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Glazing

all about glazing.
definition
history
evolution
types
uses
advantages
disadvantages
conclusion

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Glazing

  1. 1. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE Subject : Building material and construction-3 Topic : GLAZING Faculty:- Ar. Viren Mahida
  2. 2. 1) WHAT IS GLAZING? EXPLAIN BRIEFLY 2) TYPES OF GLAZING 3) DIFFRENCE BETWEEN STRUCTURAL GLAZING AND CURTAIN WALLING QUESTIONS CONTENT 1) INTRODUCTION 2) MATERIALS 3) WHY GLAZING 1) STRUCTURAL GLAZING 2) CURTAIN WALLS 1) BOLTED GLAZING 2) CABLE STAYED GLAZING 3) FIN SUPPORTED GLAZING 3) TYPES 4) DIFFRENCE BETWEEN CURTAIN WALLS AND STRUCTURAL GLAZING 5) MARKERT SURVEY 6) CASE STUDY 7) CONCLUSION CONTENT 1) STICK SYSTEM 2) UNITIZED SYSTEM
  3. 3. WHAT IS GLAZING • GLAZING, WHICH DERIVES FROM THE MIDDLE ENGLISH FOR 'GLASS', IS A PART OF A WALL OR WINDOW MADE OF GLASS. • GLAZING IS WHEN YOU PAINT A THIN LAYER OF MINERALS AND GLASS ONTO A FIRED OR UNFIRED CERAMIC PIECE. • THE ACT OF INSTALLING GLASS IN WINDOWS, DOORS OR FIXED OPENINGS. • IN PRACTICALLY , IT WOULD BE THE ACTUAL INSTALLATION OF A PIECE OF GLASS WITHIN A FRAME. INTRODUCTION HISTORY • GLAZES HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED TO HAVE BEEN USED IN THE DECORATION OF CERAMICS AS FAR BACK AS THE EARLY EGYPTIAN PERIOD. • POWDERED GLASS WAS ORIGINALLY USED AS THE BASE OF HISTORIC GLAZES. • MINERALS AND WATER-SOLUBLE SALTS WERE ADDED WHICH ALTERED THE COLOUR AND TEXTURE OF THE FINAL PRODUCT.
  4. 4. MATERIALS TO BE USED • GLASS - 100% RECYCLABLE MATERIAL. • ALUMINUM - LESS WEIGHT, BUT HIGH STRENGTH. • SILICONE SEALANTS - SAND GEL USED FOR BONDING GLASS. • EPDM - ETHYLENE PROPYLENE DI AMINE MONOMER. WEATHERPROOF JOINT SEALANTS. TO PREVENT WATER AND AIR ENTERING. TEMPERATURE UNTO 110 DEGREE KELVIN. • ALUMINIUM • STAINLESS STEEL MATERIALS - Used as framing materials
  5. 5. MATERIALS STRUCTURAL FRAMING The design professional specifies the structural framing members in accordance with design parameters of the building project. The structural framing is normally fabricated from an aluminum alloy and may be either anodized or finished with an architectural coating. If an architectural coating is applied, it must be done in-shop by a licensed applicator in strict conformance with the manufacturer’s specification and quality control procedures. Anodized coatings on aluminum tend to be variable, and may create problems for silicone adhesion if not strictly monitored. GLASS Glass type normally used is clear vision glass, which may be tinted or treated with a reflective coating. Other types of glass considered by the design professional include: annealed, heat- strengthened, tempered, laminated, or