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Challenges, Workflows, and Insights in the Collaboration to Preserve America's Public Media

WGBH Media Library and Archives Director Karen Cariani and American Archive of Public Broadcasting Project Manager Casey Davis gave this presentation at the New England Archivists 2014 Fall Symposium. Karen and Casey discussed managing and preserving digital video; Project Hydra; metadata for audiovisual materials; and collaboration with other institutions through the lens of WGBH Media Library and Archives projects including the American Archive of Public Broadcasting and the NEH funded HydraDAM project.

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Challenges, Workflows, and Insights in the Collaboration to Preserve America's Public Media

  1. 1. Karen Cariani, Director, WGBH Media Library and Archives Casey E. Davis, AAPB Project Manager CHALLENGES, WORKFLOWS AND INSIGHTS IN THE COLLABORATION TO PRESERVE AMERICA'S PUBLIC MEDIA
  2. 2. WHO WE ARE: WGBH MLA
  3. 3. WHO WE ARE: AAPB ...and more than 120 public radio and television stations and archives nationwide
  4. 4. WHY ARE WE HERE TODAY?  Social media allows anyone to become a video publisher and broadcaster  100 hours of video uploaded to YouTube every minute  60:1 – 80:1 shooting ratio on documentary films  How often do you create videos?  We’re all digital archivists now.” -Sibyl Schaefer  I would add to that, more specifically....  In a few years, we will also all be audiovisual archivists.
  5. 5. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES • Manage and preserve born-digital AV materials • Explore digital media repository solutions • Generate metadata for digital AV materials • Evaluate multi -institutional collaborations
  6. 6. A FEW QUESTIONS  How many of you have A/V materials in your collection?  How many of you are collecting born digital media?  How are you storing the files?  Can you easily access them? What are your biggest concerns? Who is collaborating with other institutions?
  7. 7. MANAGING DIGITAL AV MATERIALS
  8. 8. CHALLENGES OF MANAGING DIGITAL VIDEO • Fragi l ity, vulnerabi li ty of digi tal media • No universal ly accepted standards or proof of concept • Digi tal obsolescence • Complexi ty of digi tal video and audio • Complex intel lectual property issues • Huge f i le sizes make storage more expensive • Storage l imi tat ions lead to decisions to compress • Lack of t raining among archivists wrapper Synchronization information Chapter information subtitles Multiple video streams One or more codecs Multiple audio streams
  9. 9. AAPB DIGITIZATION OF 40K HOURS WGBH’s 7,010 tapes that were sent to Crawford Media Services
  10. 10. RETURNED ON 17 LTO-6 TAPES
  11. 11. THE AAPB BORN DIGITAL DELIVERABLE  Addition of 5,000 hours of digitized and born digital media  Up to 59,000 files  Not to exceed 5.24 terabytes after transcoding occurred
  12. 12. WE HAD SOME CHALLENGES  Lack of staff resources at stations  Often no metadata for digital files  File names not consistent w/ metadata  System limitations  Bicycling hard drives  Access quality vs preservation quality  5.24 terabytes became 250+ terabytes
  13. 13. ACQUIRING DIGITAL MATERIALS  Create procedures for donors to submit their digital files  Provide donors with resources to inventory their collection  Get as much metadata as you can from the donor  Provide donors with instructions on file naming, drive naming, and organization
  14. 14. WGBH CONTRIBUTED FILES, TOO  Media currently stored on LTO-4 in an HSM system  The goal: send all video files to AAPB  10,648 files X approx. 100+ GB each = 201.6 TB  Copied files over network onto 70 3TB hard drives Success!
  15. 15. THINK AGAIN  ...we initially had a 57% failure rate.  We learned the hard way that everyday IT operations are not good enough.  In the end: 26.4% failure rate
  16. 16. NO, WE DON’T HAVE 7 COPIES  Consider the NDSA levels of preservation  1. Protect your data  2. Know your data  3. Monitor your data  4. Repair your data  Consider your resources  Do what you can
  17. 17. 1: Protect your Data 2. Know your data 3. Monitor your data 4. Repair your data Storage & geographic location File fixity & integrity Information security Metadata File formats Library of Congress. NDSA Levels of Preservation. http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/ndsa/activities/levels.html.
  18. 18. RESOURCES  UK Data Service. Prepare and Manage Data. http://ukdataservice.ac.uk/manage-data/  Digital Curation Centre. Checklist for a Data Management Plan. http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/data-management -plans/checklist  Library of Congress. DPOE Training Modules. http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/education/  WITNESS. Activists Guide to Archiving Video. http://archiveguide.witness.org /  AMIA Education Committee Blog & forthcoming webinar series https://amiaeducomm.wordpress.com/
