of
• Republican party- Represented by
• Abraham Lincoln won the northern states,
which sealed the election.
• Abraham Lincoln’s election left the South
feeling like they had no representation in
the federal government.
• As a result, South Carolina seceded on
December 20, 1860 and Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and
Texas followed by 1861.
• Southerners felt they could secede because Declaration
of Independence said people could abolish government.
• Confederate States of America was formed, and
Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was the President.
The Civil War Begins
• Lincoln stated that
there would be no war
unless South started
• Confederate forces
began taking over
forts in the South.
• Located in South Carolina
• Important to the Confederacy, because it
guarded Charleston Harbor
• Confederate forces demanded the fort to
surrender, but the commander refused.
• Confederate forces fired on the fort until it
• This event marked the start of the Civil War.