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A research design is the
conditions for collection
and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to
combine relevance to
the research purpose
with economy in
Research design always gives the answers of following
What is the study about ?
Why is the study being made ?
Where will the study be carried out ?
What type of data is required ?
Where can the required data be found ?
What periods of time will the study include ?
What will the sample design ?
How will the data be analyzed ?
In what style will the report be prepared?
One can split the overall research design into
Sampling design: the method of selecting items to be
Observational design: the conditions under which
observations are to be made
Statistical design: how many items to be observed and in
what manner analysed
Operational design: the techniques by which the above
mentioned procedure is to be carried out.
Need for research design
Smooth sailing of the project
Yield maximum information with minimal resources
A better and more reliable result oriented study
Designing helps in identifying inadequacies and
flaws before commencing with the study.
FEATURES OF GOOD DESIGN
Minimizes biases and maximizes reliability
A Classification of Marketing
Exploratory & Conclusive Research Differences
To provide insights and
Information needed is defined
only loosely. Research process is
flexible and unstructured.
Sample is small and non-
representative. Analysis of
primary data is qualitative
Generally followed by further
exploratory or conclusive
To test specific hypotheses and
Information needed is clearly
defined. Research process is formal
and structured. Sample is large and
representative. Data analysis is
Findings used as input into decision
Exploratory or Formulative study
Purpose – formulating a problem for more precise
Major emphasis – on discovery of ideas & insights
Flexible design – must provide opportunity for
considering different aspects of problem.
Following 3 methods are used in context of
research designs for exploratory research
Descriptive & diagnostic study
Descriptive research study – It is concerned with
describing the characteristics of particular individual,
or of a group.
Diagnostic research study – determine the
frequency with which something occurs or its
association with something else.
Descriptive & diagnostic study includes
Difference between exploratory & Descriptive /
Type of study EXPLORATORY
Overall design flexible design Rigid design
Sampling design Non probability
Statistical design No preplanned design
Preplanned design for
Observational design Unstructured
instruments for collection
Structured instruments for
collection of data
Operational design No fixed decision about
Advanced decision about
Experimental research study
In this study researcher tests the hypothesis of
casual relationship between variables.
It is also called hypothesis- testing research study
The investigator planning an experiment has many
experimental design option to choose.
A Comparison of Basic Research Designs
Discovery of ideas
Often the front end
of total research
Marked by the prior
formulation of specific
Observation and other
Exploratory Descriptive Causal