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Ccps light energy workshop #3

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Ccps light energy workshop #3

  1. 1. Light energy Using Hands-on Technology to “Energize” Elementary Teachers’ Physics Instruction February 22, 2018 Presented by Dr. Dena Harshbarger & Dr. Mariana Lazarova Facilitated by Dr. Phu Vu & Dr. Dick Meyer Funded by Nebraska’s Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education (CCPE) Grant
  2. 2. Numbered heads together What ideas did you try from Workshop #2 ★ How did it go? ★ How did students respond? ★ Did you note any impact on learning? Explain.
  3. 3. Two stay, two stray... What ideas did you try from Workshop #2 ★ How did it go? ★ How did students respond? ★ Did you note any impact on learning? Explain.
  4. 4. Never stop growing and learning! We are so glad you are here!
  5. 5. Most importantly... Enjoy the Learning Experience ● Take comfort breaks as needed ● Ask questions ● Share ideas ● Share answers. Don’t be afraid of being “wrong”.
  6. 6. Do y pi l ac L h er ? Yes NoSome
  7. 7. Connection to NEbraska Science standards NE Science Standards ● SC5.1.1 Students will combine scientific processes and knowledge with scientific reasoning and critical thinking to ask questions about phenomenon and propose explanations based on gathered evidence. ● SC5.2.2 Students will identify the influence of forces on motion. ❖ SC5.2.2a Describe motion by tracing and measuring an object’s position over a period of time (speed). ❖ SC5.2.2b Describe changes in motion due to outside forces (push, pull, gravity) ❖ MA 5.4.2 Analysis & Applications: Students will analyze data to address the situation. ➢ MA 5.4.2.a Use observations and experiments to collect, represent, and interpret the data using tables and bar graphs.
  8. 8. pedagogical knowledge Teaching practices that enhance science instruction 1) Incorporate hands-on investigations ● Light Kit ● Lasers and color filters 2) Incorporate technology ● PhET simulations ● Newsela ● Plickers 3) Actively engage students in collaborative learning ● Table Talk (# cards) ● 2 Stay, 2 Stray ● Show Down ● Spend a Buck
  9. 9. Reminder: Science logs/journals ● Develop learners’ scientific process skills (i.e., predicting, inferring, observing, recording and analyzing data/results, and communicating) ● Helps students process & recall information ● Serves as study guides and/or student resources ● Can be used to assess students’ understanding ● Interactive notebooks are more engaging! ***Please use your science log throughout the day and consider how you can use journals with your students.
  10. 10. Background knowledge LIGHT...
  11. 11. What is Light? 3rd grader: Light is something that makes things visible Physics review
  12. 12. This is the Sun’s spectrum in the visible part of the light spectrumPhysics review
  13. 13. 13 Light encodes info about: 1. what objects are made of 2. how hot objects are 3. how fast they are moving 4. what they are: galaxy, star, planet, etc. Hubble ultra Deep Field Credit: NASA Physics review
  14. 14. 14 WHAT IS LIGHT? • Light is a form of energy • Light has dual nature: sometimes acts like a wave and sometimes like a particle • Light is an electromagnetic wave • The particles of light are massless photons • The Energy, Wavelength, and Frequency of light are related • The Speed of light is constant, c = 300,000 km/s (or 186,000 miles/s, a million times faster than sound in air) – the speed limit of the Universe How is light produced? 1. originates from accelerating charges 2. election transitions in atoms
  15. 15. Electromagnetic Radiation = Light Electromagnetic wave • A traveling packet of energy • made up of vibrating electric and magnetic fields that regenerate each other by electromagnetic induction Physics review
  16. 16. Potential E Stored Energy Kinetic E Energy of Motion Radiative E Light 1. Food 2. Nuclear energy 3. Hot water 4. Object lifted high 5. Compressed spring TYPES OF ENERGY Energy is never created or destroyed, just converts from one type to another. Sort these into the energy category they belong to: A. Gasoline B. Radio waves C. Voltage D. Magnet E. Mass Physics review
  17. 17. 17 The Wave-Particle Duality of Light WAVE: - properties (Wavelength, Amplitude, Frequency, Speed) WHAT IS LIGHT? - Interactions (diffraction & interference) PHET simulations! Physics review
