Production Technology of kiwi
Course- FSC -502
DEPARTMENT OF HORTICUITURE
RAJASTHAN COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
MAHARANA PRATAP UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY,
B.N.: Actinidia deliciosa
Chromosome No. :2n=58
Type of fruit-Berry
Other names: Chinese gooseberry, China's miracle
fruit Horticultural wonder of New Zealand Some
other synonyms in China- Mihoutao(Peach of the
macaque monkey), Yangtao (Sunny peach) and
• Kiwi is among the very few recent introductions which have
surpassed in popularity due to its tremendous commercial potential in
the sub Himalayan region of India.
• In fact, no other fruit has attracted so much attention in such a
short period in history of commercial fruit production since 1960s.
• A native to S-W China, where it is known by multiple vernacular
names. It takes its name from kiwi ( Ateryx australis) national bird of
NZ. It is being grown commercially in New Zealand, Italy, USA,Japan,
Australia, France, Chile and Spain.
• In India, kiwi was first planted in the Lal Bagh Gardens(1960) at
Bangalore as an ornamental tree. Later on for cultivation purpose at
IARI, Regional Station, Phagli, Shimla(H.P)-1963 from USA
• With extensive research and development support its commercial
cultivation has been extended to the mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh,
Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim,
Meghalaya, and Nilgiri hills in India.
• Kiwi production worldwide- Area- 82,258ha
• Production- 13,08,424 mt( Italy>NZ>Chile> France)
• In Himachal Pradesh it is having an area of 128ha(2009)
• In NZ, The first planting was made by Isable Frasier,
Principal of Wanganui Girls College after visiting missions in
• In commercial scale it was planted by Alexander Allison at
1906, which gives first fruit to sale at 1910,till 1920 some
other nurseryman like Bruno Just, Hayward Wright took up
kiwi productions in coomercial level.
• Fruits are rich in protien dissolving enzyme Actidin(
Thioprotease as Papain), It also digests milk protien there
kiwi is not advised to serve with milk in desserts.
• It acts as allergen for those who has allergy from Papaya
Some of the health benefits associated with the fruit include
Many scientists believe that the Sodium-to-potassium ratio is critical for heart health. This ratio is extremely favorable in
The high content of Vitamin C in the fruit makes it an effective immunity booster.
Regular consumption of kiwifruit ensures good Eye Health prevents Macular degeneration.
The fruit contains ample amounts of Inositol, which as studies indicate is an excellent way of treating depression.
Kiwifruit is a rich source of vitamin C.
The skin is a good source of flavonoid antioxidants.
The kiwifruit seed contains on average 62% alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fattyacid which potentially reduce risk of blood clots.
It also contains vitamin E and a small amount of vitamin A & potassium.
Glocuse and fructose(1:1). Acid available- Citric, Malic, Quinic acids.
Chlorophyll and carotenoids in association with 30 other pigments, impart the shinning pale green colour to the flesh.
Nutritive value per 100 g of Kiwi
PrincipleNutritive valueCopper0.09 mgProteinVitamin C2.1
mg64 mgSodiumPotassium2 mg215 mgCalciumVitamin A23
mg60 IUIron0.21 mg0.019 mgVitamin B
Principle Nutritive value
Copper 0.09 mg
Protein 2.1 mg
Vitamin C 64 mg
Sodium 2 mg
Potassium 215 mg
Vitamin A 60 IU
Iron 0.21 mg
Vitamin B 0.019 mg
• 1. A. rufa 8. A. glaucophylla
• 2. A. mmelandra 9. A. arguta
• 3. A. chinensis 10. A. fulvicoma
• 4. A. latifolia 11. A. guilinessis
• 5. A. deliciosa
• 6. A. indochinessis
• 7. A. arguta var. purpurea
• Kiwi is a deciduous vine which can withstand wide
• However, for high yield quality fruits, it requires 700-
800 chilling hours below 7 °C to break its rest period in
the winter otherwise the bud break may be delayed.
