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Transfer of Training

This chapter of Effective HR talks about Transfer of Training. The main core of the presentation is to understand what transfer of training/learning is and to have the knowledge about the factors enhancing learning. The presentation has been prepared by Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division.

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Transfer of Training

  1. 1. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Effective HR CHAPTER-8 Transfer of Training We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  2. 2. Objectives • Alter completing this chapter, you should be able to: – Understand what is transfer of training/learning – Have knowledge about the factors enhancing learning.
  3. 3. Nature of transfer of training/ learning • Transfer of Training refers to Transfer through Focus on Trainee and Organization Intervention. • Training is successful not only with good training design and training objectives hut also with the readiness and willingness of the trainees. • Retention of learning is a prerequisite to transfer of training. • Retention of learning is as important as the learning itself. Retention of learning means the ability to recall the learnt abilities as and when required at a later date.
  4. 4. Nature of transfer of training/ learning • Meaningfulness of the material means the material used for training/ practice should be same as those to be used for performance in the workplace. • The quality of original learning also plays a role in retention of learning. • The more accurately a lesson/task is learnt; the more possibility of it being not forgotten. • The third factor of learning retention is the interference means confusion of the learning either with the past learning or with those learnt subsequently.
  5. 5. Nature of transfer of training/ learning • Transfer or learning means realizing the learned abilities of training in the form of performance at work or the ability of the trainees to successfully use the learned capabilities for task performance on the job. • If the learning that has occurred in the training program cannot be transferred successfully to workplace performance, then it is a mere waste of time and money for training.
  6. 6. Nature of transfer of training/ learning • Transfer can be: – Positive transfer: • job performance improves on account of transfer, – Zero transfer: • no change in the performance on account of training, or – Negative transfer: • performance goes down after the training. • Training can also be classified as – Near transfer: • what has been learned is capable of being directly applied on the job – Far transfer: • using the learning in new situations or in creative ways.
  7. 7. Nature of transfer of training/ learning • There are certain factors that promote transfer of learning to work place performance. • They are the principles of – Identical elements, – General principles, – Stimulus variability and – Support in work environment.
  8. 8. Factors enhancing learning There are certain factors which encourage or hinder the learning. Such factors are: • Trainee characteristics • Trainer capabilities • Training design • Training environment • Organization’s role in training and development
  9. 9. Trainee characteristics • Trainee characteristics are trainability (i.e. ability, motivation and perception of work environment), attitude and self concept of the trainees. • Trainability means the trainee’s preparedness for the learning to happen. • The previous education and experience contributes to the preparedness.
  10. 10. Trainee characteristics • The more capable a person is in his preparedness for learning, the more successful the learning outcome is going to be. • Some of the trainee characteristics are enlisted below: – – – – – – Motivation perception of the work environment attitude of the trainee The self concept of the trainee Knowledge, skills and attitude Expectations
  11. 11. Trainee characteristics • The trainee is a major stakeholder in a training program. • The whole training program is developed for the trainees only. • Each candidate plays an important role in the transfer of training because one participant’s attitude regarding the training influence the other participants and also each participant can assist by advancing the learning process to realize the training objectives.
  12. 12. Trainee characteristics • Some personal factors • Some environmental that affect the trainee’s factors that affect the learning are: trainee’s learning are: – Family Situation – Benefits expected from training – Learning style of trainee – Previous training experience – Relationship with colleagues and subordinates – Training team & Trainer team – Training objective – Environment in the program
  13. 13. Trainer capabilities • The trainer or facilitator is an important person in the training process. • The knowledge, skill, trait, self concept and motive that he/she bring with him/her to the learning environment can make or break the success of learning. • Even in a self study learning approach, the trainer/facilitator plays a role in the way he has developed the learning material.
  14. 14. Trainer capabilities • The effective transfer negative perception of training depends a of the trainee lot on the trainer regarding the training. because it is the • Besides all that, a lot trainer only who can depends on remove the mental personality of trainer block of trainee, also. motivate the trainee to learn, delete the
  15. 15. Training design • The features of the training design (content, methodology and delivery) play an important role in maximizing the learning. • The program should have been designed scientifically by keeping in mind the learning objective, the trainee characteristics and the contextual constraints so as to ensure the targeted learning.
  16. 16. Training environment • The training environment includes both physical environment and psychological environment. • The training center should be equipped with learning amenities like training aids, library and well-designed classrooms. • The center should be surrounded by a pleasant neighborhood and should be free from pollution of noise, dust, smell and other irritants. • Psychological environment is the atmosphere, of the organization, in which training is being conducted.
  17. 17. Organization’s role in training and development • An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is the first contact for both. • Demand for Training increases when there is change in the nature of job, change in taste of consumer, change in methods of product development, etc.
  18. 18. Organization’s role in training and development • The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants: – To hire new people — training as a means of training new recruits – To Expand When the company wants to increase its headcount – To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date – To enhance the performance of employees – Organization’s name to be a part of training unit
  19. 19. Organization’s role in training and development • The organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field. Identifying training needs Selecting participants Defining expectations from the program Monitoring trainees’ progress Transferring training to the field
  20. 20. Organization’s role in training and development • Facilitation of Training through Organization intervention – Failure of training is not always because of’ lack of’ Knowledge, Skill and Attitudes but sometimes it is because of the organizational forces also. – These forces also hold back the transfer of training, and learning. – Therefore, it is important to keep in check those forces. – For the successful transfer of raining, it is necessary to have supervisor support, trainer support, peer support, reward system, climate and culture.
  21. 21. Organization’s role in training and development Trainer support Culture Superio r support Peer support Climate Facilitations of Training through Organization intervention Reward system