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WUD Rome 2018 | User friendly, Abuser unfriendly

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Presentation at the Rome World Usability Day 2018.

Where does the responsibility of a designer end? When does the freedom of users, misusers and abusers begin?
Can we design safer digital environments that enable people, allow to be hacked but not to be cracked by criminal intentions? Is cyber-bullism a design problem?
Lessons learned working at Design Against Crime Research Centre in London. Exploring the dark side of creativity and the power of design in encouraging behaviours and preventing criminal activity.

Publicada em: Design
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WUD Rome 2018 | User friendly, Abuser unfriendly

  1. 1. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Is design good or bad? Design is amazing! When you are in control.
  2. 2. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Once I thought design was good.
  3. 3. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Then I discovered the dark side of design.
  4. 4. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Design tension and intention.
  5. 5. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Design Against Crime Research Centre Design Against Crime is a practice-led design research approach that emerged at Central Saint Martins, University of the Arts London between 1999 and 2009.
  6. 6. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Socially Responsive Design RESPONSIVE DESIGN Socially responsive design takes as its primary driver social issues, its main consideration social impact, and its main objective social change. www.designagainstcrime.com RESPONSIBLE DESIGN
  7. 7. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Socially Responsive Design RESPONSIVE DESIGN Socially responsive design takes as its primary driver social issues, its main consideration social impact, and its main objective social change. www.designagainstcrime.com RESPONSIBLE DESIGN
  8. 8. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Think thief. Think criminal.
  9. 9. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it The dark side of creativity.
  10. 10. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it What do criminals and designers have in common? • Problem solving capacity 
 (lateral thinkers, creative minds) • Resourcefulness 
 (making the most of context and available tools) • Creating intangible effects 
 (operating in the dark/good design is invisible) • Opportunity driven attitude 
 (taking advantage of situation/focusing on solutions) • A natural attraction for transgression 
 (the art of crime, challenging society) • Similar higher incidence of dyslexia and other disturbs (creativity as a medical condition?) By designing criminally unsafe automobiles that kill or maim nearly one million people around the world each year, by creating whole new species of permanent garbage to clutter up the landscape, and by choosing materials and processes that pollute the air we breathe, designers have become a dangerous breed. And the skills needed in these activities are taught carefully to young people! Victor Papanek, 
 Design for the Real World 1971
  11. 11. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it A matter of intention. Author Work Reader
  12. 12. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Design intention. Designer Design User
  13. 13. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Design intention. Designer Design User
  14. 14. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Design intention. Designer Design User
  15. 15. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it User, misuser, abuser. User Misuser Abuser
  16. 16. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it 1 Design out crime Designing out crime A designers’ guide User-centred design Like all good design,designing out crime needs to start with an understanding of the user. Knowing as much as possible about the people who are going to use a product, environment, system or service – their needs,desires,capabilities, weaknesses and aspirations – will help to ensure that design solutions are effective, usable and sustainable. Of course, not all users are the same, nor do the same users act the same way all the time.This is why designers need to conduct user research to understand how individuals, as well as groups of users, respond to different objects or spaces or in different situations. In practice,user research can range from ethnographic and observation-based techniques to depth interviews,workshops and role-play with target audience groups.These qualitative approaches enable designers to understand how a wide range of users act and react – and can help to reveal how people really behave, which can be quite different from how they think they behave. User-centred design approaches also advocate involving users throughout the design process of testing, iterating and refining. Groups of users can give feedback on sketches, physical prototypes or storyboards that show service propositions, and tools like eye-tracking software can help users test interactive design solutions such as websites. Using images and illustrations to bring complex products and services to life can be a helpful way of communicating during user research. Users can also be brought in to help to build realistic scenarios so designers can understand how their products and services might be used now and in the future. Abuser-centred design Designers working on crime prevention and reduction need to think beyond the user: to understand how to prevent crime for occurring, they have to fully understand how crimes happen.To do this they need to gain insight into crime from the point of view of the offender – thinking about the abusers of products and environments as well as their users. The most direct way for design teams to gain this understanding is by talking with people who have committed crimes. Obviously, though, this is not as straightforward as talking to groups of consumers or customers: interviewees made be hard to find or they may be unwilling to share their experiences. Designers who try to observe offenders in the act of committing a crime may well put themselves at unnecessary risk. Fortunately, there are other tools and resources at the designer’s disposal. Variously called ‘thinking thief’ or ‘adopting the criminal gaze’, designers can use the collected experiences and research conducted by the police, criminologists, design researchers and others in order to imagine how an offender might approach a product, environment or situation.8 The tools in this guide will help to give designers systematic ways of considering projects from the offender’s point of view. Interviews and workshops with individuals from crime prevention agencies and the police are also invaluable in understanding how particular crimes happen and how they are best prevented and solved. Also workshops or interviews with people who have been victims of crime can give useful insights into how, when and where crimes are committed. Obviously, people may be more or less willing to talk about their experiences of crime, depending on the nature and severity of the crime involved, and such interviews need to be handled sensitively. User and abuser-centred design User research in designing out crime projects As part of the Design Out Crime programme, The Sorrell Foundation conducted workshops with 150 young people from six locations in England and Wales. Facilitators and designers helped them to map where crime happens in their schools and communities, and how they felt about crime and security issues. These insights were then translated into design briefs which seek solutions to problems like bullying and vandalism in school toilets.7 Tools and techniques 1413 Tools and techniques Designing out of crime.