insulating glass. Considerations – if the glass is treated with a reflective coating, low E coating, or an opacifier (as with some spandrel types), structural silicone sealant adhesion to, and compatibility with, this coating must be verified. If insulating glass is used, it shall be a high quality, dual-seal unit with a silicone secondary seal in compliance with local specification. STRUCTURAL SILICONE SEALANTS The sealant selection is made based on several factors, including: the type of System being used, the design parameters to be met and the requirements of the glazing contractors, only high strength silicone sealants specifically designed tested for structural glazing shall be used. General or multi- purpose silicone sealants not specifically designed for structural glazing should CONTENT
  6. 6. • STRUCTURALLY GLAZED SYSTEMS CREATE A GREATER TRANSPARENCY THAN TRADITIONAL CAPTURED SYSTEMS. • THERE ARE LESS VISUAL INTERRUPTIONS DUE TO THE LACK OF METAL ON THE EXTERIOR (AND POTENTIALLY THE INTERIOR), CREATING A SEAMLESS, CONTINUOUS GLASS LOOK. • TRADITIONAL CAPTURED CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS HAVE PRESSURE PLATES AND CAPS THAT CAN CONDUCT LARGE AMOUNTS OF HEAT IN OR OUT OF THE FAÇADE DEPENDING ON THE SEASON. • SINCE THERE IS LITTLE TO NO EXPOSED EXTERIOR METAL, THERE IS ALSO LESS THERMAL BRIDGING WITH STRUCTURAL GLAZING, SAVING ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION COSTS. • NEW TECHNOLOGY AND BETTER INTEGRATION WITH DAY LIGHTING AND CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEMS ALLOW ADVANCED GLAZING IN BUILDING FACADES TO • 1) IMPROVE THE COMFORT AND PERFORMANCE OF BUILDING OCCUPANTS, • 2) ASSIST IN NATIONAL AND GLOBAL EFFORTS TO REDUCE WHY GLAZING WHY GLAZING?
  7. 7. TYPES OF GLAZING COMMONLY USED INNOVATIVE GLAZING SYSTEMS ARE: STRUCTURAL GLAZING 1. BOLTED GLAZING 2. CABLE STYED GLAZING 3. FIN SUPPORTED GLAZING CURTAIN WALLS 1. SYICK SYSTEM 2. UNITIZED SYSTEM
  8. 8. 1. STRUCTURAL GLAZING • STRUCTURAL GLAZING, IN THEIR SIMPLEST FORM • CONSISTING OF GLASS THAT IS BONDED TO A STRUCTURE WITHOUT THE USE OF CONTINUOUSLY GASKET ALUMINUM PRESSURE PLATES . • WHY STRUCTURAL GLAZING ? • CREATE A GREATER TRANSPARENCY . • LESS VISUAL INTERRUPTIONS. • SEAMLESS, CONTINUOUS GLASS LOOK. • LESS THERMAL BRIDGING WITH STRUCTURAL GLAZING, SAVING ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION COSTS. STRUCTURAL GLAZING