  18. 18. 18 PARTICLE: the photon has no mass! - interactions impart momentum photons electrons metal WHAT IS LIGHT? Photoelectric effect PHET simulation The Wave-Particle Duality of Light Physics review
  19. 19. The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Light is Infinite Listed in order of Energy, Frequency, Wavelength Planck’s constant speed of light Physics review
  20. 20. 20 How are wavelength and frequency related? A) the longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency b) the shorter the wavelength, the lower the frequency C) the longer the wavelength, the higher the frequency D) Wavelength and frequency are independent WHAT IS LIGHT?Physics review
  21. 21. 21 How are energy and frequency related? A) the higher the energy, the lower the frequency b) the lower the energy, the higher the frequency C) the higher the energy, the higher the frequency D) energy and frequency are independent Planck’s constant WHAT IS LIGHT?Physics review
  22. 22. 22 Q: Which light wave has the highest energy? A) B) C) D) E) Q2: Which has the longest wavelength? hysics review
  23. 23. 23 Can you hear RADIO WAVES? A) No B) Yes C) Some people can D) Only Jodie foster can Physics review
  24. 24. 24 Can you hear RADIO WAVES? A) No B) Yes C) Some people can D) Only Jodie foster can Physics review Sound is a pressure wave. Sound is a longitudinal wave Sound needs a medium to travel. Light is an electromagnetic wave. Light is a transverse wave. Light can travel in vacuum.
  25. 25. How does light interact with matter? matter ................................. light absorbs emits reflects / scatters transmits refracts (bends) https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/color-vision/latest/color-vision_en.html Physics review
  26. 26. atoms Sub-atomic particles Simplified model States of matter Is the light-matter interaction different for different states of matter? Example: Water! Physics review
  27. 27. The electron energy levels are quantized • light “fingerprints”: the energy levels differ from atom to atom and ion to ion 1) light is emitted when electrons transition between energy levels Emission spectrum Absorption spectrum
  28. 28. each electron in each element produces a UNIQUE spectral line DURING TRANSITIONS Physics review
  29. 29. 3 Main Types of Spectra continuous absorption emission Absorption or Emission? •depends on temperature and density hot dense object cooler low-density gas hot dense object hot low-density gas Physics review
  30. 30. molecules vibrate and rotate electrons spiraling in magnetic fields 2) light is emitted when charges accelerate Physics review
  31. 31. Solar Spectrum: Plot of intensity of light vs. Wavelength Wavelength intensityoflight Physics review
  32. 32. blackbody radiation depends only on Temperature Peak emission depends on TemperatureONLY Physics review - the redder, the cooler - the bluer, the hotter i.e., hot things emit more energy than cool things Thermal radiation = Blackbody radiation
  33. 33. Does a blue star emit red light? A) Yes B) No C) It depends Does a blue star emit more red light than a red star? A) Yes B) No Physics review
  34. 34. Light travels in a straight line... Demonstration
  35. 35. Let’s explore how light interacts with matter... So, now…
  36. 36. Safety precautions: ● Avoid placing materials near your mouth or eyes. ● Be aware of and handle sharp objects with care (corner of mirrors, prisms). ● Use materials appropriately. ● Do not look directly into sunlight or laser beams.
  37. 37. Cha n 1: How i h T av ? Materials: ● Mirror ● Protractor ● Light Kit Laser beams *What happens to the light when it hits the mirror?
  38. 38. Reflection Law of reflection: • angle of incidence = angle of reflection Physics review 2) Diffuse reflection • light striking a rough or irregular surface reflects in many directions 1) Specular reflection
  39. 39. Cha n 2: Wha p s en Lig s ik f e n je s? 1. Discuss your predictions with your table team. 2. Test each object. 3. Record results.
  40. 40. Discussion: Find SOMEONE WHO SITS AT A DIFFERENT TABLE 1. Which objects block some light? How do those objects compare to the ones that allow all light to pass through? 2. Which objects block all light? Is this what you predicted? Why or why not? 3. What evidence is there that no light passes through some objects?
