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China's Subnational Debts:China's Subnational Debts:
Problems and SuggestionsProblems and Suggestions
Research Institute for
Fiscal Science, Ministry of Finance
Liu Shangxi
China's Subnational Debts:China's Subnational Debts:
Problems and SuggestionsProblems and Suggestions
ⅠⅠ.. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsⅠⅠ.. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational Debts
II. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and TaxationII. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and Taxation
Systems and the Improvement of Local Debt Financing SystemSystems and the Improvement of Local Debt Financing System
II. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and TaxationII. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and Taxation
Systems and the Improvement of Local Debt Financing SystemSystems and the Improvement of Local Debt Financing System
III. Local Government Debt Risk AssessmentIII. Local Government Debt Risk AssessmentIII. Local Government Debt Risk AssessmentIII. Local Government Debt Risk Assessment
IV. Countermeasures and SuggestionsIV. Countermeasures and SuggestionsIV. Countermeasures and SuggestionsIV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full
Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
1. Overall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational Debts
(1) Overrall Situation
From the audit results given by the National Audit Office at the end of
June 2013 , we can see that Subnational Debts comprise of three categories:
First, debts to be repaid by local governments,
Second, debts guaranteed by local governments,
Third, debts that may be relieved by local governments.
At the end of June 2013, the debt levels verified under these three categories were
10.8 trillion yuan, 2.6 trillion yuan and 4.3 trillion yuan, respectively.The first
category are direct debts of governments, while the second and third categories are
the contingent debts of governments. The direct debts are of large scale, while the
contingent debts are of small scale when speak of their scale. Among contingent
debts, the scale of statuary or contingent debts is smaller than that of non-statuary
(moral) contingent debts. Fig.1
I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full
Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
Fig. 1. The Overall Scales of Three Categories of Subnational Debts
(Unit: 100 million yuan)
1. Overall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational Debts
(2) Situations at different government levels
Looking from the debt audit results, as of the end of June 2013, the
debts to be repaid by local governments are mainly at municipal, district
and county levels. Municipal level accounts for 44.5%, county and
township levels account for 39.2%, while provincial level only accounts for
16.3%. Table 1. shows the main situation of debts to be repaid by local
governments.
I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full
Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
I.I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullOverall Situations and Major Problems of Full
Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
Table 1. Debts to be Repaid by Local Governments as of June 2013 (Unit: 100 million yuan)
Sources : Edit from The Audit Results of Nationwide Debts (The National Audit Office 2013No.32)
Structure of DebtStructure of Debt
Balance of DebtBalance of Debt
(100 million yuan)(100 million yuan)
PercentagePercentage
Structure of Government
Responsibilities
Debts to be Repaid by Governments 108859.17 60.85%
Contingent Debts Guaranteed by Government 26655.77 14.90%
Other Relevant Debts That May be Relieved by Governments 43393.72 24.25%
Tiered Structure
Provincial-level government debts 17780.84 16.33%
Municipal-level government debts 48434.61 44.49%
County-level government debts 39573.6 36.35%
Town/township-level government debts 3070.12 2.82%
Main Structure
Financing Platform Companies 40755.54 37.44%
Departments and Institutions of Local Government 30913.38 28.40%
Institutions with Outlay Subsidies 17761.87 16.32%
Wholly State-owned or State Holding Enterprises 11562.54 10.62%
Self-sufficient Institutions 3462.91 3.18%
Public Institutions 1240.29 1.14%
Other Units 3162.64 2.91%
Structure of Fund Sources
Bank Loans 55252.45 50.76%
BT 12146.3 11.16%
Trust Financing 7620.33 7.00%
Issuing Bonds 11658.67 10.71%
Loans from Other Units and Individuals 6679.41 6.14%
Payable Payments 7781.9 7.15%
Others 7720.11 7.09%
Structure of Fund Usage
Payable Money 7670.4 7.05%
Municipal Construction 37935.06 34.85%
Transportation Infrastructure Construction 13943.06 12.81%
Land Expropriation and Reserve 16892.67 15.52%
Science and Technology, Culture and Health 4878.77 4.48%
Construction for Agriculture, Forestry, Water Conservancy
4085.97
3.75%
Ecological Construction and Environmental Protection
3218.89
2.96%
