ART AND DESIGN
Hj. Mohamed Ali Abdul Rahman
Erry Arham Azmi
•F A C U L T Y O F A R T A N D D E S I G N , U N I S E L , S E S S I O N 2 0 1 1 / 2 0 1 2
2. CHAPTER 3: NATIONAL CULTURE AND HERITAGE
3.1 National Museum of Malaysia And National Visual Art Gallery
•In order to keep younger Malaysian generation
aware of their own cultural heritage, two institution
of art were set up immediately after the
independence of Malaya.
•The National Museum and National Visual Art
Gallery ( before 2011 recognize as National Art
Gallery) are responsible for the collection,
documentation and conservation of all artifacts and
artworks that reflect Malaysian values.
3. 3.1 National Museum of Malaysia
•The National Museum, locally known
as Muzium Negara, has four galleries
on both the first and second floors.
•On the first floor in both the east and
west wings are located cultural,
archeological and historical collection
and evidence of the existence of early
civilization from the Neolithic age until
•There are many other smaller and
older museum that controlled by
several state such as Malacca, Perak,
Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Johore,
Penang, Kelantan, Terengganu,
Sarawak and Sabah.
preserving, conserving and
about the country’s
historical, cultural and
natural heritage in order to
create awareness among
the people of the country’s
rich heritage of history,
multiracial cultures and
natural environment to
create a harmonious
society with high moral
standard and to assist the
government in promoting
and developing the tourism
•To collect and preserve
•To produce and document
research work on museum’s
collections and exhibitions.
•To organize various theme
•To become a major tourist
attraction in the country
5. •On the second floor of the National Museum, in the east wing was located information
pertaining to all the economic resource of Malaysia.
•This section has been divided into two galleries.
•The Ceramic gallery displays all pots made since the prehistoric time that have
been found in Malaysia and Ceramic from Islamic countries in middle east,
European, Asian and South East Asean.
•All species or vertebrated and invertebrated animal that inhabit Malaysian waters and
jungled are located In the west wing.
6. •In the east wing of the National Museum (first
floor) one may find a good collection of both
archeological findings an historical
•Among these item displayed are artifacts such
as megalith, potteries of the Neolithic age,
stone, bronze ornaments, brass, swords and
keris, models of traditional palaces and mosque,
wood- carving and so forth.
•The evidence of an Islamic influence in
Malaysia since fifteen century A.D. is also
reflected in various artifacts such as banners,
wood-carvings of Koranic verses, embroidery in
golden-thread, and under glazed chinaware
with calligraphy and geometric pattern.
•In the historical section are arranged
chronologically all evidances of the historical
development of the Malay peninsula since the
opening of Mallaca by Parameswara around the
year 1403 A.D. until the formation of Malaysia in
7. •The culture heritage section in the west wing of
the first floor
•Royal couple in the bersanding or wedding
•Dressed in the actual colourful ceremonial
garments that had been used by royal
family in Malaysia.
•Dressed in kain songket, the traditional
golden threaded cloth, and jewellery.
•Huge collection of destar – special royal
headgear, mostly made of songket cloth
which is folded into certain floral twists and
•Hindu wedding ceremony
•Sit in state both the bride and bride groom
as Raja Sehari or King and Queen of the
•Cultural dance such as joget, inang and
•Malay self-defence art – bersilat
•East coast cultural – Menora and Mak
•Malay joyful activities – gasing, layang-
•Mythological – burung petala wali
•Malay musical instruments- gendang
raya, kecapi, nafiri.
•Chines and Indian cultural – lion dance,
chinese opera, indian dance
8. •National Art Gallery was started in 1954, the idea
developed by Malaysia Arts Council of.
•Y.T.M. Tunku Abdul Rahman (at that time held the office
of the Chief Minister), when opening Open Annual
Exhibition of the three artists of Malaya, March, 1956, has
given consent to Malaya has basically the National Art
Gallery (Report of the National Art Gallery, 1963 : 3; Syed
Ahmad Jamal, 1983).
•On 27 August 1958, four days before the first anniversary
of Independence Day (August 31), National Art Gallery
was officially opened by Prime Minister Federation of
Malaya, YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj.
• National Art Gallery, when it was temporarily part of the
Dewan Tunku Abdul Rahman building and move to the
building which was formerly used as a four-storey hotel;
known as Hotel Majestic.
3.1 National Visual Art Gallery
9. •In 1998, the National Art Gallery made a
historical to its permanent three storey
building, which is situated between
National Theater Complex and National
Library of Malaysia on Jalan Tun Razak,
• National Art Gallery had changed its
name twice, first as National Museum of Art
and now to the National Visual Arts Gallery
since 2011 under the Akta Lembaga
Pembangunan Seni Visual Negara 2011.