  9. 9. STRUCTURAL GLAZING • THE FACADES ARE USED IN LONGER SPANNING APPLICATIONS WHERE AN ALUMINUM EXTRUSION AS THE PRIMARY SPANNING MEMBER BECOMES IMPRACTICAL OR IMPOSSIBLE. • STRUCTURAL GLAZING IS A SYSTEM OF BONDING GLASS TO A BUILDING’S STRUCTURAL FRAMING MEMBERS UTILIZING A HIGH STRENGTH, HIGH PERFORMANCE SILICONE SEALANT SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED AND TESTED FOR STRUCTURAL GLAZING. • IN STRUCTURAL GLAZING APPLICATIONS, DYNAMIC WIND LOADS ARE TRANSFERRED FROM THE GLASS, BY THE STRUCTURAL SILICONE SEALANT, TO THE PERIMETER STRUCTURAL SUPPORT. • STRUCTURAL GLASS FAÇADE TECHNOLOGY EMBRACES A DESIGN OBJECTIVE OF HIGH TRANSPARENCY AND EXPRESSED STRUCTURE, AND INCORPORATES SOME TYPE OF GLASS AS THE CLADDING MATERIAL. STRUCTURAL GLAZING
  10. 10. 1. BOLTED GLAZING 1. SPIDER GLAZING IS AN IMPORTANT CONCEPT FOR GLAZING . 2. SPIDER GLAZING ACT AS STRUCTURAL SUPPORT FOR ANY HIGH-END EXTERIOR DESIGNS. 3. TOUGHENED GLASS AND VARIOUS OTHER COMPONENTS INVOLVED IN SPIDER GLAZING . 4 .SPIDER GLAZING CONCEPTS PROVIDES SAFETY AND SECURITY FOR THE END USERS. 5 . TOUGHENED GLASS LIKE 12MM ,15MM TOUGHENED GLASS AND 19MM TOUGHENED GLASS. 6. STRUCTURAL SUPPORT FOR THE SPIDER GLAZING CAN BE TAKEN FROM STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING AND FOR THE LARGER ELEVATIONS STRUCTURAL SUPPORT SHOULD BE CREATED WITH MILD STEEL OR STAINLESS STEEL. IN SPIDER GLAZING CONCEPT FIN GLASS OF 15MM IS USED AS DEAD WEIGHT AND PRESSURE WITH STANDING FORCE. 7 . SPIDER GLAZING FITTINGS AVAILABLE LIKE 4 WAY SPIDERS,2 WAY SPIDERS AND SINGLE WAY SPIDER FITTINGS TO FACILITATE VARIOUS SPIDER GLAZING DESIGN OPTIONS. BOLTED GLAZING • SPIDER GLAZING IS GENERALLY INSTALLED IN A AREAS WHERE MAXIMUM VISIBILITY IS REQUIRED AND THE SYSTEMS ARE CHOOSEN BASED UPON THE HEIGHT OPENING AVAILABLE. • SPIDER GLAZING IS A MAJOR CONCEPT FOR FACADE GLAZING AND ELEVATION GLAZING USING SPIDER GLASS HARDWARE. ALMOST ALL THE EXTERIOR DESIGN CONCEPTS CAN BE DONE WITH SPIDER GLAZING CONCEPTS. SPIDER GLAZING IS THE ONLY OPTION AVAILABLE FOR THE LARGER OPENING ELEVATION IN THE EXTERIOR AND ENTRANCE OF COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS. SPIDER GLAZING ACT AS STRUCTURAL SUPPORT FOR ANY HIGH-END EXTERIOR DESIGNS. SPIDER GLAZING CAN BE CUSTOMIZED FOR VARIOUS DESIGNED BUILDINGS WITH THE HELP OF SPIDER GLAZING HARDWARE.
  11. 11. FIN SUPPORTED GLASS FINS REPRESENT THE EARLIEST FORM OF STRUCTURAL GLASS FACADE A GLASS FIN IS REPLACES A FRAME OR MULLION. THE REACTION LOAD TRANSFERRED TO THE TOP & BOTTOM OF THE FIN SHOE. FIN SYSTEMS ARE ALSO DESIGNED WITH BOLTED JOINTS. IT CREATE GREATER VISIBILITY & INCREASE THE NATURAL LIGHT IN INTERIORS. 2. FIN SUPPORTED GLAZING
  12. 12. CABLE SUPPORTED • TENSION FACADES USE HIGH TENSILE CABLES OR STAINLESS STEEL RODS TO IMPOSE THE LOADS OF THE FACADE ON THE MAIN STRUCTURE. THIS DECREASES THE AMOUNT OF SOLID STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS VISIBLE ON THE PROJECT, THEREFORE INCREASING THE TRANSPARENCY OF THE FACADE. THE TWO MAIN TYPES IN THE INDUSTRY ARE TENSION ROD FACADES AND CABLE NET WALLS. • THIS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM SUPPORTS GLASS BY A NET GEOMETRY OF PRE-TENSIONED CABLES. • CABLE NETS ARE REMARKABLY MINIMAL STRUCTURES WHEN THE BOUNDARY STEEL REQUIRED TO ACCOMMODATE TYPICALLY HIGH PRESTRESS LOADS IS IGNORED. • CABLE PRESTRESS MUST BE APPLIED IN THE FIELD VIA COMPLEX HYDRAULIC JACKING PROCESSES. INSTALLATION MEANS AND METHODS ARE A PRIMARY CONSIDERATION FOR ALL CABLE STRUCTURES. 3. CABLE SUPPORTED GLAZING