Low-income Housing 6851.71 6.29%
Industry and Energy 1227.07 1.13%
Others 12155.57 11.17%
Term Structure
Repaid between July and December of 2013 24949.06 22.92%
Repaid in 2014 23826.39 21.89%
To be Repaid in 2015
18577.91
17.07%
To be Repaid in 2016 12608.53 11.58%
To be Repaid in 2017 8477.55 7.79%
To be Repaid in 2018 and thereafter 20419.73 18.76%
Total 108859.17 100.00%
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
偿还责任 担保责任 救助责任 偿还责任 担保责任 救助责任 偿还责任 担保责任 救助责任
省级 市级 县乡级
Fig.2 Composition of Provincial-level, Municipal-level and County-level
Subnational Debts at the end of June 2013
(Unit: 100 million yuan)
I.I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullOverall Situations and Major Problems of Full
Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
Repayment
Responsibility
Guarantee
Responsibility
Guarantee
Responsibility
Relief
Responsibility
Repayment
Responsibility
Provincial-level Municipal-level County- and Township-level
Repayment
Responsibility
Relief
Responsibility
Repayment
Responsibility
Repayment
Responsibility
1. Overall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational Debts
(3) Situation of borrowers
As for borrowers, apart from debts guaranteed by local governments, the
debts incurred through financing platform companies and shall be repaid or
relieved by governments are of the largest scale. The departments and
institutions of local governments are the borrowers with the largest scale of
guaranteed debts.
I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full
Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
Fig. 3 shows three categories of debts by borrowers. It shows that
subnational debts financing platform companies as well as local
government departments and institutions account for approximately
66%.
Figure 3. Composition of Main Borrowers of Subnational Debts at the End of June
2013 (Unit: 100 million yuan)
Note: The debts of local government departments and institutions fall
within the scope of debts to be repaid and guaranteed by governments,
but not to be relieved by governments.
I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full
Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
Repayment
Responsibility
Financing Platform Companies
Relief
Responsibility
Repayment
Responsibility
Departments and Institutions of Local
Governments
Guarantee
Responsibility
Relief
Responsibility
Repayment
Responsibility
Institutions with Outlay Subsidies
Guarantee
Responsibility
Relief
Responsibility
Repayment
Responsibility
Public Institutions
Guarantee
Responsibility
Relief
Responsibility
Guarantee
Responsibility
(4) Debt-repayment Situation
According to the audit results of 2013, the subnational debts to be repaid in 2015
and thereafter are shown in the following table. Overall, three categories of debts that
will mature in 2015 are of the largest scale in the coming three years.
I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full
Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
2015 2016 2017 2018 and after
Amount Percentage Amount
Percentage
Amount
Percentage
Amount Percentage
To be Repaid byTo be Repaid by
GovernmentGovernment
18577.91 17.06% 12608.53 11.58% 8477.55 7.79% 20419.73 18.76%
Guaranteed byGuaranteed by
GovernmentsGovernments
3198.42 12.00% 2606.26 9.78% 2298.6 8.62% 11706.75 43.92%
May be RelievedMay be Relieved
by Governmentby Government
5994.78 13.81% 4206.51 9.69% 3519.02 8.11% 16669.05 38.41%
Table 2. Subnational Debts that will mature in 2015 and Thereafter (Unit: 100 million yuan)
2. Major Problems
The major problems faced by subnational debts are opaque risks and
many uncertainties arising from them.
First, there is a shortage of regular statistics and release of subnational
debts data.
Second, there are no governmental accounting standards for the
confirmation and measurement of subnational debts.
Third, the debt risk management system is incomplete
Fourth, the debt management system is incomplete
Fifth, there is no connection between local debt management and budget
management.
I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full
Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
II. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and Taxation Systems
and the Improvement of Subnational Debt Financing System
The financing system of subnational debts is based on the national fiscal
system and focused on the division of administrative powers between the
central government and local governments. The specific contents of the
financing system of local debts are the arrangements for the borrowing, usage
and repayment of money among local governments at various levels.
To address what the
provincial-level, municipal-
level, county-level and
township-level governments
should do and should not do.
Q: Looking from local
perspective, there shows a
pressure transmission system
among the relationship of
provincial-level, municipal-
level, county-level and
township-level governments.