  41. 41. Ex e n e B re L 1. Builds background experience 2. Helps students make meaningful connections 3. Improves retention and recall
  42. 42. transparent, translucent, opaque when light is TRANSMITTED, SCATTERED, and ABSORBED Physics review
  43. 43. Transparent and Opaque Materials Light is transmitted similar to sound • light incident on matter forces some electrons in matter to vibrate Physics review • energy is momentarily absorbed and vibrates electrons in the glass • a vibrating electron either emits a photon or transfers the energy as heat • light slows due to time delay between absorption & reemission of photons
  44. 44. Speed of Light is constant! Average speed of light through different materials • vacuum—c (300,000,000 m/s) • air—slightly less than c (but rounded off to c) • water—0.75 c • glass—0.67 c • diamond—0.41 c Physics review
  45. 45. Transparent or Opaque Depends on Wavelength • Opaque materials: • colored glass is opaque to much of incident white light © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Physics review • Glass is opaque to infrared light (greenhouses!)
  46. 46. Transparent and Opaque Materials • Light incident on: • dry surfaces bounces directly to your eye • wet surfaces bounces inside the transparent wet region, absorbing energy with each bounce, and reaches your eye darker than from a dry surface Why do wet thing look darker? Physics review
  47. 47. hOw can we represent the vocabulary words to help students understand & remember them better?● Examples/Non-examples ● Analogies ● Drawings or visuals ● Actions, movement, simulations ● Songs or poems ● Frayer’s Model ● Models or sculptures
  48. 48. Sort the objects based upon your findings. Transparent Translucent Opaque
  49. 49. shadow theater- -hands-on shadows cut-out silhouettes- Art connection Creative Extensions
  50. 50. Ada d m: Jus s Th o h (p. 109-111)
  51. 51. PA T E C L E #3 - Par 11. Would you consider a paper towel as translucent, transparent, or opaque? 2. SHOW RESPONSE WITH PLICKER CARD 3. Explain your response. 4. What could we do to the paper towel to change the way light interacts with it? Hint: Is there a way to make the paper more transparent?
  52. 52. PA T E C L E #3 PA 2- FO B O OPEN-ENDED DISCOVERY: 1. What effects did the oil have on the paper? 2. Is the paper more or less transparent when wet?
  53. 53. Ada d m: Fo l y Oi (p. 125-130)
  55. 55. C A L #4: Lig n Y u d TRY shining a flash light close to your hand. WHAT DO YOU NOTICE? Was your prediction right?
  56. 56. reflection Next, let’s DIVE into …
  57. 57. EX R O Y L GE 5: Par 1: Pap Outdoors if possible1. What happens when white light reflects off of white paper? 2. What happens when white light reflects off of black paper? 3. What happens when white light reflects off of red paper? 4. What happens when white light reflects off of blue paper? 5. Which color of paper had the brightest reflection? Why?
  58. 58. EX R O Y L GE 5 Par 2: Ad il s Outdoors if possible 1. 2. What kinds of objects reflect light? 3. Whgat 1. Use the red filter to look at the white paper. ● What color is the paper? 2. Use the blue filter to look at the white paper. ● What color is the paper? 3. Use the blue filter to look at the red paper. ● What color is the paper? 4. Use the red filter to look at the blue paper. ● What color is the paper? 5. Think about how color filters work.
  59. 59. EX R O Y L GE 5 Par 3: Pen t ug l s Outdoors if possible 1. 2. What kinds of objects reflect light? 3. Whgat 1. Draw a circle on a white paper with the pink highlighter. ● Look at the circle through the red/blue filter. What do you see? 2. Draw a circle on a white paper with the blue highlighter. ● Look at the circle through the red/blue filter. What do you see? 3. Use the color filters to look at multi-colored images in the room. 4. Now, think about how color filters work.
  60. 60. PA C LE 5 OPEN-ENDED DISCOVERY: 1. Is a red sheet always red? 2. What can you conclude about how colors add and subtract? (Show artwork video from phone)
  61. 61. Color • Selective Reflection • A material may absorb some of the light and reflect the rest. • Selective Transmission: • https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/color-vision/latest/color-vision_en.html • The color of a transparent object depends on the color of the light it transmits. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Physics review
  62. 62. Color • Additive primary colors (red, blue, green): • red + blue = magenta • red + green = yellow • blue + green = cyan Physics review
  63. 63. Refraction Time for…
  64. 64. Cha n 6: Pri l ● What do you see when we look at light that has passed through a prism? ● Will the light source make a difference in what we see? ● What colors make up the Sun’s light? Sunlight Artificial Light (i.e., flashlight) Vs. vs.