  13. 13. 4 SIDED STRUCTURAL GLAZING • THE MOST WIDESPREAD AND ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF STRUCTURAL GLAZING. GLASS IS SUPPORTED FROM 4 SIDES BY STRUCTURAL SILICONE • THESE SYSTEMS ARE USUALLY PREFABRICATED TYPES OF STRUCTURAL GLAZING BY JOINERY 2 SIDED STRUCTURAL GLAZING • IN THESE SYSTEMS SILICONE IS USED ONLY ON 2 SIDES OF THE GLASS PANEL. TWO OTHER SIDES OF THE GLASS ARE SUPPORTED BY A MECHANICAL FRAME OR ANOTHER NON- STRUCTURAL METHOD. THESE SYSTEMS ARE PREFABRICATED OR ASSEMBLED AT CONSTRUCTION SITE. • USED FOR BETTER AESTHETIC PURPOSE OF THE BUILDING • ITS COSTLY AS COMPARE WITH 2 SLIDE GLAZING SYSTEM. • THERE ARE MANY TYPES AND SYSTEMS OF STRUCTURAL GLAZING. THESE SYSTEMS ARE CHARACTERIZED WITH THE USE OF STRUCTURAL SILICONE JOINT SEALANT FOR STRUCTURAL FIXING OF GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS TO STRUCTURAL UNITS OF THE BUILDING. STRUCTURAL GLAZING
  14. 14. TYPES OF STRUCTURAL GLAZING ACCORDING TO DETAIL JOINERY1. TOOTH-SHAPE GLAZING • IN THESE SYSTEMS GLASS UNITS ARE PRODUCED STAGE BY STAGE: FIRST THE EXTERIOR PANEL, THEN INTERNAL PANEL. STRUCTURAL JOINT IS MOUNTED ON THE INSIDE SURFACE OF THE INTERIOR PANEL OF THE GLASS UNIT. 2. SYSTEMS WITH U-SHAPED PROFILE • IN STANDARD SYSTEMS GLASS UNITS ARE FASTENED TO THE BUILDING BY A U-SHAPED PROFILE. DEPENDING ON SYSTEM DESIGN, SILICONE JOINT SEALANT CAN SERVE AS GASKET OR STRUCTURAL JOINT SEALANT. 3. SYSTEMS WITH PANORAMIC REVIEW • THESE SYSTEMS ARE USUALLY MOUNTED ON THE FACADE IN ORDER TO EXPAND THE VIEW PANORAMA. GLASS RIDGES ARE USED FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORT OF THE VIEWING GLASS. SILICONE IS USED IN THE JOINTING AREA BETWEEN GLASS STRUCTURAL GLAZING
  15. 15. OTHER GLAZING SYSTEMS STRUCTURAL BRACING OF NON-GLASS MATERIALS SHOCK RESISTANT GLAZING FRAMELESS GLAZING SYSTEMS CONTENT SECTION OF STRUCTURAL GLAZING
  16. 16. STRUCUTURAL GLAZING ACCESSORIES • (A)MULLIONS (VERTICAL MEMBER)- MULLIONS ARE PROVIDED BASICALLY TO TRANSFER THE DEAD LOAD OF THE CURTAIN WALL. • (B)TRANSOMS (HORIZONTAL MEMBER) - TRANSOMS ARE ALUMINIUM SECTIONS PROVIDED IN BETWEEN THE MULLIONS HORIZONTALLY. • (C)SILICONE SEALANTS -SILICONE SEALANTS ARE USED TO PREVENT THE PASSAGE OF MOISTURE, AIR, DUST AND HEAT THROUGH ALL THE JOINTS. • (D)SETTING BLOCKS - SETTING BLOCKS ARE USED TO PROVIDE SUPPORT IN THE RELATION TO THE SIZE OF GLASS, GLAZING TECHNIQUES AND CONDITION OF USE. • (E) LOCATION BLOCKS -EDGES OF THE GLASS, TO PREVENT MOVEMENT OF THE GLASS WITHIN THE FRAME CONTENT
