O slideshow foi denunciado.

Irga portable photosynthetic system



Próximos SlideShares
In Situ Infrared Gas Analyzer
In Situ Infrared Gas Analyzer
Carregando em…3
1 de 36
1 de 36

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Audiolivros relacionados

Gratuito durante 14 dias do Scribd

Ver tudo

Irga portable photosynthetic system

  1. 1. welcome
  3. 3. Introduction • In 1971 there were no commercial portable systems; measurement of photosynthesis in the field was only possible via mobile or field laboratories. • Measurement of photosynthesis then required an intricate knowledge of the infrared gas analyzer, its daily or hourly calibration, flow meters, properties of the materials used, and vigilant leak detection. • Similarly, calculation of CO₂ uptake from measured CO₂ mole fractions, flow rate, pressure, temperature, humidity, leaf area, etc. would require an intricate knowledge of the equations and corrections, and probably access to a mainframe computer.
  4. 4. PRINCIPLE • Infra red gas analyzers (IRGA) are used for the measurement of a wide range of hetero atomic gas molecules including CO₂, H₂O, NH₃, CO, SO₂, N₂O, NO and gaseous hydrocarbons like CH₃. • Hetero atomic molecules have characteristic absorption spectrum in the infra red region. • Therefore absorption of radiation by a specific hetero atomic molecule is directly proportional to its concentration in an air sample.
  5. 5. • Infra red gas analyzers measure the reduction in transmission of infra red wavebands caused by the presence of gas between the radiation source and a detector. • The reduction in transmission is a function of the concentration of the gas. • The primary role of IRGA is to measure the CO₂ concentration. • The IRGA is sensitive to detect even a change of one ppm of CO₂.
  6. 6. • The leaf or a plant is enclosed in air tight chamber and the CO₂ fluxes are determined by measuring the CO₂ concentration changes in the chamber atmosphere. • The major absorption peak of CO₂ is at 4.25µm with secondary peak at 2.66, 2.77 and 14.99 µm. • Both water vapour and CO₂ molecules absorb IR radiation in the 2.7µm range.
  7. 7. PROCEDURE • The portable photosynthesis system is a portable IRGA and is to operate as an open system to measure the gas exchange parameters. • It consists of separate IRGAs to measure CO₂ and H₂O vapour concentrations, an internal air supply unit and the necessary software for the computation of gas exchange parameters . • Li 6400 uses for independent infrared gas analyzers, 2 each for CO₂ and H₂O.
  8. 8. • One pair of C₂O and H₂O analyzers defined as reference measures the CO₂ and water vapour concentration in the ambient air that is sent into leaf chamber. • Similarly second pair, the analysis chambers measures the CO₂ and water vapour concentrations in the air that is coming from the leaf chamber. • The difference between the reference and the analysis IRGAs are computed.
  9. 9. • Physiological efficiency of green gram genotypes under moisture stress conditions was measured in laboratory. • A leaf is clamped to the leaf chamber. • The leaf chamber is provided with suitable pads to clamp an area of 2.5 cm² under airtight conditions. • Separate tubing is provided to send and withdraw air from the leaf chamber . • These tubes are connected to either of the reference or analysis IRGA for the determination of gas concentrations.
  10. 10. • A quantum sensor is placed inside the leaf chambers transparent cover to measure the actual light intensity in PAR range at the leaf surface. • Blue and red LED (light emitting diode) is fixed on the top of the leaf chamber. • The LEDs emit light in the PAR region and the intensity of which can be fixed and controlled at a required level. • The light source is capable of providing the photosynthetically active radiation in the energy range of 0 to 2000 µ mole m¯² s¯¹.
  11. 11. • A CO₂ cartridge normally carrying 8g of pure CO₂ in liquid form is used to get the requisite CO₂ concentration in the leaf chamber. • The system mixes the ambient air with the CO₂ to obtain the requisite concentration in the leaf chamber. • The path of the ambient air is provided with 2 scrubbers to remove moisture (drierite used as a desiccant) and CO₂ (soda lime to remove CO₂)
