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Lithography technology and trends for « Semiconductor frontier » held by Amandine Pizzagalli on Semicon West 2016 by Yole Développement

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Lithography technology and trends for « Semiconductor frontier »
Mask aligners are the fastest lithography technology
Stepper technology provides the best resolution
Key requirements for Advanced Packaging
LED manufacturers use small diameter wafers (2”, 3”, 4” or 6”) and transition more rapidly than traditional semiconductor’s industry to larger diameters
WAFER SIZE
Wafer bow can reach up to 50μm for 2” wafers and 100μm for 4”, inducing pattern distortion.
WAFER BOW
2”
4”
6”
LED manufacturers can use different substrates, mostly sapphire or SiCwafers, which are transparent with light-diffusing features such as rough or patterned surfaces. Also, they can use metal wafers for vertical structures, so there’s large material variability.

Publicada em: Tecnologia
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Lithography technology and trends for « Semiconductor frontier » held by Amandine Pizzagalli on Semicon West 2016 by Yole Développement

  1. 1. July © 2016 From Technologies to Market Lithography technology and trends for « Semiconductor frontier » Amandine PIZZAGALLI,Technology & Market Analyst Yole Développement From Technologies to Market
  2. 2. 2 4 BUSINESS MODELS o Consulting and Analysis • Market data & research, marketing analysis • Technology analysis • Strategy consulting • Reverse engineering & costing • Patent analysis www.yole.fr o Reports • Market &Technology reports • Patent Investigation and patent infringement risk analysis • Teardowns & Reverse Costing Analysis • Cost SimulationTool www.i-Micronews.com/reports o Financial services • M&A (buying and selling) • Due diligence • Fundraising • Maturation of companies • IP portfolio management & optimization www.yolefinance.com www.bmorpho.com o Media • i-Micronews.com website • @Micronews e-newsletter • Communication & webcast services • Events www.i-Micronews.com
  3. 3. 3 MEMS & Sensors LED Compound Semi. Imaging Photonics MedTech Manufacturing Advanced Packaging Batteries / Energy Management Power Electronics FIELDS OF EXPERTISE Yole Développement’s 30 analysts operate in the following areas
  4. 4. 4 A GROUP OF COMPANIES Market, technology and strategy consulting www.yole.fr M&A operations Due diligences www.yolefinance.com Innovation and business maker www.bmorpho.com Manufacturing costs analysis Teardown and reverse engineering Cost simulation tools www.systemplus.fr IP analysis Patent assessment www.knowmade.fr
  5. 5. 5 OUR GLOBAL ACTIVITY
  6. 6. 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Lithography technology and trends for « Semiconductor frontier » • Overview of the lithography technologies • Lithography requirements in the Semiconductor frontier • Lithography equipment suppliers in the Semiconductor frontier • Conclusions
  7. 7. 7 • There are five main technologies available that could be used in Advanced Packaging, MEMS and LED applications : • Laser direct imaging and laser ablation could be alternative solutions to the lithography technologies used today Lithography technologies for Advanced Packaging, MEMS & LEDs Mask aligner Projection Stepper Scanner* Laser direct imaging Laser ablation NanoImprint (NIL) OVERVIEW OF LITHOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGIES Today, patterning is performed by various photolithogra phy solutions such as mask aligners, projection steppers and scanners. In production In production In production Qualification in Fan-out wafer level packaging (FO WLP) Ready for production Disruptive technologies Current technologies *We consider scanners as projection systems with full field exposure: full field refers to the maximum used field size: it could either result in printing the full wafer (LEDs case) or the largest die size (Advanced Packaging)