  17. 17. ADVANTAGES AND CONCLUSION • ALLOWS FOR BROADER ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN FLEXIBILITY • INCREASES THE THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF BUILDINGS • REDUCES OR ELIMINATES WATER AND AIR INFILTRATION • REDUCES THE POTENTIAL FOR THERMAL BREAKAGE OF GLASS • ADVANCED GLAZING'S WILL BE DYNAMIC ELEMENTS IN FACADES THAT ARE FULLY INTEGRATED INTO BUILDING OPERATIONS, PROVIDING DAY LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION. • BY USING THE MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF GLAZING, WE CAN SIMPLIFY THE CONSTRUCTION PERIOD, GIVE MORE STABILITY AND GOOD STRUCTURAL GLAZING
  18. 18. A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non- structural, but merely keep the weather out and the occupants in. Curtain walls are non structural members and are made of a lightweight material reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advantage is that natural light can penetrate deeper within the building. The curtain wall façade does not carry any dead load weight from the building other than its own dead load weight. Curtain wall systems must be designed to handle all loads imposed on it as well as keep air and water from penetrating the building envelope. CURTAIN WALL When a curtain wall is designed the following are taken into consideration, Loads Air Infiltration Water Penetration Deflection Strength Thermal criteria Common types of curtain wall systems for high-rise buildings 1. Stick system 2. Unit system 3. Unit and mullion system 4. Column-cover and spandrel system 5. Various types of glass wall system The glass and aluminum curtain wall system is a marvel of engineering and architecture. A totally non combustible system of glass and aluminum requiring minimal maintenance and providing years of aesthetic quality and building envelope performance. It is the most advanced exterior window wall system available for buildings. 8 CURTAIN WALLS
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES:  GREAT FLEXIBILITY - SITE MODIFICATION IS POSSIBLE. DISADVANTAGES:  - DIFFICULTIES IN QUALITY CONTROL.  - RELIES HEAVILY ON SITE WORKMANSHIP.  - REQUIRES DIFFERENT TRADE MEN.  - DIFFICULT TO ACCOMMODATE BUILDING MOVEMENT.  - DIFFICULT TO CONTROL WATER DRAINAGE TO INDIVIDUAL FLOORS.  - TOO MANY LOSS PARTS AND COMPONENTS ON SITE.  - POOR ACOUSTIC AND THERMAL INSULATION.  - DETERIORATION OF EXPANSION AND SEALANT JOINTS. Vertical curtainwall Convex contoured Curtain wall Concave contoured curtain Curtain wall Application of curtain wall CURTAIN WALLS VERTICAL ELEMENTS: MULLIONS HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS: RAILS (SOMETIMES MULLIONS) - TYICALLY FRAME SHORT DISTANCE FROM MULLION TO MULLION AND TRANSFER GRAVITY WEIGHT OF GLASS TO MULLIONS
