4. New paradigm
1.Focus on language
4.Emphasis on product
5.One answer, one-way
6.Tests that test
1.Focus on communication
4.Emphasis on process
5.open-ended, multiple solutions
6.Tests that also teach
How can we assess our students in a way that consistently
reflects their true ability in the second language?
An alternative assessment to traditional
forms of assessment has been proposed.
6. Alternative assessment focuses more on measuring learners
ability to use language holistically in real-life situations and
is typically carried out continuously over a period of time.
7. Discussing about :
A number of alternative assessment procedures that
second language teachers can use in their writing class.
A variety of techniques of giving feedback on student
8. Alternative assessment:
Responses to commonly Asked Questions
Alternative assessment has been described as an
alternative to standardized testing and all of the problems
found with such testing.
A variety of labels has been used to distinguish it from
traditional, standardized testing.
10. • Alternative assessment is different from traditional testing in
that it actually asks students to show what they can do.
• Students are evaluated on what they integrated and produced
rather than on what they are able to recall and reproduce.
• The main goal of alternative assessment is to
“gather evidence about how students approaching,
Processing , and completing real life tasks in a particular
11. • Alternative assessment provides alternatives to traditional
1) It does not intrude on regular classroom activities.
2) Reflects the curriculum that is actually being
implemented in the classroom
3) Provides information on the strengths and weaknesses of
each individual student
4) Provides multiple indices that can be used to gauge
5) It is more multiculturally sensitive and free of norm ,
linguistic and cultural biases.
12. Alternative assessment includes a variety of instruments
that can be adapted to varying situations.
Use of checklists
Videos of role play
Audiotapes of discussions
13. Validity , and Objectivity
The following questions focus on these issues:
Does the test measure what is supposed to measure?
Is the test consistent in its measurement?
Is the test unbiased?
14. • An instrument is deemed to be trustworthy if it has
credibility and auditability
15. Suggestions to ensure the existence of reliability in
Design multiple tasks that lead to the same outcome.
Use trained judge, working with clear criteria.
Monitor periodically to ensure that raters use criteria and
standards in a consistent manner.
16. Reliability, or consistency, in qualitative research is often
ensured through yet another means , triangulation.
In qualitative research, triangulation refers to:
“The combination of methodologies to strengthen a study
When applied to alternative assessment , triangulation
refers to the collection of data or information from three
different sources or perspectives.
18. Another concern that is often raised with respect to alternative
assessment is the lack of objectivity.
Even though , standardized tests are described as objective , the
notion of objectivity has been challenged.
A standardized test merely represents agreement among a number
of people on scoring procedures, format, and content for that
specific test. These individuals are not really objective; they just
collectively share the same biases.
There is no reason to consider alternative assessment as being any
19. Nontraditional or Alternative forms of
• In terms of pedagogical concerns , this paper considers the
following nontraditional or alternative forms of
assessment of classroom-based writing:
20. Portfolio assessment:
Portfolio is defined as:
A cumulative collection of the work students have done.
A typical writing portfolio contains the student's total
writing output to represent his or her overall
performance. but it may also contain only a selection of
works which the student has chosen for the teacher to
21. Portfolio collections may also serve as responses to student
writing . Conferencing is an important component of portfolio
Students, through conferencing and keeping a portfolio,
experience making real-life decisions as well as decisions about
This is a real step toward learner autonomy.
No system of assessment is as perfect as portfolio assessment.
They are also free to select from their work . This shows that
portfolios may be used as a holistic process for evaluating course
work and for promoting learner autonomy.
23. Learning logs:
Learning logs help teachers see what their students
In a learning log, students write on the knowledge
they have gained from studying in their writing
24. Journal entries:
Journal entries may be used as an informal means of
assessment by the teacher because they are personal
25. Dialogue journal:
They are written conversations between teacher and
student over a period of time.
Their goal is to communicate in writing, to exchange
ideas and information free of the concern for form.