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Active Learning: Thinking and DoingJoanne Chesley, Ed.DMay 26, 2009<br />
What is the approach?What are the consequences?How do you engage effectively?What evidence is there that this approach is productive?How do you move from teacher- centered to learner-centered?<br />
For a minute or two think of a lecture that has always stayed with you….if you can.What did you learn?<br />
Think of a learning experience that you had at sometime that was not a lecture, that you have always recalled.<br />Why has it stayed with you?<br />What did you learn?<br />
Active learning includes:<br />DiscussionCooperative learningCollaborative learningProblem based learning Active, experiential learningCommunity or client based experiencesTrust to take risksGuide on the side, not sage on the stage<br />
The learner-centered approach grows out of Cognitive-Structural Developmental Theories that look at received knowing, subjective knowing, procedural knowing, and constructed knowing (Belenky, 1986) and absolute knowing, traditional knowing and independent knowing (Magolda, 1992).<br />
Since 1898 there have been over 600 experimental studies and 100 correlational studies of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic efforts. <br />The findings tell us that cooperation compared to competition and individual efforts, typically results in: <br />Greater efforts to achieve<br />More positive relationships among students greater psychological health <br /> (Johnson, Johnson, Smith, 1998. Active Learning in the Classroom)<br />
People learn in different settings<br />We spend 14% of our time in school, 53% in home and community and 33% asleep. <br />We should not negate the experiences one brings to the classroom from the home and community.<br />
Faculty can begin to make this change by: 1) building learning communities 2) Redesigning their 25 most ‘top- down’, heavily enrolled courses<br />
Improvements in Learning at Miami University:<br />5pt Likert scale; no impact to substantial impact <br /> n=395 responses/61% of invited <br />research done in 2005/ based on the Teaching Goals Inventory, Angelo &Cross, 1993<br />Ability to work productively with others (3.5)<br />Openness to new ideas (3.46)<br />Capacity to think for oneself (3.44)<br />Understanding of perspectives/values of course discipline (3.39)<br />Ability to think holistically (3.39)<br />
Ability to think creatively (3.38)<br />Ability to synthesize and integrate information and ideas (3.37)<br />Improved learning of concepts and theories (3.36)<br />Problem solving skills (3.35)<br />Ability to apply principles and generalizations already learned to new problems and situations (3.35)<br />
Faculty responses yielded these results:<br />Better class discussion and engagement (3.58)<br />Better classroom atmosphere (3.50)<br />Better papers and writing assignments (3.46)<br />Students more interested (3.46)<br />More successful achievement of the learning objectives (3.38)<br />