  65. 65. Dispersion • Dispersion • process of separation of light into colors arranged by frequency • Components of white light are dispersed in a prism (and also in a diffraction grating) Physics review Outside activity: Solar glasses + diffraction grating glasses
  66. 66. Cha n 7: Ben g Li h s
  67. 67. 1. What happens to the happy face when you put water in the glass? 2. Why can’t you see the happy face on the bottom when you at it from the side of the glass filled with water?
  68. 68. 1. What does the pencil look like in the cup of water? Does the pencil look longer or shorter underwater? Why? 2. Where does the pencil appear to be broken?
  69. 69. Ada d m: Lig y w Do (p. 153-158)
  70. 70. Refraction • Refraction • bending of light when it passes from one medium to another • caused by change in speed of light • Illusions caused by refraction Physics review
  71. 71. Speed of Light is constant! Average speed of light through different materials • vacuum—c (300,000,000 m/s) • atmosphere—slightly less than c (but rounded off to c) • water—0.75 c • glass—0.67 c, depending on material • diamond—0.41 c Physics review Speed = distance / time
  72. 72. Refraction Light bends when going from one transpare medium to another because Light moves SLOWER in HIGH density than in low density medium From HI to LO AWAY from normal air water From LO to HI TOWARD the normal Physics review
  73. 73. Critical Angle Physics review
  74. 74. Cha n 8: Len -Par 2 OPEN-ENDED DISCOVERY: 1. Explore how the concave and the convex lenses work. 2. Use the 3-beam laser to find the focal point of each lens. 3. Connect to vision correction.
  75. 75. Lenses o=object distance i=image distance The image can be: • Large or Equal or Smaller • Real or Virtual • Upright or Upside-down • On same or opposite side as object Physics review
  76. 76. Converging Lens Physics review
  77. 77. Diverging Lens Physics review
  78. 78. WORKSHEET: Use the optics kits to find the focal length of the lens. Use pen, paper & ruler: draw an imaginary object and form the image from the principal rays through the lens. PHET simulation: Geometric Optics: https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/geometric-optics/geometr ic-optics_en.html Cha n 9: Len - Ima r a n
  79. 79. Background: Color and the eye
  80. 80. How the Eye Sees Color and What color is the Sun? https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/color-vision Our eyes don’t see blue as well as Green and Red WHITE LIGHT Physics review
  81. 81. Let’s take a L K at how eyeglass lenses work
  82. 82. Myopia Far objects appear blurry Hyperopia Near objects appear blurry Which lens would you need? Correcting Vision Physics review
  83. 83. Explore Polarization How do polarizer work? Explore orientation to find when two polarizers: ● Block all light ● Transmit all light ● Transmit some light
  84. 84. Polarization • alignment of transverse electric vectors in electromagnetic waves • property of transverse waves © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Physics review
  85. 85. Polarization • Unpolarized light • vibrations producing light are in random directions © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Physics review
  86. 86. Polarization • Polarized light Unpolarized light divided into two internal beams polarized at right angles to each other. One beam is absorbed while the other beam is transmitted. © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Physics review
  87. 87. Polaroid glasses reduce glare, but how? Physics review
  88. 88. • What is something new you’ve learned today? • What is an idea you’d like to try in your classroom?
  89. 89. How do you plan to invest your time and energy in order to improve your science instruction? Cooperative Learning Structures Ex. Jot Thoughts, inside/outside circle, Think-Pair-share …. Hands-on & Inquiry-based investigations investigations Technological Tools to engage and enhance learning Ex. Phet, iPad apps, Plickers…..) Building Scientific Content Knowledge/Background Ex. Light Energy, Force & Motion, Electricity
  90. 90. Tha y o p ci n i r C S im v s i c G a t We p ci o r ic o t en uc o ! Have a great rest of the school year! Best Wishes!
  91. 91. Evaluations & Paperwork
  92. 92. References and Resources Energy Explorations: Sound, Light, and Heat (2010). AIMS Education Foundation. Fresno, CA: Newsela. https://newsela.com/