Of local debts, therefore,
provincial-level governments
account for less proportion
than municipal-level and
county-level governments do.
Subnational Financing System
( to define the fiscal
relations among subnational
governments at different
levels )
To address what the central government
should do and should not do
The division of revenue on the basis of
dividing administrative powers between
the central government and local
governments, the division of expenditure
responsibilities and the design of transfer
payment system determine the financing
needs of local debts.
Under the overall governance mode where
“the central government makes decisions
and local governments implement them”,
local governments cannot decide what
they should do or should not do, and must
follow the instructions from the central
government. If local governments can
decide what they should do, they will
generally do things that are favorable to
localities. local governments are the main
player for implementing policies for
expanding investment expenditure or
public consumption expenditure. The
more central macro regulation relies on
local governments, the more local
governments will rely on borrowing.
国家 政体制财
(界定中央与地方 政 系)财 关National (Central)National (Central)
GovernanceGovernance
Local GovernanceLocal Governance
II. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and
Taxation Systems and the Improvement of Local
Debt Financing System
III. Local Government Debt Risk
Assessment
China's subnational debts are accumulated over many years.
Currently, the local government debt risk is generally controllable.
However, some subnational debts pose certain risks.
According to the audit report issued on December 30, 2013, by
the end of 2012, China's total local liabilities amounted to 39.43% of
GDP, lower than 60% of public debt-to-GDP ratio, which is often noted
as an international limit for debt control. Total debt was 113.41% of
government fiscal revenue within the controlled debt ratio proposed
by the International Monetary Fund. It could be concluded that the
risk of China's government debt is controllable generally, while the
risk of government debts mainly lies in the local governments.
Among subnational debts, municipal and county governments
account for around 80%, financing platform companies and local
government departments and institutions make up about 66%, bank
loans and debts in disguised form account for about 82% and
municipal construction, transportation, land resource collection and
reserve, science, education, culture and public health, and low-income
housing account for around 70%. The risks are larger in these areas.
In terms of the growth of subnational debts, after June 2013, the
growth of local government debt slows down. In the first half of 2014,
NAO surveyed the debt of 9 provinces and 9 cities between the end of
2013 and the end of March 2014. The result showed that the growth
rate of local government debt slowed to 3.79%, down seven
percentage points than the average growth rate in the first six months
of 2013. The debt growth rate slows down.
III. Local Government Debt Risk
Assessment
Generally, the risk of local government debt is under
control. However, the risk is expanded due to increasing debt
repayment pressure currently and in the future as the fast
debt growth in the past and poor debt management. Also, the
risk of local government is further expanded with current
economic slowdown, declining the growth rate of financial
income (including land income) and rigid growth of
expenditure.
III. Local Government Debt Risk
Assessment
IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
1.Basic Ideas
(1) After the revised Budget Law was deliberated and adopted in 2014, the
establishment of standard local government debt financing system is orderly
promoted in the whole country according to laws.
The revised Budget Law gives local governments limited right to issue debts.
Quota is applied to the issuance of subnational debts. The authority and purpose
of local governments are strictly controlled and the subnational debts are included
into the budget management and supervised by the People’s Congress. The
government financing function is separated from the financing platform
companies. The liabilities of government and enterprises shall be separated. It is
prohibited from transferring the enterprise’s debts to the government. The local
government debt risk assessment and pre-warning mechanism shall be
established, as well as the emergency response mechanism and accountability
system. The central government adopts a non-aid principle. The institutional
framework for the government and social capital cooperation model has been
established and related laws are also in drafting and formulating.
1.Basic Ideas
(2) Complete the short-term tasks
On the one hand, we need to complete the short-term tasks,
control currently expanding debt scale and eliminate the threats
on China's economic development, social stability and macro-
management. on the other hand, at the micro-level, we need to
establish and improve debt scale, and risk and efficiency control
system. Also at the macro-level, we need to make a coordinated
reform in the aspects of economy, legal environment and
financial system.
IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
1.Basic Ideas
(3) In the short term, an accurate, comprehensive and timely local
government debt statistical system, internal reporting system and external
disclosure system need to be established . We need to improve local government
debt issuance, repayment and management system, suitably expand local
government bond scale, transfer annual quota management to balance
management and strengthen the discretion of local government to issue and
manage government bond. We will further regulate and innovate the local
government financing mechanism, and orderly promote the cooperation
between government and social capital. Some government assets will be
revitalized through the securitization of assets. We actively establish the fund
system for government capital expenditure (e.g. equity guide fund and industry
investment fund).
IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
1. Basic Ideas
(4) In the aspect of medium and long term, we need to
actively play the role of legal regulation, rule control and
market constraint. The boundary of government function and
behavior shall be clearly distinguished. Through the legislation,
we will regulate the administrative power, financial power,
scope of revenues and expenditures and expenditure
responsibilities of government at all levels. The local
governments will be gradually granted controllable and flexible
rights to borrow loans. The local government debt financing
management system will be established jointly supervised by
the central government, local authorities, people and market.
IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
2. Specific Suggestions
In line with current situation, to control the localIn line with current situation, to control the local
government debt risks, the following two aspects need to begovernment debt risks, the following two aspects need to be
considered:considered:
On the one hand, we need to mitigate local governmentOn the one hand, we need to mitigate local government
risks and ensure them not to affect the economic growth;risks and ensure them not to affect the economic growth;
On the other hand, we need to improve governmentOn the other hand, we need to improve government
investment efficiency, control the growth rate of governmentinvestment efficiency, control the growth rate of government
debt and control financial risk.debt and control financial risk.
IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
2. Specific Suggestions
(1) I(1) Integrate investment & financing, and focus on investmentntegrate investment & financing, and focus on investment
efficiencyefficiency
(2)(2) Attract non-public investors to invest in public sectors by fullyAttract non-public investors to invest in public sectors by fully
using the market-oriented mechanismusing the market-oriented mechanism
(3)(3) Deepen budget reform and revitalize the financial stock fundDeepen budget reform and revitalize the financial stock fund
(4)(4) Accelerate government accounting reform and provide a scientificAccelerate government accounting reform and provide a scientific
basis for identifying and swapping debt stockbasis for identifying and swapping debt stock
(5) Emphasize pre-warning management of local government debt risk(5) Emphasize pre-warning management of local government debt risk
and risk control planand risk control plan
IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
China's Subnational Debts:  Problems and Suggestions: Liu Shangxi, Research Institute for Fiscal Science, Ministry of Finance, China

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China's Subnational Debts: Problems and Suggestions: Liu Shangxi, Research Institute for Fiscal Science, Ministry of Finance, China

  • 1. China's Subnational Debts:China's Subnational Debts: Problems and SuggestionsProblems and Suggestions Research Institute for Fiscal Science, Ministry of Finance Liu Shangxi
  • 2. China's Subnational Debts:China's Subnational Debts: Problems and SuggestionsProblems and Suggestions ⅠⅠ.. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsⅠⅠ.. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational Debts II. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and TaxationII. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and Taxation Systems and the Improvement of Local Debt Financing SystemSystems and the Improvement of Local Debt Financing System II. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and TaxationII. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and Taxation Systems and the Improvement of Local Debt Financing SystemSystems and the Improvement of Local Debt Financing System III. Local Government Debt Risk AssessmentIII. Local Government Debt Risk AssessmentIII. Local Government Debt Risk AssessmentIII. Local Government Debt Risk Assessment IV. Countermeasures and SuggestionsIV. Countermeasures and SuggestionsIV. Countermeasures and SuggestionsIV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
  • 3. I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts 1. Overall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational Debts (1) Overrall Situation From the audit results given by the National Audit Office at the end of June 2013 , we can see that Subnational Debts comprise of three categories: First, debts to be repaid by local governments, Second, debts guaranteed by local governments, Third, debts that may be relieved by local governments.