• The National Art Gallery policy is
presenting an exhibition of art originally
originated from inside and outside country
and establish a permanent collection of
works of art, but over the years the policy
was developed and changed at present with
new objectives include:-
•To have a collection of
artworks as the National Visual
Art Permanent Collection that
portrays the creativity and
cultural arts aspirations in local
and international aspects.
•To restore, preserve,
document and research the
National Visual Art Permanent
Collection and the historical of
•To promote and improve the
quality of national visual arts
by organizing exhibitions,
competitions and arts activities
in local and international
•To create awareness,
and respect towards arts.
•To become the ultimate
centre for the development
and collection of the national
visual arts and the trustee for
the national art heritage
•To collect, restore,
preserve, exhibit, promote
and nurture awareness,
appreciation of art for all
11. •With this brief description of our cultural heritage
that is situate on the gallery of the National Museum
and National Visual Art Gallery, one can feel how rich
the Malaysian culture is and at any moment a creative
art student easily choose and derive some idea from
this wide range of cultural heritage motifs, and thus
render them into his or her own contemporary art
12. 3.2 Malay Form and Content
History and Civilization of the Malays
• During the Paleolithic age (between
4,000 to 10,000 years ago) The
Hoabinians people who were hunters
and food gatherers passed Malay
Peninsula as they moved
• While inhibiting this region, they left
traces of their cultures in caves and
rock shelters; such as stone tools,
remnant of their food and of course
their dead families ( i.e. Perak-man
Lenggong Perak, A Perak Man has been
found by archaeologists
13. • Between 3,500 to 4,500 years ago,
during the Neolithic age another
groups of people from Yunnan in
Southern China, namely the Proto-
Malay and Deutero-Malay moved
into this region and spreaded among
the Malay Archipelago (West and
East Malaysia, Indonesia and
• The Deutero-Malay, the more
advanced people was responsible for
the introduction of the Bronze age in
about 300 B.C. (about 2,500 years
14. • The transition from Neolithic to the
Bronze age culture is also known as
• The only artefacts found were three
bronze bells and two drums. One of
the drums and a bronze bell were
found in Klang and the rest were
found in Tembeling, Pahang.
• With the knowledge of using more
refined tools, practiced common
cultures and well-organized societies,
the Deutero-Malay occupied the
coastal areas and became the fore-
fathers of modern present Malays.
• The downfall of Malay Kingdom in
Tumasik (Singapore) in fourteen
century forced the ruler;
Parameswara to escape to Malacca.
• Hence, the beginning of Malacca’s
15. Source of Malay Form and Culture
• The Sejarah Melayu or Malay Annals by Tun
• The conversion to Islam by Makhdum Saiyid
Abdul Aziz from Jeddah to people of
Malacca and their ruler. The ruler Raja
Tengah took the title and name as Sultan
Muhammad Shah of Malacca.
16. Source of Malay Form and Culture
• Other literary works such as Bustanul-
Salatin, Tajul-Salatin, Misa Melayu and
Hikayat Abdullah and Pelayaran Abdullah.
• Hikayat Abdullah had written about Raffles’
ship which full with Malay literary books
that caught on fire in 1824.
• Hindu epics; i.e. Mahabharata.
• Naubat or nobat was introduced by ruler of
Mecca; Ibrahim Khalil to Sultan Malik Al-
Saleh of Pasai.
17. Source of Malay Form and Culture
• The design of Malay applied arts reflect
various styles.Especially that reflect the
Malay culture and wood-carving on the
wooden palaces and fishermen boats.
• The influence of Dongson culture was
adapted and used as motifs for
decoration in textile and weaving.
• This culture brought in both the organic
and geometric styles (Chou and Hall
• Both styles were used together with
other motifs: i.e. plants, flowers,
bamboo shoots and birds.
• These motifs were also exploited and
used as the design for textile and
pottery, in wood-carving on fisherman
boat (Bangau and Okok) and in Malay
sultanate wooden palaces (kerawang or
18. Traditional Wood Carving Design in
Malay Sultanate Palaces
• Istana Kerawang or Istana
Kenangan in Kuala Kangsar Perak
was used as the dwelling palace
for Sultan of Perak from 1931 till
• Besides it was decorated with
wood carving and weaving
bamboo walls; it was also painted
with white, yellow and black; the
colours of Perak state flag.
• Presently, this palace is used as
the Perak Royal Museum.