• 950 hrs at 4°-High chilling hrs increased amount of
• It may be damaged by:-
• (1) Autumn frost on the fruiting crop and the non
dormant plants from October end to November end
• (2) Frost at the end of the winter before and during
• (3) Spring frost after budburst.
• In summer, high temperature (> 35 °C) accompanied
by high insulation and low humidity may cause
scorching of leaves.
• In India, kiwi can successfully be grown at 800-1,500
m above mean sea level.
• A rainfall of about 150 cm/ year is sufficient.
• RH-Min 70% at growing period.
It can be grown on a wide
range of soil but deep, rich,
well drained sandy loam soils
A soil pH slightly less than 6.9
results in maximum yield but
higher pH up to 7.3 affects
adversely because of Mn
Deficiency- which is a limiting
factor in kiwi cultivation.
Pistilate cv.-Abbot, Allison, Bruno, Haward, Monty, Greensil.
Staminate cv.- Tomuri and Matua, Allison (male)
• This is an early flowering and early maturing cultivar.
The oblong, medium sized, fruits are covered with dense hairs.
They are very sweet in taste with lower ascorbic acid content and
medium titratable acidity.
• Fruits resemble those of Abbott, except that these are slightly
broader in proportion to its length.
• The petals of its flowers are overlapping and crimped along with
• It is an early ripening, heavy bearer and sweet in taste.
• Ascorbic acid and titratable acidity are on the lower side.
• This variety is most suited for Himachal Pradesh. Commercial cv. of
• 3. Bruno
• This cultivar requires comparatively less
• The fruits are tapering in shape towards
the stem end.
• They are longest among all the cultivars.
The fruits is dark brown having very dense,
short and bristly hair, highest in ascorbic acid
and titratable acidity.
• The bearing is very heavy.
• 4. Monty
• It is a late flowering cultivar but fruit
maturity is not late.
• The fruits are oblong, resembling those
of Abbot and Allison. Being a highly
prolific bearer cultivar, sometimes it
needs hand thinning for obtaining good
• The fruit is somewhat wider towards
blossom end with higher acidity and
medium sugar content.
Other cv. are Quinmei, Wilking super, Autari (Italy), Chico(USA)
New cultivars- Hort-16 or Golden Kiwifruit( A. chinensis) a smooth brownskin, Golden yellow flesh by
Zespri Ltd. NZ, Marketed as Zespri Gold ENZA Red(Selection of Hong yang Chinese cv.)- Shelf life low
Cv. Blake-Self fertile
Cv. Top Star-Hairless smooth bud mutation of hayward
Cv. Wilkin Super-A- famous for very large size fruit
Low chilling cultivars- Elmwood, Vincent, Summer kiwi-Hayward x Summer 4605,Mont Cap
Actinidia arguta- an ornamental vine and popular for small size
Skin can also be eaten of the varities of this sp.
Cv. Issal (self Fertile), Jumbo(bold size), Akanasnaya
fruit in Japan
Actinidia pupurea -Red skin, Red Flesh close relative of A.arguta Cv. Ken red- A. arguta var cordifolia x A.
In Italy- D1 rootstock, produced from a staminate plant by micro propagation are used as it is tolerant to
calcerous soil, and they give unform growth in cropping
TR2- Precocious fruiting for hayward.
Bruno- Most widely used rootstock in NZ even in India also, as it is having high vigour and germination %.
Land with gentle slope, steep lands should be contoured into terraces.
If possible its rows should be oriented in a north south direction to avail maximum sunlight.
Preparation of pits, mixing of farmyard manure and filling of pits should be completed by December.
Planting system- T-bar- 4x6m
January is ideal time for planting.
The soil should be firmly placed around the roots.
Chinese gooseberry is a dioecious plant; therefore, interplanting of male plants is essential for fruit production.
Adequate pollination is essential for the development of good sized fruit pollination may limit productivity.
Hard wood cutting :
Hard wood cuttings are prepared during the dormant season (January-February) from the previous year summer growth.
