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CBCTefNZgNfHJaTU138.pptx

  1. 1. ELECTRICALANDELECTRONICSENGINEERING MODULE 2
  2. 2. QUALITY PLANNING AND ITS DEVELOPMENT  QUALITY  Quality is a relative term.  Degree of excellence.  Fitness for use.  It is based on the customers actual experience with product or service, measured against his requirements.  The concept of quality concerns how well and for how long a product meets requirements of the customer.
  3. 3. Definitions of quality ⚫Conformance to requirement- Philip B Crosby ⚫Continuous improvement- William Edwards Deming ⚫Fitness for use- Joseph Moses Juran ⚫Most economical, most useful and always satisfactory to the customer- Kaoru Ishikawa ⚫As per ISO 9000 quality is defined as the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service, that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs
  4. 4. The word quality has variety of meanings…. ⚫Fitness for purpose. ⚫Conformance to requirements. ⚫Grade ⚫Degree of preference ⚫Degree of excellence ⚫Measure of fulfillment of promises. ⚫Assured performance and safety ⚫Proper packing and timely delivery ⚫Incorporating customer feedback
  5. 5. Dimensions of quality ⚫Performance ⚫Features ⚫Reliability ⚫Conformance ⚫Durability ⚫Service ability ⚫Aesthestics ⚫Perceived quality
  6. 6. Quality planning ⚫Quality planning is one of the basic processes used in managing for quality ⚫The process of establishing quality objectives and developing the plans for meeting those objectives. ⚫Quality planning is the activity of developing the products and processes required to meet customer’s needs
  7. 7. Quality planning involves the following steps 1. Determine who are the customers. 2. Determine the needs of the customers 3. Develop product features according to customers needs. 4. Develop processes which are able to produce those product features. 5. Transfer the resulting plans to the operating forces.
  8. 8. Quality planning process Identification of customers Translate customer’sneedsinto supplier’slanguage Discoveringcustomer needs Transfer to operations Develop the process Develop the product that meetsthe customer’sneed Optimize product design
  9. 9. Objectives of quality planning which meet ⚫ To produce quality products and services customer’s needs. ⚫ To define quality standards and to prepare product specifications. ⚫ To prepare guidelines on various elements effecting quality. ⚫ To establish quality objectives and developing plans for achieving these objectives.
  10. 10. ⚫ To review and evaluate product designs with a view to improve quality and reduce the quality costs. ⚫ To develop quality control techniques and methods. ⚫ To build up a basis for total quality management culture ⚫ To identify opportunities for excellence ⚫ To create an excellent operating culture in the organization
  11. 11. Three prong approach to quality planning ⚫Planning is the activity of developing the product and processes required to meet customers needs. ⚫Quality planning can be achieved by the three prong approach ⚫1. Product planning ⚫2. Managerial and operational planning ⚫3. Documentation
  12. 12. 1. Product planning ⚫Product planning may be defined as – Evaluation of the range, mix, specification and pricing of existing and new products in relation to present and future market requirements and competition. ⚫Planning of product range, mix, specification and pricing to satisfy company objectives and specifying the research, design and development support required. ⚫Product planning serves as an input to processes design
  13. 13. 2. Managerial and operational planning ⚫ 1. Preparing organizational structure- involves responsibilities, authorities and relationship arranged in pattern, through which the organization performs its functions. ⚫ 2. Preparing organizational procedure- involves written documentation of purpose and scope of each and every activity. ⚫ 3. Preparing process- involves set of inter- related resources and activities which transform input into output in the most cost effective and quality effective manners. ⚫ 4. Preparation of resources needed to implement quality management- Includes the resources needed for all activities of the over all management function that determine the quality policy, objectives and responsibilities and prepare for implementation such as quality control, quality assurance, quality improvement
  14. 14. 3. Documentation ⚫All the elements requirements and provisions required by company for its quality management system should be documented in a systematic and orderly manner in the form of written policies and procedures. ⚫Such documentation should ensure a common understanding of quality policies and procedures. ⚫The quality management adequate provision for system should include proper identification, distribution, collection and maintenance of all quality documents and records.
  15. 15. Types of quality documents ⚫ Drawing ⚫ Specifications ⚫ Blue prints ⚫ Inspection instructions ⚫ Test procedures ⚫ Work instructions ⚫ Operation sheet ⚫ Quality manual ⚫ Operational procedure ⚫ Quality control and quality assurance procedure
  16. 16. Quality management system ⚫ A management system to direct & control an organization with regard to quality ⚫ System must clarify to the organization-what to do, who will do it, how the work will be done, when to do it etc. ⚫ Systems in an organization must be focused towards a direction i.e., there must exist a management system, without which an organization would virtually collapse. ⚫ A system to establish quality policy & quality objectives & to achieve those objectives ⚫ Quality management is also defined as A management system to direct and control an organization with regard to quality.