  • 4. At the end of June 2013, the debt levels verified under these three categories were 10.8 trillion yuan, 2.6 trillion yuan and 4.3 trillion yuan, respectively.The first category are direct debts of governments, while the second and third categories are the contingent debts of governments. The direct debts are of large scale, while the contingent debts are of small scale when speak of their scale. Among contingent debts, the scale of statuary or contingent debts is smaller than that of non-statuary (moral) contingent debts. Fig.1 I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts Fig. 1. The Overall Scales of Three Categories of Subnational Debts (Unit: 100 million yuan)
  • 5. 1. Overall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational Debts (2) Situations at different government levels Looking from the debt audit results, as of the end of June 2013, the debts to be repaid by local governments are mainly at municipal, district and county levels. Municipal level accounts for 44.5%, county and township levels account for 39.2%, while provincial level only accounts for 16.3%. Table 1. shows the main situation of debts to be repaid by local governments. I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
  • 6. I.I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullOverall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts Table 1. Debts to be Repaid by Local Governments as of June 2013 (Unit: 100 million yuan) Sources : Edit from The Audit Results of Nationwide Debts (The National Audit Office 2013No.32) Structure of DebtStructure of Debt Balance of DebtBalance of Debt (100 million yuan)(100 million yuan) PercentagePercentage Structure of Government Responsibilities Debts to be Repaid by Governments 108859.17 60.85% Contingent Debts Guaranteed by Government 26655.77 14.90% Other Relevant Debts That May be Relieved by Governments 43393.72 24.25% Tiered Structure Provincial-level government debts 17780.84 16.33% Municipal-level government debts 48434.61 44.49% County-level government debts 39573.6 36.35% Town/township-level government debts 3070.12 2.82% Main Structure Financing Platform Companies 40755.54 37.44% Departments and Institutions of Local Government 30913.38 28.40% Institutions with Outlay Subsidies 17761.87 16.32% Wholly State-owned or State Holding Enterprises 11562.54 10.62% Self-sufficient Institutions 3462.91 3.18% Public Institutions 1240.29 1.14% Other Units 3162.64 2.91% Structure of Fund Sources Bank Loans 55252.45 50.76% BT 12146.3 11.16% Trust Financing 7620.33 7.00% Issuing Bonds 11658.67 10.71% Loans from Other Units and Individuals 6679.41 6.14% Payable Payments 7781.9 7.15% Others 7720.11 7.09% Structure of Fund Usage Payable Money 7670.4 7.05% Municipal Construction 37935.06 34.85% Transportation Infrastructure Construction 13943.06 12.81% Land Expropriation and Reserve 16892.67 15.52% Science and Technology, Culture and Health 4878.77 4.48% Construction for Agriculture, Forestry, Water Conservancy 4085.97 3.75% Ecological Construction and Environmental Protection 3218.89 2.96% Low-income Housing 6851.71 6.29% Industry and Energy 1227.07 1.13% Others 12155.57 11.17% Term Structure Repaid between July and December of 2013 24949.06 22.92% Repaid in 2014 23826.39 21.89% To be Repaid in 2015 18577.91 17.07% To be Repaid in 2016 12608.53 11.58% To be Repaid in 2017 8477.55 7.79% To be Repaid in 2018 and thereafter 20419.73 18.76% Total 108859.17 100.00%
  • 7. 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 偿还责任 担保责任 救助责任 偿还责任 担保责任 救助责任 偿还责任 担保责任 救助责任 省级 市级 县乡级 Fig.2 Composition of Provincial-level, Municipal-level and County-level Subnational Debts at the end of June 2013 (Unit: 100 million yuan) I.I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullOverall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts Repayment Responsibility Guarantee Responsibility Guarantee Responsibility Relief Responsibility Repayment Responsibility Provincial-level Municipal-level County- and Township-level Repayment Responsibility Relief Responsibility Repayment Responsibility Repayment Responsibility
  • 8. 1. Overall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsOverall Situations of Full Caliber Subnational Debts (3) Situation of borrowers As for borrowers, apart from debts guaranteed by local governments, the debts incurred through financing platform companies and shall be repaid or relieved by governments are of the largest scale. The departments and institutions of local governments are the borrowers with the largest scale of guaranteed debts. I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
