Petroleum refining is defined as chemical, thermal and
physical separation of crude oil into major fractions.
These fractions are further processed through separation
and conversion into finished petroleum products.
Refinery is the facility where this process takes place.
Refinery separates the crude oil into smaller fractions in
order to make 2500 separate products.
3. Refining Means. . .
(i) To reduce to a pure state, to remove impurities.
(ii) To improve or perfect.
Salable products are made from crude.
4. What is Crude Oil?
Mixture of organic carbon chain molecules.
Impurities include sulfur and nitrogen compounds.
Some metals and salts too.
Some modern petroleum refineries process as much as
800000 to 900000 barrels per day of crude oil.
5. Composition of crude oil
Petroleum crude oils are numerous hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbons are chemical compounds made up of
predominantly carbon and hydrogen.
Hydrocarbons found in crude oils generally also contain
the elements sulfur and nitrogen. Many crude oils also
contain absorbed levels of the toxic gas hydrogen
6. Components_ To be removed
Crude oils may contain trace amounts of metals such as
nickel and vanadium, as well as salts.
Most of the non hydrogen, non-carbon elements found
in crude oils are undesirable and are removed from the
hydrocarbons in total or in part during refinery
8. Petroleum Products
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) :- Mostly a
combination of butane and propane it is heavier than air,
and liquefies under pressure. It is used as a house hold
cooking fuel, & vehicular fuel.
Petrol :- It is used to fuel internal combustion engines,
mainly use in vehicular.
9. Petroleum Products
Kerosene :- Also known as paraffin, is used as
illuminant and cooking fuel in India and other poor
countries, and as a space heating fuel in industrial
Jet fuel :- It is used in jet planes, is closely akin to
10. Petroleum Products
Diesel :- This oil is used in engines running at 750
revolutions per minute (rpm) or more. It is mostly used
in diesel-powered vehicles.
Naphtha :- It is used to make additives for high-octane
petrol, and to make polymeric plastics and urea, a
11. Petroleum Products
furnace oil :- furnace oil is made by diluting residual
fuel oil from refining with middle distillates such as
diesel oil. It is used in boilers, bunkers, heaters ,
furnaces, or as fertilizer feedstock. Low sulphur heavy
stock (LSHS) is variant of furnace oil.
Lubricant :- Lubricating oil consists of greases and
viscous oils used to lubricate moving parts in industry,
auto mobiles, railways engines and carriages and marine