  17. 17. International standards organization -ISO ⚫ ISO is the international organization for standardisation, is founded in 1946, with the objective of promotion and development of international standards and related activities, including conformity assessments such as testing, inspection, laboratory accreditation, certification, and quality assessments for facilitating international exchange of goods and services.
  18. 18. ISO 9000 ⚫ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems, maintained by ISO based in Geneva. ⚫Administrated by accreditation and certification bodies. ⚫The ISO 9000 series of standards promotes the adoption of process approach when developing, implementing and improving the effectiveness of a quality management system, to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting customer requirements. ⚫ISO 9000 series standards have been adopted by some 45 countries.
  19. 19. ⚫ The first series of ISO 9000 standards were released in 1987. ⚫ There were 5 core standards and various guidance standards for interpretation of mandatory requirements for the specific industries. ⚫ As part of continual improvement, ISO 9000 series of standards are reviewed and revised once in five years.
  20. 20. Whom does ISO-9000 HELP? ⚫ Organizations, whom want to promote their products in international markets. ⚫ Organizations in creating confidence to the customers regarding the product quality, which improves profits. ⚫ Organizations, in withstanding the competitions from other producers of product in the global market. ⚫ Suppliers, in improving the quality of raw materials, semi finished and finished products. ⚫ Customers, in getting good quality products. ⚫ Organizations, in expanding their business throughout the world wide.
  21. 21. ISO 9000 SERIES ⚫ There are five standards in the ISO 9000 series, ISO 9000 to ISO 9004. They are, ⚫ 1. ISO 9000: Quality management and quality assurance standards guidelines for selection and use. ⚫ Describes fundamentals of QMS,QCS,QAS etc ⚫ It includes fundamentals & vocabulary used in 9000 series ⚫ 2. ISO 9001: Quality systems- Model for quality assurance in design, production, installation and servicing. • Contains the actual requirements an organization must comply with to become ISO 9001 Registered. It basically deals with certification • Basically for business dealing with design, production, Installation & servicing eg: jewellery ⚫ 3. ISO 9002: Quality systems model tor quality assurance in production and installation. ⚫ It used to deal with mainly organisation which do not design or develop products
  22. 22. ⚫ 4. ISO 9003: Quality systems - model for quality assurance in final inspection and test. ⚫It is model for quality assurance in final inspection & testing of products ⚫ 5. ISO 9004 : Quality management and quality system elements –guidelines ⚫Provides guidelines on technical administration & human factors affecting the quality of product & it provides guidance for sustaining the success of an organization’s objectives.
  23. 23. Elements of ISO 9000 ⚫ A quality system for design, development, production, installation and service has twenty requirements (elements) which has to be established and compiled for ISO 9000 certification. They are, ⚫ 1. Management responsibility ⚫ 2. Quality system ⚫ 3. Contract review ⚫ 4. Design control ⚫ 5. Document control ⚫ 6. Purchasing ⚫ 7. Purchaser-supplied product ⚫ 8. Product identification and traceability ⚫ 9. Process control ⚫ 10. Inspection and testing
  24. 24. ⚫ 11. Inspection, measuring and testing equipment ⚫ 12. Inspection and test status ⚫ 13. Control of non-conformity product. ⚫ 14. Corrective action ⚫ 15. Handling, storage, packing and delivery ⚫ 16. Quality records ⚫ 17. Internal quality audits. ⚫ 18. Training ⚫ 19. Servicing ⚫ 20. Statistical techniques.
  25. 25. Steps for installation of ISO 9000 ⚫3 steps are there ⚫1) Preparatory step ⚫2) Implementation step ⚫3) Registration & certification step
  26. 26. 1. PREPARATORY STEP ⚫ Make everybody aware of quality ⚫ Necessary quality document to be prepared for – Top managerial groups – Department heads – Junior level executives ⚫ Analyze present status & take corrective actions ⚫ Design & develop standard procedures of manufacturing ⚫ Document everything in form of policy, procedures etc
  27. 27. 2. IMPLEMENTATION STEP ⚫Implementing the documented quality system into practice in the organization. ⚫ Internal audit ⚫ External audit ⚫ Conducting Pre-registration
  28. 28. 3. Registration and certification step ⚫Apply for registration ⚫Audit by certification body ⚫Certificate will be issued by certification body
  29. 29. QUALITY AUDIT ⚫A Systematic & independent examination to determine whether quality objectives are as par the plans & whether these plans are implemented effectively in achieving quality objectives with the maintenance of quality standards.
  30. 30. Objectives of quality audit ⚫To study the quality of the existing systems and find out the non conformity with the quality system. ⚫To suggest the corrections to be done in different areas and operations. ⚫To propose and implement methods as per ISO standards. ⚫To evaluate a supplier before entering a contract with him. ⚫To suggest best procedures and practices. ⚫To reduce the loss of money due to duplication of activities, high repairs, high scraps, and so on.