  • 9. Fig. 3 shows three categories of debts by borrowers. It shows that subnational debts financing platform companies as well as local government departments and institutions account for approximately 66%. Figure 3. Composition of Main Borrowers of Subnational Debts at the End of June 2013 (Unit: 100 million yuan) Note: The debts of local government departments and institutions fall within the scope of debts to be repaid and guaranteed by governments, but not to be relieved by governments. I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts Repayment Responsibility Financing Platform Companies Relief Responsibility Repayment Responsibility Departments and Institutions of Local Governments Guarantee Responsibility Relief Responsibility Repayment Responsibility Institutions with Outlay Subsidies Guarantee Responsibility Relief Responsibility Repayment Responsibility Public Institutions Guarantee Responsibility Relief Responsibility Guarantee Responsibility
  • 10. (4) Debt-repayment Situation According to the audit results of 2013, the subnational debts to be repaid in 2015 and thereafter are shown in the following table. Overall, three categories of debts that will mature in 2015 are of the largest scale in the coming three years. I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts 2015 2016 2017 2018 and after Amount Percentage Amount Percentage Amount Percentage Amount Percentage To be Repaid byTo be Repaid by GovernmentGovernment 18577.91 17.06% 12608.53 11.58% 8477.55 7.79% 20419.73 18.76% Guaranteed byGuaranteed by GovernmentsGovernments 3198.42 12.00% 2606.26 9.78% 2298.6 8.62% 11706.75 43.92% May be RelievedMay be Relieved by Governmentby Government 5994.78 13.81% 4206.51 9.69% 3519.02 8.11% 16669.05 38.41% Table 2. Subnational Debts that will mature in 2015 and Thereafter (Unit: 100 million yuan)
  • 11. 2. Major Problems The major problems faced by subnational debts are opaque risks and many uncertainties arising from them. First, there is a shortage of regular statistics and release of subnational debts data. Second, there are no governmental accounting standards for the confirmation and measurement of subnational debts. Third, the debt risk management system is incomplete Fourth, the debt management system is incomplete Fifth, there is no connection between local debt management and budget management. I. Overall Situations and Major Problems of FullI. Overall Situations and Major Problems of Full Caliber Subnational DebtsCaliber Subnational Debts
  • 12. II. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and Taxation Systems and the Improvement of Subnational Debt Financing System The financing system of subnational debts is based on the national fiscal system and focused on the division of administrative powers between the central government and local governments. The specific contents of the financing system of local debts are the arrangements for the borrowing, usage and repayment of money among local governments at various levels.
  • 13. To address what the provincial-level, municipal- level, county-level and township-level governments should do and should not do. Q: Looking from local perspective, there shows a pressure transmission system among the relationship of provincial-level, municipal- level, county-level and township-level governments. Of local debts, therefore, provincial-level governments account for less proportion than municipal-level and county-level governments do. Subnational Financing System ( to define the fiscal relations among subnational governments at different levels ) To address what the central government should do and should not do The division of revenue on the basis of dividing administrative powers between the central government and local governments, the division of expenditure responsibilities and the design of transfer payment system determine the financing needs of local debts. Under the overall governance mode where “the central government makes decisions and local governments implement them”, local governments cannot decide what they should do or should not do, and must follow the instructions from the central government. If local governments can decide what they should do, they will generally do things that are favorable to localities. local governments are the main player for implementing policies for expanding investment expenditure or public consumption expenditure. The more central macro regulation relies on local governments, the more local governments will rely on borrowing. 国家 政体制财 (界定中央与地方 政 系)财 关National (Central)National (Central) GovernanceGovernance Local GovernanceLocal Governance II. Relationship between the Reform of Fiscal and Taxation Systems and the Improvement of Local Debt Financing System
  • 14. III. Local Government Debt Risk Assessment China's subnational debts are accumulated over many years. Currently, the local government debt risk is generally controllable. However, some subnational debts pose certain risks. According to the audit report issued on December 30, 2013, by the end of 2012, China's total local liabilities amounted to 39.43% of GDP, lower than 60% of public debt-to-GDP ratio, which is often noted as an international limit for debt control. Total debt was 113.41% of government fiscal revenue within the controlled debt ratio proposed by the International Monetary Fund. It could be concluded that the risk of China's government debt is controllable generally, while the risk of government debts mainly lies in the local governments.