  19. 19. EXPLORE DIGITAL MEDIA REPOSITORY SOLUTIONS
  20. 20.  Preservation f iles are large  Uncompressed  Slow to move around  Complicated formats  Not just one file type  Codecs, wrappers, frame speed, etc.  Need proxy files for viewing  Smaller size for quick transport over network  Need transcoding 20 WHAT MAKES VIDEO DIFFERENT?
  21. 21. DAM SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS  Vendor options  License fees - expensive  Migration to new versions on their timetable  Professional services to access proprietary code  Still need tech support  Open Source  Need developers /tech support  We all need the same basic functions  Can add features and functionality © 2010 WGBH 22
  22. 22. NEH PROJECT GOALS  To build a system using an open source solutions and components (Hydra tech stack) for digital media preservation  How hard is it to do?  Is it implementable elsewhere?  Is it feasible for broad use? © 2010 WGBH 23
  23. 23. WHAT DID WE NEED?  A system to help us manage digital files all formats  Born digital  Many, many file formats and sizes  Analog to digital files  A system potentially for preservation and access  Internal and external access  A system that could evolve with our needs as tech changes  Tech changes every 3-5 years  Adapt to changing workflows  Affordable © 2010 WGBH 24
  24. 24. WHY DID WGBH CHOOSE HYDRA?  Open source  We direct how it evolves  We make sure it serves our needs  Perhaps cheaper in the long run  Not free as in free puppy (or kitten) that needs lots of support  But part of an enduring, sustainable community © 2010 WGBH 25
  25. 25. WHAT IS HYDRA? • A robust repository fronted by feature -rich, tailored applicat ions and wo rkf lows (“ h e a d s ”) • One body, many heads • Collaborat ively b u ilt gems a n d “s o lu t ion b u n d le s ” t h at ca n b e leveraged or adapted and modif ied to suit local needs. • A community of developers and adopters extending and enhancing the core f ramework • Technical Training & Support • Open source sof tware © 2010 WGBH 26
  26. 26.  Aim to work towards a sus tainable, open source reusable f ramework for mul t ipurpose, mul t i func t ion, mul t i - inst i tut ional repos i tory - enabled solut ions  Chal lenges  Do more with less  Do it fast enough  Do it well  Get back on your feet quick  The Hydra Way - Working in Communi ty  Shared Purpose  Continual Engagement & Assessment  Tangible Results 27 WHY HYDRA? “If you want to go fast, go alone, if you want to go far, go together” --African Proverb
  27. 27. Hydra Partners and Known Users OR = Open Repositories Conference
  28. 28. Repository-Powered Approach ETDs (Theses) Books, Articles Images Audio- Visual Research Data Maps & GIS Docu-ments Maps & GIS Scalable, Robust, Shared Management and Preservation Services
  29. 29. FUNCTIONALITY  Interface can be what you want i t to be, simple  Manage digi tal objects – core funct ionality  Search  Retrieve  Describe  Connect  Store  Preserve  Bui ld funct ions and features on top of basic funct ional i ty  Started with Sufia from Penn State © 2010 WGBH 30
  30. 30. © 2010 WGBH 31
  31. 31. © 2010 WGBH 32
  32. 32. WHAT WE’RE DOING  Moving away from complicated systems  Turning to what we do best  Acknowle dg ing that we can’t and shouldn’t try to be the end all system  Focus on preservation efforts and hook into the workflow systems  Dealing with LOTS of files, big files, many formats, lots of stuff  Focus on how do we best handle this given our resources? © 2010 WGBH 33
  33. 33. NEW WORKFLOW © 2010 WGBH 34
  34. 34. OPEN SOURCE TEST CASE  Not easy or cheap  Definitely a free puppy  Not house broken  Needs care and attention  But great ‘walking ’ community  Offer advice, share solutions  Identify commonalities and work together © 2010 WGBH 35
  35. 35. One Body, Many Heads… ETDs (Theses) Books, Articles Images Audio- Visual Research Data Maps & GIS Docu-ments Scalable, Robust, Shared Management and Preservation Services
  36. 36. METADATA FOR AV MATERIALS • Time consuming to give same level of detail that happens with other types of content • Need rational balance
  37. 37. QUESTIONS  How many of you have an inventory of your AV assets?  For Analog and digital?  Do you have full catalog records?  What metadata schema are you using to capture  Descriptive  Intellectual property  Technical &  Preservation metadata?
  38. 38. PBCORE | PBCORE.ORG  A standard way for anyone managing video or audio to speak the same language  Best practices for capturing critical descriptive, intellectual property, and technical metadata about video and audio  Under further development by the AAPB and PBCore Advisory Group
