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WWW.WRI.ORG/CARBONPRICING
GETTING SERIOUS ABOUT
CARBON PRICING
April 30, 2015 Washington, DC
MICHAEL OBEITER WWW.WRI.ORG/CARBONPRICING
PUTTING A PRICE ON CARBON:
A Handbook for U.S. Policymakers
WHY PRICE CARBON?
• Pricing carbon can be a core element of
U.S. long-term climate change strategy
• A carbon price can al...
OBJECTIVES
• Putting a Price on Carbon provides
an overview of carbon pricing
–Basic primer
–Refresher and reference work
...
PAPER OVERVIEW
• Basics of Pricing Carbon
• A Brief History of
Carbon Pricing
• Key Design Features
• Uses of Carbon Prici...
CARBON PRICING PROGRAMS AROUND THE
WORLD
www.wri.org/carbonpricing
CARBON PRICING IN THE UNITED STATES
www.wri.org/carbonpricing
Federal proposals
• McCain/Lieberman (2003)
• Waxman/Markey ...
PROGRAM TYPE: CARBON TAX VS CAP-AND-TRADE
• Both incentivize emissions reductions
• Similar design and revenue decisions
•...
CARBON PRICE DESIGN: KEY QUESTIONS
• Which gases?
• Which sectors?
• Where to impose the regulation?
• What price or cap l...
CARBON PRICE DESIGN: EXAMPLES
• Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
– Electricity CO2
– Most revenues go to energy efficien...
REVENUE USE
• Revenue can be used to accomplish
various objectives:
– Promote economic growth
– Offset adverse impacts
– I...
REVENUE NEUTRAL TAX SWAPS
• Taxes on labor/capital discourage
productive activity we want more of
• A carbon tax discourag...
LUMP SUM DIVIDEND
• Send every household a check
• Key advantages:
–Relatively simple
–Revenue neutral (or nearly neutral)...
ADDITIONAL REVENUE USES
• Various other policy objectives:
– Deficit reduction
– Transition assistance
– R&D for low-carbo...
ECONOMISTS OVERWHELMINGLY SUPPORT A
CARBON TAX
Source: http://www.igmchicago.org/igm-economic-experts-panel/poll-
results?...
ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDIES
• Winners and losers in short run
• Smart use of revenue can offset
negative impacts
• Trade-offs ...
CONCLUSION
• A carbon price can be the
cornerstone of long-run U.S.
climate policy AND achieve
multiple additional objecti...
FUTURE RESEARCH
• WRI aims to promote dialogue on why and
how to implement a carbon price
• WRI will delve deeper into key...
PUTTING A PRICE ON CARBON:
A HANDBOOK FOR U.S. POLICYMAKERS
THANK YOU
WWW.WRI.ORG/CARBONPRICING
WWW.WRI.ORG/CARBONPRICING
GETTING SERIOUS ABOUT
CARBON PRICING
April 30, 2015 Washington, DC
Getting Serious About Carbon Pricing: Putting a Price on Carbon #priceoncarbon
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Getting Serious About Carbon Pricing: Putting a Price on Carbon #priceoncarbon

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On April 30, WRI hosted a dynamic town hall discussion about key issues related to pricing carbon in the United States. Putting a price on carbon can provide a clear and consistent economic signal that can help shift market growth in the coming decades toward a climate-smart, low-carbon economy.

The new resource "Putting a Price on Carbon: A Handbook for U.S. Policymakers" was released. Find out more at www.wri.org/carbonpricing

Publicada em: Meio ambiente
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Getting Serious About Carbon Pricing: Putting a Price on Carbon #priceoncarbon