  • 15. Among subnational debts, municipal and county governments account for around 80%, financing platform companies and local government departments and institutions make up about 66%, bank loans and debts in disguised form account for about 82% and municipal construction, transportation, land resource collection and reserve, science, education, culture and public health, and low-income housing account for around 70%. The risks are larger in these areas. In terms of the growth of subnational debts, after June 2013, the growth of local government debt slows down. In the first half of 2014, NAO surveyed the debt of 9 provinces and 9 cities between the end of 2013 and the end of March 2014. The result showed that the growth rate of local government debt slowed to 3.79%, down seven percentage points than the average growth rate in the first six months of 2013. The debt growth rate slows down. III. Local Government Debt Risk Assessment
  • 16. Generally, the risk of local government debt is under control. However, the risk is expanded due to increasing debt repayment pressure currently and in the future as the fast debt growth in the past and poor debt management. Also, the risk of local government is further expanded with current economic slowdown, declining the growth rate of financial income (including land income) and rigid growth of expenditure. III. Local Government Debt Risk Assessment
  • 17. IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions 1.Basic Ideas (1) After the revised Budget Law was deliberated and adopted in 2014, the establishment of standard local government debt financing system is orderly promoted in the whole country according to laws. The revised Budget Law gives local governments limited right to issue debts. Quota is applied to the issuance of subnational debts. The authority and purpose of local governments are strictly controlled and the subnational debts are included into the budget management and supervised by the People’s Congress. The government financing function is separated from the financing platform companies. The liabilities of government and enterprises shall be separated. It is prohibited from transferring the enterprise’s debts to the government. The local government debt risk assessment and pre-warning mechanism shall be established, as well as the emergency response mechanism and accountability system. The central government adopts a non-aid principle. The institutional framework for the government and social capital cooperation model has been established and related laws are also in drafting and formulating.
  • 18. 1.Basic Ideas (2) Complete the short-term tasks On the one hand, we need to complete the short-term tasks, control currently expanding debt scale and eliminate the threats on China's economic development, social stability and macro- management. on the other hand, at the micro-level, we need to establish and improve debt scale, and risk and efficiency control system. Also at the macro-level, we need to make a coordinated reform in the aspects of economy, legal environment and financial system. IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
  • 19. 1.Basic Ideas (3) In the short term, an accurate, comprehensive and timely local government debt statistical system, internal reporting system and external disclosure system need to be established . We need to improve local government debt issuance, repayment and management system, suitably expand local government bond scale, transfer annual quota management to balance management and strengthen the discretion of local government to issue and manage government bond. We will further regulate and innovate the local government financing mechanism, and orderly promote the cooperation between government and social capital. Some government assets will be revitalized through the securitization of assets. We actively establish the fund system for government capital expenditure (e.g. equity guide fund and industry investment fund). IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
  • 20. 1. Basic Ideas (4) In the aspect of medium and long term, we need to actively play the role of legal regulation, rule control and market constraint. The boundary of government function and behavior shall be clearly distinguished. Through the legislation, we will regulate the administrative power, financial power, scope of revenues and expenditures and expenditure responsibilities of government at all levels. The local governments will be gradually granted controllable and flexible rights to borrow loans. The local government debt financing management system will be established jointly supervised by the central government, local authorities, people and market. IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
  • 21. 2. Specific Suggestions In line with current situation, to control the localIn line with current situation, to control the local government debt risks, the following two aspects need to begovernment debt risks, the following two aspects need to be considered:considered: On the one hand, we need to mitigate local governmentOn the one hand, we need to mitigate local government risks and ensure them not to affect the economic growth;risks and ensure them not to affect the economic growth; On the other hand, we need to improve governmentOn the other hand, we need to improve government investment efficiency, control the growth rate of governmentinvestment efficiency, control the growth rate of government debt and control financial risk.debt and control financial risk. IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions
  • 22. 2. Specific Suggestions (1) I(1) Integrate investment & financing, and focus on investmentntegrate investment & financing, and focus on investment efficiencyefficiency (2)(2) Attract non-public investors to invest in public sectors by fullyAttract non-public investors to invest in public sectors by fully using the market-oriented mechanismusing the market-oriented mechanism (3)(3) Deepen budget reform and revitalize the financial stock fundDeepen budget reform and revitalize the financial stock fund (4)(4) Accelerate government accounting reform and provide a scientificAccelerate government accounting reform and provide a scientific basis for identifying and swapping debt stockbasis for identifying and swapping debt stock (5) Emphasize pre-warning management of local government debt risk(5) Emphasize pre-warning management of local government debt risk and risk control planand risk control plan IV. Countermeasures and Suggestions

Notas do Editor

  1. Source: Compiled by Ministry of Finance in accordance with the Audit Results of Nationwide Government Debts (2013 No. 32).