Grammar book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. Spanish 3Grammar BookZachary Hoggs
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Present Tense2. Stem Changers3. Irregular YO verbs4. Saber vs. conocer5. Reflexive verbs6. "Se" impersonal7. Verbs like gusta(an)8. Dipthongs9. Irregular verbs (ger/gir, uir/guir, cer/cir)10. Hacer expressions (Hace+ __________+Que+_____)11. Imperfect12. Preterite Tense13. Car/Gar/Zar14. Cucaracha Verbs15. Snake/Snakey16. Comparatives/Superlatives17. Future
  3. 3. Present Tense -ar -er irYo O O OTú -as -es -esÉl/Ella/Usted -a -e -eNosotros/as -amos -emos -imosEllos/Ellas/Ust -an -en -enedes Hablar: Ver: Vivir: Hablo Veo Vivo Hablas Ves Vives Habla Ve Vive Hablamos Vemos Vivimos Hablan Ven Viven
  4. 4. Stem Changers Verbs that have a spelling change when conjugated in all forms except nosotros, and vosotros. e -> ie (Querer) e -> i (Pedir) o -> ue (Dormir) u -> ue (Jugar)
  5. 5. Irregular VerbsIrregular verbs in the present tense.  Go Verbs  Verbs that have a –go ending in the “yo” form.  Hacer -> hago  Poner -> Pongo  Tener -> Tengo Zco Verbs  Verbs that add a “Z” berfor the “C” in the “yo” form.  Producir -> Produzco  Traducir -> traduzco  Introducir -> Introduzco
  6. 6. Sober V.S Conocer Saber:  Use saber to express knowledge, or lack of knowledge, of information, or the performance of a skill.  No sé donde está  Sé cocinar como un chef.  Sé todo el alfabeto en español. Conocer:  Use to express familiarity with a person, place, or thing.  Conoces a mi hermana?
  7. 7. Reflexives  In a reflexive sentence the subject is the same as the object.  Reflexive verbs are followed by a reflexive pronoun.Subject Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun ExampleYo Me Me peino el peloTú Te Te peinas el pelo.Él/Ella/Usted Se Ella se peina el pelo.Nosotros/as Nos Nos peinamos el pelo.Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes Se Ellos se peinan el pelo.
  8. 8. “Se” Impersonal Verbs that are not directed towards a specific person, place, or thing.
  9. 9. Dipthongs Some verbs require an accent to place stress on proper syllables for correct pronunciation. A dipthong is a weak vowel(I,y,u) and a strong vowel(a,e,o) or two weak vowels coming together to form one syllable. An accent is placed on the weak vowel. Esquiar-”To ski”  Esquío  Esquías  Esquíos  Esquiamos  esquían
  10. 10. Ger/Gir Verbs Inthe present tense, verbs that end with -ger or –gir changes the g to a j in the yo form Coger  Exigir  Cojo  Exijo  Coges  Exiges  Coge  Exige  Cogemos  Exigimos  Cogen  Exigen
  11. 11. Imperfecto Used to explain what continuously happened, to describe people or places, explain a feeling, tell the time of day, to tell what an action was interrupted by, or to describe a setting in the past. -ar -er/-ir Yo -aba -ía Tú -abas -ías Él/Ella/Usted -aba -ía Nosotros/as -abamos --íasmos Ellos/Ellas/Us -aban --ían tedes
  12. 12. Hace+ ____ + Que+ ____ Shows length of time in which the action has taken place. Hace+ (time) + que + (Present tense form of verb)
  13. 13. Preterite Pasttense Known beginning, and ending “Snapshot” of time
  14. 14. Trigger words for Preterite Ayer Anoche Anteayer La semana pasada…..
  15. 15. Preterite endingsE I Aste IsteO io Amos imos Aron Ieron
  16. 16. Irregulares EN YO: Car - que Gar - gue Zar - ce
  17. 17. Spock: Irregular Hacer Ir Ser Dar Ver
  18. 18. Cucaracha Andar-anduve Estar-estuve Pder-pude Poner-puse Querrer-quise Saber-supe Tener-tuve Venir-vine Conducir-conduje Producir-produje Traducir-traduje Trajer-traje Decir-dice
  19. 19. Snake/ Snakey Stem Changers(3rd person)  Dormir -> DuermoY Changers Leer: lei leimos leiste leyo leyeron
  20. 20. Comparatives/SuperlativesMas/Menos +_________+ que More/less thanTan+ ______ + como As ____ as• Tantos+ _______ (noun) + como
  21. 21. El Futuro Infinitive + s Emos n Ir + a + infinitive = Immediate future