  20. 20. UNITIZED CURTAIN WALLS ENTAIL FACTORY FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY OF PANELS AND MAY INCLUDE FACTORY GLAZING. THESE COMPLETED UNITS ARE HUNG ON THE BUILDING STRUCTURE TO FORM THE BUILDING ENCLOSURE. UNITIZED CURTAIN WALL HAS THE ADVANTAGES OF: SPEED; LOWER FIELD INSTALLATION COSTS; AND QUALITY CONTROL WITHIN AN INTERIOR CLIMATE CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT. THE ECONOMIC BENEFITS ARE TYPICALLY REALIZED ON LARGE PROJECTS OR IN AREAS OF HIGH FIELD LABOR RATES. ADVANTAGES -WATERPROOFING -ENSURING AESTHETIC FEATURES THANKS TO ITS SYNCHRONOUS SURFACE -EASY FOR INSTALLATION -THE INSTALLATION IS TIME SAVING THEREFORE ENSURING THE PROGRESS FOR PROJECTS . -ACCOMMODATES BUILDING MOVEMENTS. -MINIMIZES SITE OPERATIONS. -SHORTER CONSTRUCTION DURATION. - ENABLES OTHER TRADES TO COMMENCE WORK MUCH EARLIER. DISADVANTAGES -THE INSTALLATION WORK NEED TO BE DONE BY HIGH-SKILLED WORKERS -THE PRICE OF UNITIZED CURTAIN WALL IS HIGHER THAN STICKS. -THE TRANSPORTATION OF PANELS IS MORE COMPLICATED. -UNITS ARE ASSEMBLED AND GLAZED UNDER CONTROLLED SHOP CONDITIONS. -FULL PRESSURE EQUALIZATION DRAINAGE SYSTEM AT EACH FLOOR. UNITIZED SYSTEMS CONTENT
  21. 21. THE VAST MAJORITY OF CURTAIN WALLS ARE INSTALLED LONG PIECES (REFERRED TO AS STICKS) BETWEEN FLOORS VERTICALLY AND BETWEEN VERTICAL MEMBERS HORIZONTALLY. FRAMING MEMBERS MAY BE FABRICATED IN A SHOP, BUT ALL INSTALLATION AND GLAZING IS TYPICALLY PERFORMED AT THE JOBSITE. STICK CURTAIN WALLS ARE PROCESSED, MANUFACTURED AT FACTORY AND ASSEMBLED, INSTALLED AND COMPLETED AT SITE. THIS KIND OF CURTAIN WALL CAN BE USED FOR ALL OUTSIDE SURFACE TYPES OF BUILDINGS AND ESPECIALLY SUITABLE FOR SOPHISTICATED AND MULTIPLE JOINT STRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE. ADVANTAGES -WATERPROOFING -EASY FOR TRANSPORTATION DISADVANTAGES -DIFFICULTIES IN QUALITY CONTROL. -RELIES HEAVILY ON SITE WORKMANSHIP. -REQUIRES DIFFERENT TRADE MEN. -DIFFICULT TO ACCOMMODATE BUILDING MOVEMENT. -DIFFICULT TO CONTROL WATER DRAINAGE TO INDIVIDUAL FLOORS. -TOO MANY LOSS PARTS AND COMPONENTS ON SITE. -POOR ACOUSTIC AND THERMAL INSULATION. -DETERIORATION OF EXPANSION AND SEALANT JOINTS. STICK SYSTEM CURTAIN WALLS
