2. Learning Competencies:
• a. plan data collection, data gathering instrument, and analysis
• b. present a written research methodology;
• c. collect data through observation and interview; and
• d. appreciate the process of data collection.
5. Grounded Theory, Phenomenology
Case Study design, Ethnographic study
1. It is an expended observation of social research and social
perspective and the cultural values of an entire social setting.
2. In this study, the entire communities are observed objectively.
3. This study requires the researcher to spend more time to the
4. The data from in-depth interviews as well as activity on the social
media websites will be used.
5. It is the direct description of a group, culture, or community.
6. Grounded Theory, Phenomenology
Case Study design, Ethnographic study
6. It is a research methodology for discovering theory in a substantive
7. It is a development of theory directly based in the data collected by
8. It is used for a research approach with specific boundaries and can
be both qualitative and quantitative.
9. It is an entity studied as a single unit, and it has clear confines and a
specific focus and it is bound to context.
10. It is the straight explanation of a group, culture or community
7. Data Collection Forms
Direct data include recordable spoken or written words
and also observable body language, actions, and interactions.
Here, the interactions may be human-to-human or human
responses to inanimate objects—such as a hemodialysis machine.
Whatever can be observed or linked is considered to be potential
or actual data (Issacs, 2014). This will occur when considering the
thoughts, feelings, experiences, meaning of experience, responses,
actions, interactions, language, and processes of individuals and
groups within their social and/or cultural setting (Babbie, 2014).
8. Indirect data are generated, firsthand, by someone or
something else, such as with documents or photographs
reporting an event or an artistic rendition of an event or
experience (e.g., novels, songs, paintings, poems,
photographs). Direct data, though, are by far the most
common form in qualitative research.
Interviews are viewed as the prime method for qualitative
data collection, which also represent the most common
method for gathering What is It 4 16 qualitative data in
nursing-related research (Issacs 2014).
10. Unstructured interviews
• Unstructured interviews - The interviews are designed to
be informal and conversational with the aim of
encouraging participants to express themselves in a
naturally unfolding manner. Unstructured interviews tend
to start with single broad questions, such as ‘what is your
• Semi-structured interviews use an interview guide to
provide a set of questions for discussion. The questions are
set to ensure that the research aims/questions are
covered. However, there is freedom to pose any questions
in any order, following tangents or seeking clarification of
previous answers or elaboration of responses.
Semi-structured interviews steer the interview yet are
flexible enough to allow the interviewer to follow leads and
areas of interest
12. Structured interviews
• Structured interviews in qualitative research are not
commonly conducted. Structured interviews follow a list of
set questions, usually asked in a certain order—but these
questions are still open-ended; that is, usually commencing
with words like ‘how’, ‘why’, ‘where’, or ‘when’. This
distinguishes them from structured quantitative interviews,
which usually only ask closed ended questions such as ‘how
many’ to illicit numerical data.
14. • Probing - eliciting further details or seeking clarification. Price
(2002) explained an innovative probing technique called ‘laddered
questions. Appropriate questions are asked in a series leading from
the least intrusive questions to the most intrusive.
This technique identifies classifications of questions; questions
about ‘actions’ are deemed to be the least invasive, through to
questions about ‘philosophy’ (feelings/values/beliefs) as the most
invasive. Storytelling, as another technique, involves asking
questions in a manner which encourages storytelling and more
elaborate answers; for example, ‘Tell me about when you last
15. • Paraphrasing—repeating what the participant has said,
without changing the meaning of what has been said;
assisting understanding and clarity; and acting as a further
16. Focus group interviews
• Focus groups are interviews conducted in a group setting and
can be used in a number of ways to generate data. Focus
groups can be conducted to explore, develop, and refine initial
research questions and interview schedules; as a form of data
collection in their own right or as a way of exploring the
resonance of findings generated through interviews (or
another form of data collection).
• Observational methods are commonly used in qualitative research
designs and vary between methods.
• Observation is the process of observing the daily life and behaviors of
participants in their natural setting to record aspects such as social
position and function, or actions and interactions.
• Qualitative observation is traditionally adopted by ethnographers (De
Chesnay, 2014), but can be used in other qualitative approaches. In
qualitative research, observation methods are mostly unstructured.
However, some studies will use more structured observation.
19. Benefits of observation
• De Chesnay (2014) suggested that observation has
several advantages in qualitative research:
1. ‘capturing data in more natural circumstances’,
2. ‘capturing the whole social setting and context of
the environment in which people function’,
3. and ‘informing about influences of the immediate
21. Group Activity:
• 1. State the Data Gathering Procedure and Research Instrument
under the Methodology section of your study. Clearly discuss the
process starting from the asking of permission from the
participants to be interviewed to analyzing the data gathered.
• 2. Design an interview guide. Be sure to write specific questions
based on the statement of your problem in the introduction
section. You may encode or write this in a short bond paper.
22. Expected Output:
• Introduction (What compels you to
study on the problem you identified?)
• Statement of the Problem
• Scope and Delimitation of the Study
• Significance of the Study
• Review of Related Literature
• Research Design
• Data Gathering Procedure
Notas do Editor
Depending on the types of data required for a qualitative study, various methods of collecting data can be used singularly or in combination to obtain direct data. For direct data, these methods may include interview, observation, open-ended questionnaire, journaling (diary accounts) or ‘think aloud’ sessions. Direct data can be collected by the participant involved in a study at the request of the researcher (e.g., through writing a personal journal or diary) and then provided to the researcher. Most commonly, however, qualitative approaches acquire data primarily through interpersonal contact with participants (usually an interview) or, secondly, through the presence of the researcher in proximity to pertinent events (usually observation) (Babbie, 2014). This is unlike quantitative research where, frequently, interpersonal contact is deliberately limited with participants or events. In quite a few instances, researchers will use more than one technique to collect data.
Interviews in qualitative research may be unstructured, semi-structured, or occasionally structured. With unstructured interviews, neither the specific questions to be asked nor the range or type of possible answers are predetermined. The interviews are designed to be informal and conversational with the aim of encouraging participants to express themselves in a naturally unfolding manner. Unstructured interviews tend to start with single broad questions, such as ‘what is your experience of…’ The researcher, however, has an idea in mind of the general issues to be covered and may use a topic list as a reminder.
The main benefits of this method of data collection are the generation of data from multiple participants and often a larger sample size compared to individual interview studies. Another advantage is that, for those who may find one-to-one interviews intimidating, the group setting may be more appealing, and provide access to participants who may not participate otherwise (Liamputtong, 2010). Focus groups offer supportive group interactions as each member is encouraged to identify, describe, analyze, and resolve issues (Issacs, 2014) and are particularly valuable in obtaining different perspectives on the same topic. Focus group interviews are usually more economical to conduct than individual interviews.
Complete Participant • Researcher is immersed in group/community (complete intervention)• Research is usually concealed (covert).
Participant as Observer • Researcher steps into and out of groups/community (intervention). • Research is known (open).
Observer as Participant • Researcher mainly observes but occasionally enters field (brief intervention). • Research is known (open).
Complete Observer • Researcher does not participate. • Research is either known (open) or concealed (covert).