SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERS, MEANS
OF COMMUNICATION, VITAL STATISTICS, SOCIO-
ECONOMIC STATUS OF POPULATION BABO
KEBELE, KEBELE,JIMMA, April 2022
CBTP I GROUP III
SCHOOL OF MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE
List of Students
S.No Group members ID Number Position
1 Niguse Girma RU 1172/12
2 Nizamu Abadura RU1468/12
3 Nuredin Nemo RU1221/12
4 Oliyana Tadese RU1382/12
5 Phetros Temesgen RU1593/12
6 Roba Merga RU1489/12
7 Samuel Nunu RU5123/12
8 Selamawit Urga RU0264/12 Logistic
9 Serkalem Yakob RU5125/12 Logistic
10 Sosina Tilahun RU0306/12
11 Tamene Ayele RU1290/12
12 Waktole Geleta RU1423/12
13 Wondimu Bira RU1331/12 Reporter
14 Yeabsira Kifle RU5132/12
15 Yohannes Kitessa RU5134/12 Logistic
16 Yonatan Demeke RU1140/12 Leader
List of Supervisors
• Main goal of CBE
• Strategy of CBE
• Statement of the
• Literature review
• Ethical consideration
• Action plan
Jimma University (JU) is one of Ethiopian public higher
educational institutions that established in December1999.
Jimma university is the forerunner institution of community
oriented education, which is known as CBE
Community based Education (CBE) is a means of achieving
educational relevance to community needs and consists of
learning activities that use the community extensively as a
learning environment through community-oriented
education program beginning from the establishment of JU.
Hence the core philosophy of the university is:
1. Community Based and problem oriented education
2. Multi-disciplinary training
3. Integrated training service and research
The main goal of CBE is:
To enhance student to apply what they have studied to solve
problems in their society,
To enhance social contact and relationship, and
To increase students skill acquisition.
Componentsof strategiesof CBE
In order to realize the educational philosophy of CBE, the
university has developed the following strategies:
PRINCIPLE OF CBE
• Exposing student to real environment
• Application of theory in to practice
• Solving communities health related problem
• Team sprit approach
• Knowledge generating process
ADVANTAGEOF CBE FOR JU STUDENT
• improve commitment
• provide self confidence
• provide competence
• provide comprehensive knowledge
• offer challenge tolerance for the student
• provide capacity of problem solving
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
• The main focus of the problem is to investigate and deal
with how the income of the community affects the
health, means of communication, socio demographic
characteristics, vital statics of study community.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It helps the students to understand and know better
about the society.
It enables the students to know the existing social
problems and explore the possible solutions.
Promotes mutual understanding between the
community and the students. improve the students
ability to collect, analyze and interpret data.
Prepare and give awareness for students on how to
CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW
Literature was reviewed in different publication just to
refer the income of the community, the means of
communication, socio demographic characteristics and
CSA and EPDRS played a huge role as a review on
asessing all of the ff:-
1. Population age and sex determination in Ethiopia
2. Education of population in Ethiopia
3. Marital status in Ethiopia
4. Religion in Ethiopia
5. Child delivery status in Ethiopia
6. Access to media in Ethiopia 11
CHAPTER 3 : OBJECTIVES
General Objective:-To assess the socio-demographic
characteristics of population.
• To determine the socio-demographic characteristics of
• To assess means of communication of Babo kebele
• To determine the income of the communities of Babo
• To determine the vital statistics of Babo kebele
• To identify, organize, prioritize and plan for common
problems in the Babo kebele 12
Babo is one of the kebeles found in kersa district of Jimma zone;
located at about 15 KM away from the main campus.
It is bounded by;
E= Serbo kebele
S=Awayi Sebu kebele
The estimated altitude of the Babo kebele 1650m-2250m above
sea level with woyina dega climate condition and hilly, plain, and
forested physical features.
The total population number of the kebele is about 5641 with 2836
males and 2805 females and there are 1200 total households.