  22. 22. COMPARISSION DIFFRENCE BETWEEN UNITIZED CURTAIN WALLS AND STICK CURTAIN WALLS • UNITIZED CURTAIN SYSTEMS ARE COMPOSED OF LARGE GLASS UNITS THAT ARE CREATED AND GLAZED WITHIN A FACTORY AND THEN SENT TO THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. • ONCE ON SITE, THE UNITS CAN THEN BE HOISTED ONTO ANCHORS CONNECTED TO THE BUILDING. • SINCE THERE IS NO ON-SITE GLAZING, ANOTHER MAJOR BENEFIT OF USING A UNITIZED SYSTEM IS THE SPEED OF INSTALLATION. • THE SYSTEM CAN BE INSTALLED IN A THIRD OF THE TIME OF A STICK-BUILT SYSTEM. • THIS SYSTEM IS WELL SUITED FOR CASES WHERE THERE ARE HIGHER FIELD LABOR COSTS (THEREBY SHIFTING THE LABOR TO A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE FACTORY WORK FORCE), WHERE HIGHER PERFORMANCE IS NEEDED (FOR WIND LOADS, AIR/MOISTURE PROTECTION, SEISMIC/BLAST PERFORMANCE), FOR TALLER STRUCTURES, AND MORE REGULAR CONDITIONS FOR PANEL OPTIMIZATION • STICK CURTAINS WALLS THE VAST MAJORITY OF LOW TO MID-RISE CURTAIN WALLS ARE INSTALLED IN THIS WAY. • LONG PIECES OF ALUMINUM ARE INSERTED BETWEEN FLOORS VERTICALLY AND HORIZONTALLY BETWEEN VERTICAL MEMBERS TO SUPPORT AND TRANSFER THE LOAD OF THE GLASS BACK TO STRUCTURE. • MOST OF THE ERECTION AND GLAZING FOR A STICK-BUILT SYSTEM IS DONE ON SITE. • ONE OF THE BENEFITS OF STICK-BUILT SYSTEMS IS ITS FRIENDLINESS FOR FACADES THAT HAVE LOWER REQUIRED VOLUMES AND MANY COMPLICATED CONDITIONS. • THIS IS SHORTER IN COMPARISON TO A UNITIZED SYSTEM, WHERE SIX MONTHS TO A YEAR CAN BE REQUIRED FOR THIS PROCESS. • YOU ALSO NEED A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF SPACE FOR INSTALLATION AND STORAGE OF MATERIAL ON THE SITE, WHICH CAN BE DIFFICULT IN MANY HIGH-TRAFFIC CITIES WITH TIGHT JOB SITES.
  23. 23. GLASS ALUMINIUM CURTAIN WALLS • THE GLASS AND ALUMINUM CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM IS A MARVEL OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE. • A TOTALLY NON COMBUSTIBLE SYSTEM OF GLASS AND ALUMINUM REQUIRING MINIMAL MAINTENANCE AND PROVIDING YEARS OF AESTHETIC QUALITY AND BUILDING ENVELOPE PERFORMANCE. • IT IS THE MOST ADVANCED EXTERIOR WINDOW WALL SYSTEM AVAILABLE FOR BUILDINGS • THE GLASS AND ALUMINUM CURTAIN WALL IS DESIGNED TO RESIST WIND AND EARTHQUAKE LOADS, TO LIMIT AIR LEAKAGE, CONTROL VAPOUR DIFFUSION, PREVENT RAIN PENETRATION, PREVENT SURFACE AND CAVITY CONDENSATION AND LIMIT EXCESSIVE HEAT LOSS (OR HEAT GAIN). IT IS FURTHER DESIGNED TO RESIST NOISE AND FIRE. CONTENT
  24. 24. • STRUCTURAL GLAZING IS A SYSTEM OF BONDING GLASS TO A BUILDING'S STRUCTURAL FRAMING MEMBERS UTILIZING A HIGH STRENGTH, HIGH PERFORMANCE SILICONE SEALANT SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED AND TESTED FOR STRUCTURAL GLAZING IN STRUCTURAL GLAZING APPLICATIONS, DYNAMIC WIND LOADS ARE TRANSFERRED FROM THE GLASS, BY THE STRUCTURAL • A CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM IS AN OUTER COVERING OF A BUILDING IN WHICH THE OUTER WALLS ARE NON-STRUCTURAL, UTILIZED TO KEEP THE WEATHER OUT AND THE OCCUPANTS IN. SINCE THE CURTAIN WALL IS NON-STRUCTURAL, IT CAN BE MADE OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS, THEREBY REDUCING CONSTRUCTION COSTS