  31. 31. Types of audit ⚫1. Adequate audit – Also called documentation review or Intent audit. Office exercise to compare documentation with applicable standard ⚫2. Compliance audit – Also called implementation or effectiveness audit. It is an audit to establish the extend to which the documented system is complied or not. ⚫3. System audit – Evaluates quality aspects of various system in organization such a production and planning, research and development, purchasing, design & development assembly, inspection etc
  32. 32. ⚫4. Product audit – Evaluates or examines the acceptance level of the finished product made by inspection and testing department. ⚫5. First party audit – also called internal audit. Done by persons within the organization to determine whether the quality management system conforms to the requirement of the ISO std, whether quality management system has been effectively implemented and maintained. ⚫6. Second party audit – Done by parties who have interest in the organization such as customers. ⚫7. Third party audit – Conducted by external independent organizations – ISO Certificate is issued
  33. 33. BENEFITS OF BECOMING ISO COMPANY ⚫ISO 9000 provide a competitive edge in the domestic and global market ⚫Platform for Consistent improvement ⚫Reduces wastage & increases profit ⚫Maintains streamlined records ⚫Maintains streamlined material handling & storage ⚫It changes attitude of workers, working atmosphere etc ⚫ISO 9000 gives international recognition of ability, credibility and expertise, thereby increasing the number of customers.
  34. 34. Total quality management ⚫ Means Quality in every aspect of company operation ⚫ AIM ⚫ Long term success ⚫ Benefit to all ⚫ Zero defect ⚫ Customer satisfaction ⚫ TQM involves effective decision making, problem solving, quality planning, quality implementation and quality improvement strategies of all the departments of an organization. ⚫ In TQM, the needs of Customers are constantly monitored to improve the products and processes to meet their requirements. ⚫ Effective TQM results in greater customer satisfaction, fewer defects, less waste, reduced costs, improved profitability and increased productivity
  35. 35. TQM is defined as, ⚫ Management approach of an organisation centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction and Benefits to all members of an organisation and to society. ⚫ Cost effective system for integrating continuous quality improvement efforts of people at all levels in an organisation, to deliver products and services which ensure customer satisfaction. ⚫ TQM is a building, housing quality assurance system. The foundation of this system is consciousness of employees, walls of this building are employees involvement and commitment, roof of the building is quality policy of the top management.
  36. 36. ⚫ Q M T-Total In all functional areas ⚫ ⚫ - at all levels - all the people who haveshare in the organisation. Q – Quality ⚫ - to meet customer requirements M- Management - effective utilisation of resources - to maintain existing levels T
  37. 37. all major areas of TQM involves consideration of production activities such as (a)Engineering design development (b)Sales (c)Marketing (d)Information system (e) Purchasing service (f) Distribution etc
  38. 38. TEN MANTHRAS OF TQM ⚫ 1) Quality is never accident, it is always the result of untiring and intelligent effort ⚫ 2) Quality is like a prayer to god, which never comes out without hard work and devotion ⚫ 3) Quality is everybody’s work ⚫ 4) Take care of quality , it will take care of everything ⚫ 5) Document is dependable but not memory ⚫ 6) Quality is achieved through team work ⚫ 7) Quality begins with cleanliness of the work place ⚫ 8) quality is begins and ends with education evaluate ⚫ 9) Quality is the attribute that a customer uses to products and services ⚫ 10)Make it right first time & all time
  39. 39. Link between ISO 9000 and TQM with the help of TQM model ⚫ TQM is a mechanism to change the culture of the company to achieve its goals, ISO certification. ⚫ ISO may be called as the subset of TQM. ⚫ Focused on employee involvement and product improvement Quality in 4 dimension: ⚫ (a) Requirement of customer ⚫ (b) Management commitment ⚫ (c)Countrywide participation ⚫ (d)Analysis of quality problems
  40. 40. ⚫ ISO 9000is a quality management system ⚫ Organization has to prepare quality manual ⚫ Quality manual deals with organizations activities, procedures so that organization can supply quality products and services ⚫ Organization which have decided to adopt TQM, will produce quality products and services today and in near future. ⚫ Organization has to produce better quality products and services than competitors. ⚫ Focused on consistency and record keeping
  41. 41. Approach of ISO 9000
  42. 42. Vision and mission ⚫Mission: Declaration of what an organisation should like in future. ⚫To design, manufacture and supply high quality and reliable products. ⚫Mission statement should be easy to understand, describe the functions of the organisation, purposes for employees ,customers , supplier. ⚫Vision: It must find expression in the strategic quality plan
  43. 43. Quality policy ⚫ A quality policy is a brief statement that aligns with your organization's purpose and strategic direction, provides a framework for quality objectives, and includes a commitment to meet applicable requirements. ⚫ It is a brief statement or document that defines your quality goals and objectives, a commitment. ⚫ It should provide an outline for creating, stating, and measuring your performance of the quality objectives.

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