Well matured dormant shoots are used for cutting having at least three healthy bold buds from middle of the shoot.
The cuttings of the central and basal parts are ideal.
Cuttings having more number of spurs should not be selected.
The cuttings are treated with IBA (500 ppm) for 10 seconds and set deeply in moist rooting medium.
A rooting medium consisting of farmyard manure: sand: leaf compost: soil in the ratio of 1:1:1:1 results in highest rooting in
Semi hard wood:
Cutting Semi hard wood cutting with 3 buds and 0.5-1.0 cm in thickness from the middle portion of the current season's growth
are taken in July.
A wound of about 1 cm length is made on one side of the base just below the node.
Though it takes almost two years to develop a nursery plant through grafting or budding onto the seedlings but this method is
easiest and most economical.
The kiwi plants can be raised through grafting of kiwi seedlings during January-February.
Seedlings become ready for budding normally at the end of first growing season when the stem diameter is about
6-8 mm. One or two buds are inserted on the main stem by T budding method at 10cm above the ground level.
Chip budding during mid February results in bud take as high as 95%.
The main aim of training is to establish and maintain a well formed framework of main branches and fruiting
The supporting branches should be erected even before planting the vines or thereafter as early as possible.
Three types of supporting structure (fences) are constructed. A single wire fence is commonly adopted though
another wire is sometimes provided by some growers and then structure takes the form of kniffin system.
The vine should grow 2-4 m every year which may become over crowded and unmanageable if not controlled by
both summer and winter pruning. The fruits develop only on current season's growth, arising from the buds
developed in the previous year.
Only basal 3-5 buds of the current season's growth are productive
Thus N, P and K should be applied on yearly basis, while the other elements on requirement basis.
Generally, a basal dose of 20 kg farmyard manure, 0.5 kg NPK mixture containing 15% N is applied each year.
170:56:90 kg/ha N:P:K general recommendation, Sale(1981)
In contrast, excess levels of B and Na are harmful.
The N fertilizer should be applied in two equal doses, half to two thirds in January-February and the rest after fruit
set in April-May.
Manuring and fertilization
Insect and Pest
1. Boxelder Bug
Feeding before bloom is known to cause bud and fruit drop, as well as
fruit malformation, which is apparent when the fruit is cut in half, but can
also easily be seen when the fruit is left intact.
2. Armored Scales:
Scale insects feed on plant fluids and can be located on the bark or fruit
Heavy infestations affect the vigor of the plant and result in the presence
of scales on fruit, causing it to be off graded.
1. Crown Gall
Foliar symptoms typical of a root and/or crown rot pathogen are lack of vigor,
small leaves, poor terminal growth, open canopy, and yield reduction.
Galls are the most obvious symptoms of crown gall; however, they are not
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is primarily disseminated by infected plant material or in soil during cultivation.
It enters the plant only through wounds, most commonly on roots or the crown.
The roots of young vines may be injured during transplanting, while older vines can be injured by common cultural practices
that use machinery.
Additionally, vines may be wounded by frost, herbicide, pruning, removal of suckers, or they may develop growth cracks.
Control of crown gall is best achieved by avoiding injury to vines.
A minimum of handling during transplanting and care during cultural practices using machinery should greatly reduce the risk
2. Armillaria root rot
Vines infected with Armillaria root rot usually completely collapse.
Dark, rootlike structures called rhizomorphs grow from the root into the soil after
symptoms develop on vines.
The fungal pathogen survives on diseased wood and roots below ground for many years.
Flood waters sometimes spread infected roots in a vineyard.
When clearing land for planting or replanting vines, carefully remove and burn roots 1 inch or greater in diameter.
Ensure that vines are properly irrigated and not overwatered.
More width than length.
Likely to produce by two proximal flowering buds of shoots.
Excess tipping in summer pruning.
Excess PGR use.
Fruits from fascinated fused flower.
Shapeless fruits-less commercial value.