COMPARISSION STRUCTURAL GLAZING CURTAIN WALLING • WHILE CLOSELY RELATED, THERE ARE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CURTAIN WALLS AND STRUCTURAL GLASS FACADES. DIFFRENCE BETWEEN STRUCTURAL GLAZING AND CURTAIN WALLS • CURTAIN WALLS TYPICALLY SPAN ONLY FROM FLOOR TO FLOOR, THE PRIMARY SPANNING MEMBER BEING AN ALUMINUM EXTRUSION. CURTAIN WALLS ARE SEPARATE FROM THE BUILDING FRAMING SYSTEM, BUT ATTACHED TO AND SUPPORTED BY IT. • THE PANEL STRUCTURE MAY BE EXPRESSED, OR COMPLETELY COVERED ON BOTH THE INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF THE BUILDING. • STRUCTURAL GLASS FAÇADE TECHNOLOGY EMBRACES A DESIGN OBJECTIVE OF HIGH TRANSPARENCY AND EXPRESSED STRUCTURE, AND INCORPORATES SOME TYPE OF GLASS AS THE CLADDING MATERIAL. • THE FACADES ARE USED IN LONGER SPANNING APPLICATIONS WHERE AN ALUMINUM EXTRUSION AS THE PRIMARY SPANNING MEMBER BECOMES IMPRACTICAL OR IMPOSSIBLE.
  25. 25. CASE STUDY • THE EXTERIOR CLADDING IS COMPRISED OF REFLECTIVE GLAZING WITH ALUMINUM AND TEXTURED STAINLESS STEEL SPANDREL PANELS AND STAINLESS STEEL VERTICAL TUBULAR FINS. CLOSE TO 26,000 GLASS PANELS, EACH INDIVIDUALLY HAND-CUT, WERE USED IN THE EXTERIOR CLADDING OF BURJ KHALIFA. OVER 300 CLADDING SPECIALISTS FROM CHINA WERE BROUGHT IN FOR THE CLADDING WORK ON THE TOWER. THE CLADDING SYSTEM IS DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND DUBAI'S EXTREME SUMMER HEAT, AND TO FURTHER ENSURE ITS INTEGRITY, A WORLD WAR II AIRPLANE ENGINE WAS USED FOR DYNAMIC WIND AND WATER TESTING. THE CURTAIN WALL OF BURJ KHALIFA IS EQUIVALENT TO 17 FOOTBALL (SOCCER) FIELDS OR 25 AMERICAN FOOTBALL FIELDS.• A 1:500 SCALE CLADDING PRESSURE TAPS . THE LOCATION OF EACH TAP WAS DETERMINED AND AGREED IN CONSULTATION BETWEEN SOM AND THE RWDI ENGINEERS. THE MODEL WAS PLACED ON A TURNTABLE IN THE WIND TUNNEL. THE TUNNEL WAS CONFIGURED WITH THE EXISTING SURROUNDING BUILDINGS , THEN THE TUNNEL WAS CONFIGURED WITH THE SURROUNDING BUILDINGS OF THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT IN PLACE. MEASUREMENTS WERE TAKEN FOR 36 WIND DIRECTION SPACED 10 DEGREES APART . THE MEASURED DATA IS CONVERTED INTO PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS BASED ON THE MEASURED MEAN DYNAMIC PRESSURE OF THE WIND ABOVE THE BOUNDARY LAYER . THE STATISTICAL DATA OF THE LOCAL WIND CLIMATE ACCOUNTS FOR THE VARIABLE EXTREME WIND SPEEDS WITH WIND DIRECTION BURJ KHALIFA
  26. 26. • ADVANCED GLAZING'S WILL BE DYNAMIC ELEMENTS IN FACADES THAT ARE FULLY INTEGRATED INTO BUILDING OPERATIONS, PROVIDING DAY LIGHTING AND NATURAL VENTILATION. • BY USING THE MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF GLAZING, WE CAN SIMPLIFY THE CONSTRUCTION PERIOD, GIVE MORE STABILITY. COCNCLUSION COCNCLUSION

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