There are two government schools.
In this kebele there are 16 mosques and no other religious
CHAPTER 4 :
METHOD AND MATERIALS OF STUDY
Hand sketch map of babo kebele
Fig.1 Map of Babo kebele, Kersa woreda, Jimma zone, Oromia region
study population April 20-April 21, 2022
Study Period-study was conducted from April 20-April
Study Design- Cross-sectional
Source population-All households residents of study area.
Study population-. The sample population(291 household)
Sample size determination and sampling technique :the most efficient
way is using systematic random sampling technique.
Starting from a random house by lottery method to identify the first
and continuing the survey in interval 5 gives a more reliable data.
n= (1.96)2 0.5(1-0.5) = 384
(0.05)2 where p=population proportion(50%)
= standard normal distribution (1.96)
n= minimum sample size
probability of failure, 50%
Since the total HH population study was less than
10,000 we use the correction formula to
determine the corrected sample size.
= corrected sample size
n = calculated sample size
N= is total household
Nf = n/1+n/N
Where Nf = the minimum sample size
n = sample size
N = total number of households
Nf = 384/(1+384/1200) =291
K =1200/291= 5(interval)
In our case, we use the adjusted formula to find the sample size,
which after calculation becomes 291.
Sampling Technique : Systemic random sampling
technique was used.
Data collection method : Face to face interview was
Data quality control
Discussion was made among students before data
collection about the clarity of the questioner.
Approval was given by supervisor after the
Ethical Consideration: -Letter of permission was taken from
Jimma University to get permission from the kebele.
The students were respectful to the different cultures and to
We informed the respondents that they are not obligated to
participate or respond to our questions and they can leave the
interviewing process if they feel uncomfortable.
We assured them that this information we collected from
them will not disseminated to the public or the third party
• After the data has been collected it went under various
stages of analysis.
• The questionnaires were analyzed using tallying,
scientific calculators and statistical computation and they
were grouped and organized accordingly.
• After the various stages of data processing conclusion
was drawn from the summarized data and presented in
tables, graphs, and pie chart form. 21
• Language barrier
• Closed door during visit
• Dusts of the roads
• Intense sun radiation
• Students was paired those who know Afaan Oromoo and other
• Repeatedly visiting the house
• Using umbrella
• Information bias about age, income and etc
• Unwillingness to respond to question
• Recall bias - forgetting some information to respond.
• Lack of willingness to disclose information
CHAPTER FIVE : RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Data
• Demographic composition of the population depicts the
structure combination of the given community in age,
sex, religion and ethnicity
Percentage of the population
• The Average family size in Babo kebele is 5.5 per house
• where as the national average family size is 4.7 per
house, (EDHS, 2016).
AGE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
Fig.1 Population structure of Babo kebele Jimma Zone Oromia Region April 20-
April 21, 2022
• The age structure of the household population in Ethiopia
is typical of a society with a young population and the
same as true for Babo kebele. The age structure reflects
the large number of youngsters found between the ages
10-14 in both sex that slightly deviates the national
Ethiopian condition (EDHS, 2016). At the national level the
age group 5-9 (children) accounts large percent of the
SEX DISTRIBUTION OF BABO KEBELE
• The sex ratio of the
Babo kebele is 0.82
female to 1 male.
While the EDHS 2016
report shows that the
sex ratio is higher in
rural areas (97 males
per 100 females) than
in urban areas (86
males per100 females)
which is 0.915 28
Fig 2 sex distribution of Babo kebele Jimma Zone
Oromia Region April 20-April 21, 2022
MARITAL STATUS OF BABO KEBELE
Fig 3. Marital Status distribution of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia
Region, from April 20-April 21, 2022
Married Single Divorced Widowed
frequency 703 899 8 9
• At the national level 58.47% of the population is married,
34.3% is single, 5.2% is divorced and 1.97% widowed,
according to EDHS, 2011.