  12. 12. IRGA Working Procedure (LI6400) • Usage of IRGA equipments by students and scientists often found complicated. • Here is the operation protocol for easy handling of the equipments both in green house and field experiments. STARTING: 1. First charge the batteries one day prior to record data using IRGA. 2. Load the charged batteries first. 3. Connect the CO₂ tube to the inlet of the instrument. 4. All screws of this instruments must be in tight fitting.
  13. 13. 5. Connect the CO₂ tube in a proper way. Connect this tube very tightly otherwise it shows leak (- ppm) in display. 6. the 2nd edge of this tube was kept in empty thermocol box and enclosed for uniform entry of air into the tube. 7. Switch “ON” the instrument. 8. Displays shows – A. Welcome to loading open system. B. Starting net working. C. It shows the fluorescence + WUE X m1 – press “enter”. D. Is the chamber IRGA connected Y/S – Yes – press “Y”. 9. Open the IRGA leaf chamber one time and close it.
  14. 14. 10. Select ‘New measurements’ press (F4). 11. In display select ‘open log file’ press (F1). A. Give file name and press “enter”. B. Next – give sub file name and press “enter”. C. Give date and press “enter”. 12. Next – CO₂ matching. A. Select Match (F5) B. Wait up to we get equal values of reference CO₂ and sample CO₂. C. If we need close matching press ‘Match IRGA’ (F5) after that press “exit” (F1).
  15. 15. 13. In display set the rows - m, n, c and 9. A. If we want ‘m row’ – press ‘ m alphabet’. B. If we want ‘ n row’ – press ‘ n alphabet’. C. If we want ‘ c row’ – press ‘ c alphabet’ it is already exist. D. If we want ‘ 9 row’ – press ‘ 9 number’. 14. In this condition wait for 15-20 min. for warming of instrument (before inserting the leaf in IRGA chamber). 15. Leaf should not fold in IRGA chamber. If leaf get folds it shows negative readings. Leaf should not have any moisture and dust before inserting leaf.
  16. 16. 16. Insert the leaf in IRGA chamber. A. Give the ‘Dark pulse’ (F3). B. Press ‘zero’ getting ‘zero’ row. C. Before going to next step, see the ‘F’ value must be stable and df/dt value is ˂5. D. Select DOFoFm – (F3). 17. Select row no : 9 : press ‘Actinic On’ (F4). 18. Select row no : 8: press ‘Define Actinic’ (F3). A. It shows ‘Actinic Definition – press “enter”. B. Type 1000 ( PAR value 1000) press “enter”.
  17. 17. 19. Select ‘zero’ row. A. Before going to next step, see them, ‘F’ value must be stable and df/dt value is <5 B. Select DOFsFoFm – (F4). 20. If we want fluorescence value select ‘O’ alphabet and note down the Fv’/Fm’ value. 21. Now note down the IRGA readings (photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance). 22. Before taking next reading ‘Actinic is in OFF’(F4). Do as above for taking every next reading. 23.time taken for each reading is 10-20 min.
  18. 18. 24. After taking of readings IRGA chamber must be in open conditions (loose the screw). 25. Replace the fluorescence chamber foam (white foam) at the time of entire damage. SHUTDOWN: 1. In every shutdown process ‘Actinic’ must be in “Off” condition. 2. Press ‘Escape button’. 3. Select ‘Utility menu – F5’.
  19. 19. 4. Coming down using down arrow. 5. Select ‘Sleep’. 6. Give ‘Enter’. 7. It shows – Ok to sleep Y/N. A. Press Yes – ‘Y’ alphabet. 8. Switch off the system. 9. Disconnect the CO₂ tube. 10. Keep batteries for charging.
  20. 20. PARAMETERS RECORDED FROM IRGA: 1. Photosynthetic rate (photo): µmole CO₂ m²/sec. 2. Stomatal conductance (cond): mole H₂O m²/sec. 3. Transpiration rate (Trmmol): m. mole H₂O m²/sec. 4. Intercellular CO₂ concentration (Ci): µmole CO₂ mole¯¹. 5. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/ Fm’ values) Where, Fv’= Variable fluorescence; Fm’= Maximum fluorescence.
  21. 21. ADVANTAGES Three advantages to the closed IRGA system: 1. It is compact and light-weight. 2. Comparatively low-priced, and relatively simple to calibrate and operate. 3. This makes it an appropriate instrument to use in secondary and undergraduate field courses.
  22. 22. DISADVANTAGES • There are two major disadvantages to using a closed IRGA system: • Photosynthesis measurements must be made within a few seconds after closing the leaf chamber: and the operator has limited control over environmental conditions within the chamber. • Once the leaf is sealed in the chamber, CO₂ concentration in the leaf chamber- is continually decreasing. • Consequently, if the leaf has a high photosynthetic rate, resulting in a rapid reduction of the chamber CO₂ concentration, measurements must be made quickly to avoid the possibility of a direct effect of low CO₂ concentration on photosynthesis.