  8. 8. 8 WHAT IS THE PRICE/COST GAP? From a technical feature perspective, steppers are very attractive but there is a price penalty to pay Price ($M) Resolution (µm) $1M $2M $3M $4M Mask Aligner Wafer Stepper Wafer/Panel Scanner Wafer Laser ablation Wafer/Panel 1 µm 2 µm 3 µm 4 µm Laser Direct Imaging Wafer/Panel >5 µm
  9. 9. 9 LITHOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY Price vs Resolution capabilities Mask aligners are the fastest lithography technology Stepper technology provides the best resolution Throughput (Wafer/hour) Resolution (µm) 20 50 80 100 Stepper ~50-60 Laser ablation ~20 to 60 (depending on the material type) 1 µm 2 µm 3 µm 4 µm Scanner* Wafer ~75 Mask Aligner ~100 >5 µm * Scanner: full field mask with a large DOF as provided by SUSS MicroTec We considered ASML and Canon’s equipment lines as steppers exhibiting a higher resolution but smaller DOF
  10. 10. © 2016 Lithography requirement in the Semiconductor Frontier
  11. 11. 11 Resolution Wafer handling for Non- Standard substrate shape Die shift Wafer bow Sidewall coverage IR alignment capability Exposure field size Larger depth of focus Overlay accuracy LITHOGRAPHY CONCERNS ARE DIFFERENT IN ADVANCED PACKAGING Differentiation between Front-end and Advanced Packaging Needs and challenges in packaging lithography are different from front- end lithography Major concerns in packaging Key requirements which are different from the Front-end area
  12. 12. 12 GENERAL LITHOGRAPHY REQUIREMENTS Value required Key requirements for Advanced Packaging Minimum resolution: 2 µm Overlay accuracy: 0.5 µm (layer to layer) Exposure field size: > 35 mm² IR alignment: < 1µm Depth of focus: >15 µm Wafer warpage: 10 mm CD control/sidewall angle: <10%/80° General Lithography requirements for Advanced Packaging
  13. 13. 13 MEMS & SENSORS’ LITHOGRAPHY NEEDS Very accurate layer-to-layer alignment required • MEMS manufacturing includes DRIE steps with thick resist so high DOF is needed for projection systems • As spray coating will be used, adjustable focal-length exposure tools will also be needed : • e.g. mask aligners from SUSS MicroTec with its illumination set-up changes • e.g. Nikon mini-steppers that enable varied topography (up to 26 µm DOF) and bow, with die-by- die autofocus and backside alignment of ~ 0.8 µm. • In recent years, we have therefore seen an increasing use for steppers instead of mask aligners: • Steppers have very accurate layer-to-layer alignment, 0.1µm, ten times better than contact • This is critical for MEMS where misalignment of mechanical features will lower performance, for example in gyros and micro mirrors
  14. 14. 14 REQUIREMENTS AND CHALLENGES OVERVIEW Four main areas LED manufacturers use small diameter wafers (2”, 3”, 4” or 6”) and transition more rapidly than traditional semiconductor’s industry to larger diameters WAFER SIZE Wafer bow can reach up to 50µm for 2” wafers and 100µm for 4”, inducing pattern distortion. WAFER BOW 2” 4” 6” LED manufacturers can use different substrates, mostly sapphire or SiC wafers, which are transparent with light-diffusing features such as rough or patterned surfaces.Also, they can use metal wafers for vertical structures, so there’s large material variability. MASK ALIGNMENT / OVERLAY Depending on the type of lithography process, die manufacturing vs. PSS manufacturing vs. die surface texturing, resolution can vary. RESOLUTION 5µm 2µm Broken
  15. 15. 15 ADVANCED PACKAGING PROJECTION SYSTEMS Advanced Packaging projection systems breakdown 2015 vs 2020 Projection steppers represent the majority of lithography systems used for Advanced Packaging
  16. 16. 16 MASK ALIGNERSVS STEPPERS Mask aligners represent the majority of projection systems used for MEMS devices Mask aligners are mainly used for non-CMOS processes in MEMS devices Steppers are used for the CMOS part of MEMS devices or for the most challenging lithography step By revenue By revenue In 2015