  1. 1. WWW.WRI.ORG/CARBONPRICING GETTING SERIOUS ABOUT CARBON PRICING April 30, 2015 Washington, DC
  2. 2. MICHAEL OBEITER WWW.WRI.ORG/CARBONPRICING PUTTING A PRICE ON CARBON: A Handbook for U.S. Policymakers
  3. 3. WHY PRICE CARBON? • Pricing carbon can be a core element of U.S. long-term climate change strategy • A carbon price can also serve other policy goals –Promote economic growth –Support clean energy –Transition assistance www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES • Putting a Price on Carbon provides an overview of carbon pricing –Basic primer –Refresher and reference work • Future work from WRI will build on this foundation www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  5. 5. PAPER OVERVIEW • Basics of Pricing Carbon • A Brief History of Carbon Pricing • Key Design Features • Uses of Carbon Pricing Revenues • Economic Effects of a Carbon Price www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  6. 6. CARBON PRICING PROGRAMS AROUND THE WORLD www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  7. 7. CARBON PRICING IN THE UNITED STATES www.wri.org/carbonpricing Federal proposals • McCain/Lieberman (2003) • Waxman/Markey (2009) • Whitehouse/Schatz (2014) • Delaney (2015) • …and many more
  8. 8. PROGRAM TYPE: CARBON TAX VS CAP-AND-TRADE • Both incentivize emissions reductions • Similar design and revenue decisions • Carbon tax offers administrative simplicity and price certainty • Cap-and-trade offers emissions certainty www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  9. 9. CARBON PRICE DESIGN: KEY QUESTIONS • Which gases? • Which sectors? • Where to impose the regulation? • What price or cap level and trajectory? • Include a border tax adjustment? • How to monitor and enforce? • What complementary policies? www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  10. 10. CARBON PRICE DESIGN: EXAMPLES • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative – Electricity CO2 – Most revenues go to energy efficiency – $2.9 billion in lifetime savings to 3.7 million households • British Columbia Carbon Tax – Started at C$10, now C$30 – Covers ~3/4 of GHGs – Most revenues used to reduce taxes www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  11. 11. REVENUE USE • Revenue can be used to accomplish various objectives: – Promote economic growth – Offset adverse impacts – Investment in climate change protections • Substantial revenue opportunity – $15 / tonne price could generate ~$100 billion www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  12. 12. REVENUE NEUTRAL TAX SWAPS • Taxes on labor/capital discourage productive activity we want more of • A carbon tax discourages activity we want less of • Why not tax destructive instead of productive activities? – For example, use revenues to reduce income or payroll taxes www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  13. 13. LUMP SUM DIVIDEND • Send every household a check • Key advantages: –Relatively simple –Revenue neutral (or nearly neutral) –Ensures low-income taxpayers are not negatively impacted www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  14. 14. ADDITIONAL REVENUE USES • Various other policy objectives: – Deficit reduction – Transition assistance – R&D for low-carbon technologies – Climate change adaptation • Different uses of revenue are of interest to different stakeholders www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  15. 15. ECONOMISTS OVERWHELMINGLY SUPPORT A CARBON TAX Source: http://www.igmchicago.org/igm-economic-experts-panel/poll- results?SurveyID=SV_8oABK2TolkGluV7; weighted by confidence Statement: Government should raise revenue with a carbon tax instead of labor income taxes
  16. 16. ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDIES • Winners and losers in short run • Smart use of revenue can offset negative impacts • Trade-offs exist between revenue options www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  17. 17. CONCLUSION • A carbon price can be the cornerstone of long-run U.S. climate policy AND achieve multiple additional objectives • Designing a carbon pricing policy involves a number of important decisions that can broaden support www.wri.org/carbonpricing
  18. 18. FUTURE RESEARCH • WRI aims to promote dialogue on why and how to implement a carbon price • WRI will delve deeper into key issues: – Basic economics and incentives underlying a carbon price – Regional disparities and how to address them – How a carbon price can drive innovation Keep an eye on www.wri.org/carbonpricing for new research
  19. 19. PUTTING A PRICE ON CARBON: A HANDBOOK FOR U.S. POLICYMAKERS THANK YOU WWW.WRI.ORG/CARBONPRICING
  20. 20. WWW.WRI.ORG/CARBONPRICING GETTING SERIOUS ABOUT CARBON PRICING April 30, 2015 Washington, DC

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