  23. 23. • This limits the amount of time one may allow for a leaf to adjust to a particular experimental condition (light level, temperature, etc.). • This problem may be partially overcome in some closed systems by using an external flow switch which allows the operator to open the system and draw outside air into the chamber while the leaf acclimates prior to beginning measurements. • The second limitation concerns the control of temperature and relative humidity within the chamber during measurement.
  24. 24. • Because the closed system was designed to be portable. • It typically does not include heat-exchange devices for maintenance of constant air temperatures within the chamber. • In addition, the air stream cannot be consistently humidified to a desired level. • whereas steady state humidity control is commonly a part of open systems.
  25. 25. • ARTICLE • 1.Analysis of leakage in IRGA’s leaf chambers of open gas exchange systems: quantification and its effects in photosynthesis parameterization (J. Flexas et al.) • The measurement of the response of net photosynthesis to leaf internal CO2 (i.e. A–Ci curves) is widely used for ecophysiological studies. Most studies did not consider CO2 exchange between the chamber and the surrounding air, especially at the two extremes of A–Ci curves, where large CO2 gradients are created, leading to erroneous estimations of A and Ci. • A quantitative analysis of CO2 leakage in the chamber of a portable open gas exchange system (Li-6400, LI-COR Inc., NE, USA) was performed. • In an empty chamber, the measured CO2 leakage was similar to that calculated using the manufacturer’s equations.
  26. 26. • However, in the presence of a photosynthetically inactive leaf, the magnitude of leakage was substantially decreased, although still significant. • These results, together with the analysis of the effects of chamber size, tightness, flow rate, and gasket material, suggest that the leakage is larger at the interface between the gaskets than through the gaskets. • This differential leakage rate affects the parameterization by photosynthesis models. • The magnitude of these errors was assessed in tobacco plants. • The results showed that leakage results in a 10% overestimation of the leaf maximum capacity for carboxylation (Vc,max) and a 40% overestimation of day respiration (Rl).
  27. 27. • Using the manufacturer’s equations resulted in larger, non-realistic corrections of the true values. • The photosynthetic response to CO2 concentrations at the chloroplast (i.e. A–Cc curves) was significantly less affected by leakage than A–Ci curves. • Therefore, photosynthetic parameterization can be improved by: (i) correcting A and Ci values for chamber leakage estimated using a photosynthetically inactive leaf; and (ii) using A–Cc instead of A–Ci curves.
  28. 28. • 2. Measurement of leaf and canopy photosynthetic C02 exchange in the field (S.P. Long et al.) • The principles and limitations of leaf gas exchange measurements in portable gas exchange systems . • Attention is given to the design and developments in infrared gas analyzers used in portable systems, and the basic structure of single and dual beam instruments is presented. • The significance of flow measurement in these systems and the principles of thermal mass flow measurement are illustrated. • Considerations of leaf area measurement, chamber design and choice of materials are outlined.
  29. 29. • Two specific developments in field gas exchange systems are described and their significance in field measurements is illustrated with examples. • (1) An integrating sphere leaf chamber for the determination of the quantum yield of photosynthesis, on the basis of absorbed light, is explained. • The significance of this approach is illustrated by a comparison of data for contrasting leaves plotted on an absorbed and incident light basis. • This measurement of light-limited photosynthesis is also critical in understanding the contribution of shaded leaves to canopy photosynthesis. • (2) A system for the measurement of canopy photosynthesis from arable crops and low stature natural vegetation is described.