  39. 39. WHO USES IT?  Nor theast Hi stor ic Fi lm  Pop Up Archive  Univers i ty of I l l inois Center for Innovat ion in Teaching and Learning  Smi thsonian Channel  Internat ional Cr iminal Tr ibunals , The Hague  Al l iance for Communi ty Media  Univers i ty of South Carol ina, Moving Image Research Col lect ions  Bay Area Video Coal i t ion  Columbia Univers i ty L ibrar ies  Cal i fornia Audiovi sual Preser vat ion Project  Rock and Rol l Hal l of Fame  Communi ty Media Di st r ibut ion Network  MyMas sTV Network  Documentary Educat ional Resources  Washington Universi ty Fi lm and Televi s ion Archive  Amer ican Archive of Publ ic Broadcast ing  Dance Her i tage Coal i t ion  Univers i ty of Not re Dame  Greene County Publ ic L ibrary  WITNESS  Glenstone Ar t Museum
  40. 40. WHO USES IT?  WGBH  I l l inoi s Publ ic Media  Wi sconsin Publ ic Televi s ion  Wi sconsin Publ ic Radio  WYSO  WNYC-FM  WNET  Louis iana Publ ic Broadcast ing  Paci f ica Radio Archives  KQED  SCETV  CUNY-TV  KUHF  Howard Univers i ty Televi s ion  Database companies/orgs have PBCore prof i les including:  Drupal  CollectiveAccess  Omeka  Islandora  And many video and audio digi t i zat ion vendors. . .
  41. 41. FIRST THINGS FIRST: HOW TO STORE DATA  Local databases (Filemaker, Access, etc.)  DAM systems  Ready-made solutions:  Drupal  CONTENTdm  Collective Access  Omeka  Spreadsheets
  42. 42. BEFORE WE GO ANY FURTHER Asset / Intellectual Work Instantiations / Instances
  43. 43. STRUCTURE OF PBCORE  4 content classes  Intellectual Content  Intellectual Property  Technical  Extensions  82 total elements  30 attributes  Suggested controlled vocabularies
  44. 44. FINDING & CREATING THE METADATA Minimal fields you need to capture  Identifier  asset level & instantiation level  Source of the identifier  Title  Formal or devised  Type of title  Description  Location  Room, shelf, box, file path, hard drive ID, etc.
  45. 45. SO YOU’VE GOT THIS TAPE. NOW WHAT?
  46. 46. WHAT ABOUT THIS FILE?
  47. 47. DIGITAL MEDIA IDENTIFIER & FORMAT Filename = Instantiation ID From extension you can get Digital Format http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_media_type
  48. 48. DIGITAL MEDIA: ADDITIONAL METADATA
  49. 49. and more technical metadata...
  50. 50. AUTOMATE THE PROCESS Automation ● removes human error ● less staff time ● consistency Tools: ffprobe mediainfo ExifTool
  51. 51. BUT I USE OTHER STANDARDS...
  52. 52. PBCORE IS FLEXIBLE & EXTENSIBLE  As an XML schema, PBCore can be implemented along with other standards  Within a METS wrapper  With PREMIS as a sidecar file or as a <pbcoreExtension>  To provide more granular item-level description along with collection-level description in EAD
  53. 53. <PBCORETITLE>EXAMPLES</PBCORETITLE> http://www.pbcore.org/documentation/ • Simple instantiation record • Simple description document • PBCore Collection • PBCore in a METS record • PBCore in a digital preservation setting • Using PBCore for asset management • Using PBCore for archival description
  54. 54. RESOURCES  http://www.pbcore.org  PBCore Webinar recording: http://www.vimeo.com/aapb/pbcore  PBCore Validator: http://infinite-spire- 2035.herokuapp.com/  Forthcoming PBForm & updated Filemaker template  Twitter: @therealpbcore
  55. 55. MULTI-INSTITUTIONAL COLLABORATIONS
  56. 56. COLLABORATIONS Content projects:  Vietnam, Boston Local News, China? Content inventory project Hydra community – open source project AAPB – participating organizations Digital Commonwealth
  57. 57. HOW TO GET WHAT YOU NEED  Planning time  Creating policy – but be flexible  Deliverables for collaboration  Org chart for decision making – who has the final word  Who is deeply involved, who is peripheral  Example: Inventory project:  Data gathering Tools – PBCore validator Forms – minimum fields Hand holding – call us
  58. 58. FACE TO FACE  Important to build rapport with partners  Relationships: I love you, I need you, but I want you to change  Learn about hierarchy at partner institution so you can understand challenges and potential obstacles.  Manage expectations
  59. 59. ACCEPT DIFFERENCES  In workflow  In budgeting  In needs  In timeframes
  60. 60. SPEAK UP  Don’t be afraid to make sure your needs or your institutions needs are being met  In large collaboration most likely you are not the only one to have those thoughts
  61. 61. THANK YOU! Karen Cariani karen_cariani [at ] wgbh [dot ] org @kcariani Casey E. Davis casey_davis [at ] wgbh [dot ] org @caseyedavis1 www.americanarchive.org www.pbcore.org Openvault.wgbh.org

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    Nov. 3, 2014

WGBH Media Library and Archives Director Karen Cariani and American Archive of Public Broadcasting Project Manager Casey Davis gave this presentation at the New England Archivists 2014 Fall Symposium. Karen and Casey discussed managing and preserving digital video; Project Hydra; metadata for audiovisual materials; and collaboration with other institutions through the lens of WGBH Media Library and Archives projects including the American Archive of Public Broadcasting and the NEH funded HydraDAM project.

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