  17. 17. 17 MASK ALIGNERSVS STEPPERS Mask aligners represent the majority of projection systems used for LEDs Mask aligners are mainly used for LED manufacturing Steppers are used for Patterned Sapphire Substrates (PSS), with feature sizes below 2-3µm Steppers are mainly refurbished tools provided by Nikon at a lower cost ($250k for 2-4 inch) However, we have seen an investment in new stepper equipment from Ultratech for PSS applications at a higher cost ($1.2M for 2-4-6 inch) In total equipment shipment In 2015
  18. 18. 18 LITHOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE Mask aligners are in decline in packaging, while many technologies are emerging R&D Qualification Maturity Decline Technology Phases Legend Mask aligner Stepper Laser direct imaging (LDI) Ready for pre- production Advanced Packaging MEMS devices LED devices Mask aligner Mask aligner LDI LDI Stepper Stepper Stepper Laser ablation Laser ablation NanoImprint Lithography (NIL) NIL NIL
  19. 19. 19 0 50 100 150 200 250 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Toolshipmentforecast(inunits) Projection Systems market forecast (in unit of production tools) Breakdown by application field Advanced Packaging MEMS devices LED devices Yole Developpement © July 2015 LITHOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT MARKET FORECAST Number of production tools Advanced Packaging represents around a third of the projection systems shipped in 2014 and has the highest CAGR (10%)
  20. 20. © 2016 Lithography equipment suppliers in the Semiconductor frontier
  21. 21. 21 Advanced Packaging (all advanced packaging platforms included) MEMS devices LED devices EQUIPMENTSUPPLIERS Mask aligner Projection (Stepper & scanner) Laser ablation Laser direct Imaging NIL Stepper NIL Full-field NIL DTL STRONG COMPETITION INTHE LITHOGRAPHY AREA: HOW CAN NEW EQUIPMENT VENDORS ENTERTHE MARKET AND BECOME SUCCESSFUL?
  22. 22. 22 PROJECTIONTOOLVENDORS: POSSIBLE RESHAPING OF THE INDUSTRY There are barriers to entry for both front- end and back-end lithography vendors Front-End area (Mainstream) Back-end areaNiche areas (MEMS, LEDs, Advanced Packaging) Projection system equipment players Barrier to entry Barrier to entry DOF Field size Cost of the tool Resolution Overlay THP Wafer warpage
  23. 23. 23 LITHOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY Price vs Resolution capabilities Top-tier vs specialized equipment vendors Price ($M) Resolution (µm) $1M $2M $3M $4M 1 µm 2 µm 3 µm 4 µm Laser ablation >5 µm
  24. 24. 24 EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS’ MARKET SHARES Market share by application covered in the report Lithography vendors’ market shares across Advanced Packaging, MEMS and LED devices Advanced Packaging MEMS devices LED devices Ultratech 58% SUSS MicroTec 12.5% Rudolph 9.5% Canon 9% SMEE 9% Others, 2% SUSS MicroTec 60% Ushio 18% EVG 22% SUSS MicroTec 22% Ultratech 60% EVG 12% Ushio, 6%
  25. 25. © 2016 The Last Word …
  26. 26. 26 CONCLUSIONS • Advanced Packaging has very complex technical specifications which differ from those associated with the front-end area. • MEMS and LED have relaxed specifications compared to the packaging area. • MEMS photolithography market benefits from a high percentage of re- used/retrofitted equipment coming from the mainstream front end semiconductor industry. • The LED industry historically uses a lot of legacy semiconductor tools from ASML, Canon and Nikon • However, new lithography techniques (NIL) are being developed to answer the specific challenges and to increase manufacturing yields of large diameter PSS. • There is a compromise between cost effectiveness and better performances that is becoming increasingly important in the photolithography business • Although mask aligner and steppers are already well established, disruptive technologies such as laser direct imaging (LDI) and laser ablation might emerge and could contribute and gain a small market share in coming years.
  27. 27. 27 FOR MORE INFORMATION … Take a look at our websites www.yole.fr and www.i-micronews.com Online free registration toYOLE publications Amandine Pizzagalli Email: pizzagalli@yole.fr
  28. 28. 28 OUR LATEST REPORT Coming Soon

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