• In relation to this when we compare with Babo kebele
marital status the highest percentage of the kebele
accounts for single (55.52%) followed by
married(43.42%) and the remaining (0.55%) and (0.49%)
are widowed and divorced respectively.
• This indicates that high prevalence of youngsters
• From 1619 study population
380 (41.4%) are
291(17.97%) other relative
33(2%) and non-relative
Fig 4: Relationship status of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia Region, from
April 20-April 21, 2022
ETHNICITY OF BABO KEBELE
• Table 5.:- Ethnicity of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia Region, from
April 20-April 21, 2022
Ethnicity Frequency %
Oromo 1544 95.36
Amhara 21 1.29
Tigire 35 2.16
Others 19 1.17
TOTAL 1619 100 32
• The study showed that in the study population of the
Babo Kebele, Oromo account 95.36% followed by
Tigre2.16% and Amhara 1.29% and others 1.17%.
• While at the national level the Oromo is the largest
ethnic group, making up with 35% percent of the
Ethiopia, followed by Amhara (30%) and 7% percent
Tigre constituting the third largest ethnic group. The rest
percentage is occupied by other ethnic groups mainly
kefa, Sidama and Gurage (EDHS 2016).This shows that
the ethnicity of the Babo kebele is totally different from
the national level.
DISTRIBUTION OF RELIGION IN BABO KEBELE
Figure 5 : Distribution of Religion of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia Region,
from April 20-April 21, 2022
• It was observed in our study population’s of Babo Kebele
in April 20-21,2022 that Muslim account for 98.8%
• Orthodox 0.92% and
• protestant 0.18.
• unlike to this the National one which is
31.3% are Muslims,
• 0.75% are Catholics and 0.9% of the total population is
followers of traditional religion at the national level,
• But, In Oromia region, Muslims are the highest in
proportion (47.5%) followed by orthodox (30.5%),which
is relatively comparative with our study.
EDUCATIONAL STATUS IN BABO KEBELE
Literate Illiterate Total
Fig:- Education Status of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia Region, from April 20-
April 21, 2022
• The national values in the EDHS 2016 report show that
62.2% of the population is literate.
• While in Babo Kebele showed that it accounts for
60.28% (976) of the population.
• This high percentage of literacy is due to the fact that this
Kebele is near to a moderately urbanized one. The
remaining 39.71% (643) of the kebele population are
• This literacy percentage can be shown as follows
BABO kebele’s literacy Ethiopia’s literacy
Male: - 58.59% Male: - 57.2%
Female:- 41.40% Female:- 42.8%
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS IN BABO KEBELE
Fig 8: Occupational status of Babo kebele, kersa woreda , Jimma zone from
April 20-april 21,2021
• The highest occupational status is farmer like that of the
national according to the 2005 report of the EDHS,
accounting for 80% of the population.
• But in our study we found that student account the
largest percentage of occupation this is due to the high
amount of youngsters in the kebele and due to access to
INCOME STATUS OF BABO KEBELE
low income(≤ 9,515) Middle income(9,516-36,600 is of ) having high income( ≥36,601)
Fig 9: Annual Income of Babo kebele, Kersa district, Jimma
zone of Oromia region study of population April 20-april 21,
• In our study Kebele most of the families earn middle
• The second common proportion of the population lies
under low income and few families earn high income.
• Unlike the national one which is dominated by low
• The numerical value is that the national low income
percentage is 47.29%, CSA 2007 while the Babo kebele is
MEANS OF COMMUNICATION
Table.10: Means of communication of Babo kebele population
study in April 20-21, 2022
Means of communication Frequency %
Radio 79 27.91
TV set 03 1.06
Telephone 201 71.02
Total 283 100
• From our sample, the most commonly used means of
communication was cell phone.
• We have discovered 201(93.28%) out of 291 households
• Our data shows Radio accounts for 27.7%, public phone,
newspaper, and postal services are rarely used in Babo
• However the national one according to EDHS – 2014
indicate that Radio 40.5%, TV 10.4 % and Private
telephone 24.4% .