  17. 17. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Crim eevent Precrime Post crim e Effort, risk and reward Detection Prosecution Long-term consequences Resources Immediate response Predisposition Behaviour and actions Design and use vulnerabilities Presence and accessIn order to create solutions which reduce or prevent crime, designers need to fully understand how crimes happen. Crime is complex social issue and goes far beyond the actual moment when a crime is committed. Crime involves individuals choosing to transgress the rules of their society or community, whether these involve personal property, business transactions or physical safety or emotional wellbeing.The reasons that people commit crime are complex too, and can be linked to factors such as poverty and poor education as well as to individuals’psychological background,community and peer group. In addition, for every crime there are situational factors such as the in-the-moment choices that affect offender behaviour and the ways in which the behaviour and actions of offender, victim and bystanders can affect how and whether a crime takes place.And for every crime there are different consequences and repercussions that happen after the crime has taken place. A framework such as the Crime Lifecycle model is useful for designers wanting to understand these issues and break them down into sections in order to consider how – and indeed whether – a particular aspect of a crime can be tackled by a design solution. Designers of products and environments may be able to do little to tackle the underlying social reasons why crime occurs, but a systematic approach which allows them to interrogate how crime happens can not only help to create more effective deterrents and preventions,but also help to inspire more divergent and creative thinking around a particular crime problem. The Crime Lifecycle Model Note: This model is also useful as a reminder that few design-led crime prevention methods will be 100% effective so, for some projects, designers may need to focus their energies what happens after a crime has been committed. For example, a technology solution that renders a mobile phone unusable once it has been stolen is a solution that focuses on post-crime issues. So too are solutions like forensic marking liquids (see page 43) which aid police in the identification of stolen property that has been recovered. Designers can use the Crime Lifecycle Model to identify where they can incorporate anti-crime elements in a project or commission. Tools and techniques 18 Reducing opportunities for criminal behaviour. CRIM E EVENT! CRIME A likely offender A suitable target The absence of capable guardian Routine activity theory: physical convergence in time and space The Crime 
 Lifecycle Model
  18. 18. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it ‘Secure design does not have to look criminal’, says the Design Against Crime Research Centre (DACRC) at Central St Martin’s College, University of the Arts, London.The DACRC’s practice- led socially responsive design research agenda is based on the understanding that design thinking as well as design practice can and should address security issues without compromising functionality and other aspects of performance, or aesthetics. The DACRC’s methodology has nine stages of activity in a model that can be summarised as iterations that: – scope and consult – research and create – create and consult – create and test DACRC adopts a ‘twin track’ approach, engaging with research-led design and design- led research, and iterating at every stage, drawing on the expert advice of stakeholders. Design researchers, criminologist, others Design researchers, designers, others Evolved twin track model of the Iterative Design Process Design Against Crime Research Centre Central St Martin’s College, University of the Arts, London ‘The diagram shows how research (green circles) and design (grey circles) follow a twin-track approach. The green circles show how the research phase is delivered, and the grey circles show how the process is creation of specific design realisations or exemplars for specific contexts. This process can be applied to the creation of the design of objects, or resources that teach others how to design out crime, as well as to the realisation of many types of design briefs. Many stages Design thinking Design thinking coping Crime science frameworks Other discourses Open innovation of iteration and refining of the design brief occur, also many stages of prototyping occur, before we actually realise, or create a product, resource, system or designed service. The depth of our approach is perhaps more common to what is traditionally called ‘service design’ but involves crucial user and abuser focus and the following specific stages.’ Design Against Crime Methodology, DACRC, February 2009 You can find an in-depth explanation of DACRC’s methodology on its website at www.designagainstcrime.com/ methodology-resources/design- methodology Iterations Research isualisebserve Create brief Research isualisebserve Create brief Critique Realisation EvaluateImplement and test Critique Realisation EvaluateImplement and test Synthesis Design brief refining mechanisms Design management refining mechanisms Design brief refining mechanisms Design management refining mechanisms Synthesis Multidisciplinary / Interdisciplinary Interdisciplinary Research-led design practice Design e emplars Practice-led design practice Design resources Refine abuser crime frameworks Refine user design frameworks Appendix 2 102101 Appendix 2 Twin Track model of iterative design process. USER ABUSER
  19. 19. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it The broken window syndrome. The broken windows theory is a criminological theory that visible signs of crime, anti-social behaviour, and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes.
  20. 20. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Reducing injuries from alcohol related violence in pubs.
  21. 21. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Crime prevention doesn’t need to look criminal. Sweet Dreams Security, Safety with a Smile by Matthias Aron Megyeri
  22. 22. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Bikeoff. Bike theft prevention project.
  23. 23. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Bikeoff. Bike theft prevention project.
  24. 24. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Liquid rules in a digital society.
  25. 25. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Keep it user friendly.
  26. 26. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Keep it user friendly.
  27. 27. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Sarahah is a social networking service for providing anonymous feedback. In Arabic, sarahah means "frankness" or "honesty". Anonymous feedback. Is “honesty” good or evil?
  28. 28. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Empathy and Cyberbullying.
  29. 29. Vincenzo Di Maria @vdmdesign from commonground @commongroundppl | User friendly, abuser unfriendly www.wudrome.it Designing for user friendly/abuser unfriendly solutions.
  30. 30. by Vincenzo Di Maria
  31. 31. ● It takes responsibility and it has a clear intention ● It considers multiple users and stakeholders ● It’s user friendly and abuser unfriendly
  32. 32. ● It stops serving people and it starts judging them ● It’s not questioning the problem ● Misusers and abusers win while users loose...

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