• Indicating that in most part of rural areas the use of radio
by the population is decreasing by being replaced by that
of cell phone.
VITAL STATISTICAL DATA IN BABO KEBELE
• Crude birth rate (CBR).
• CBR is one of the most widely
used of fertility measures. It is
CBR = number of birth in 1 year x k
Total number of population
Rate of Babo Kebele, Kersa Woreda,
Table-11: Birth rate of Babo kebele
population during April 20-April 21,
20-24 1 0 0 1 0 1
25-29 5 2 2 3 2 3
30-34 3 1 1 2 1 2
35-39 2 0 0 2 0 2
Total 11 3 3 8 3 8
MORTALITY STATUS IN BABOKEBELE
• Death crude rate =number of death x 1000
Total number of population
= 8x1000/1619 = 4.94
Table.12: Mortality rate of Babo kebele population during April 20-April 21/2022
age Accident sick unknow
15-29 0 0 2 2
30-44 1 1 0 2
>65 0 3 1 4
total 1 4 3 8
MORBIDITY STATUS IN BABO KEBELE
• Table.13: Morbidity status of Babo Kebele population study from April
Fever Diarrhea Cough Others Total
0-5 3 1 5 1 10
6-17 2 2 2 2 8
3 2 2 2 9
>49 6 1 12 3 22
Total 14 6 21 8 49
28.57 12.24 42.85 16.32 100
• The national CBR is 39 where as at Babo kebele CBR is
6.79 which is smaller than that of the national.
• which shows the population is growing slower than the
• The crude death rate of the kebele in the past 12 months
is 4.94 per 1000 population and it is lower compared
with the national which is 13 per 1000 population. (EDHS
• So that total fertility rate is crude birth rate minus crude
• This is 6.79-4.49= 2.3.
• This value tells us that the kebele community is
CHAPTER 6 :
• The current community based survey showed that:
The common means of communication that used by Babo
kebele are telephone and Radio.
Majority religion in this Kebele was Muslim.
Almost all Babo kebele communities are Oromo.
The number of female is greater than male in Babo
The most common disease in Babo kebele is cough .
The majority are student followed by farmers.
The common means of income in the kebele was farming.
The common causes of mortality and morbidity is
communicable diseases according to the compliant.
From our course of action, we have managed to identify:-
the presence of High home delivery in the community.
Low income and High morbidity rate due to cough.
Distribution of daily base needs And also Insufficiency of
Lack of electric power
Lack of clean water
Lack of Road
Illiteracy especially Maternal
Objective Strategy Target Activities Responsible bodies Resource Time
Low income To (reduce
how they can
attitude on job
Illiteracy rate Illiteracy
33.2% to 0%
Table 9:- Action plan for prioritized problems
Besides the above stated action plans, we also recommend
some motives and ideas.
The health professionals with a collaboration of health bureau
should make an effort to encourage institutional delivery and
reduce home delivery and educate the community on different
aspects of health.
Since Cough is one of the commonest problem in the kebele
administrative with health bureau should make an effort in
giving education about the cause of it and possible solution
Illiteracy is one of the identified problem therefore different
sector of the government at different level should make an effort
to encourage the importance of illiteracy that every citizen
should involve in education to improve the living status.
We recommend the active involvement of the private
sector in elevating the standard of some services we
assume are critical to be served at their best.
We also recommend that people specially from higher
education institutes be honest, diligent and open-
minded towards the current prevailing problems and do
We recommend to Jimma zone health office, Oromia
health office and MoH to give attention to the major
health problems of the area.
To Jimma university and CBE office to coordinate
NGO’s to solve the problem of Babo kebele.
We would like to forward warmest gratitude:-
Babo Keble administration office.
our team member
1.Guidelines and Procedures for Community Based
Education, Jimma University,2013;
2.Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey(EDHS),2014
3.Ethiopia demographic health survey (EDHS) 2016