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1 copy of research design

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1 copy of research design

  2. 2. MEANING A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.
  3. 3. Research design always gives the answers of following questions : What is the study about ? Why is the study being made ? Where will the study be carried out ? What type of data is required ? Where can the required data be found ? What periods of time will the study include ? What will the sample design ? How will the data be analyzed ? In what style will the report be prepared?
  4. 4. One can split the overall research design into following parts:  Sampling design: the method of selecting items to be observed  Observational design: the conditions under which observations are to be made  Statistical design: how many items to be observed and in what manner analysed  Operational design: the techniques by which the above mentioned procedure is to be carried out.
  5. 5. Need for research design Smooth sailing of the project Yield maximum information with minimal resources A better and more reliable result oriented study Designing helps in identifying inadequacies and flaws before commencing with the study.
  6. 6. FEATURES OF GOOD DESIGN  Flexible  Appropriate  Efficient  Economical  Analytical accuracy  Minimizes biases and maximizes reliability
  7. 7. Important concepts
  8. 8. A Classification of Marketing Research Studies Single Cross- Sectional Design Multiple Cross- Sectional Design Research Design Conclusive Research Design Exploratory Research Design Descriptive Research Causal Research Cross-Sectional Design Longitudinal Design
  9. 9. Exploratory & Conclusive Research Differences Objective: Character- istics: Findings/ Results: Outcome: To provide insights and understanding Information needed is defined only loosely. Research process is flexible and unstructured. Sample is small and non- representative. Analysis of primary data is qualitative Tentative Generally followed by further exploratory or conclusive research To test specific hypotheses and examine relationships Information needed is clearly defined. Research process is formal and structured. Sample is large and representative. Data analysis is quantitative Conclusive Findings used as input into decision making Exploratory Conclusive
  10. 10. Exploratory or Formulative study  Purpose – formulating a problem for more precise investigation  Major emphasis – on discovery of ideas & insights  Flexible design – must provide opportunity for considering different aspects of problem.
  11. 11. Following 3 methods are used in context of research designs for exploratory research studies
  12. 12. Descriptive & diagnostic study  Descriptive research study – It is concerned with describing the characteristics of particular individual, or of a group.  Diagnostic research study – determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else.
  13. 13. Descriptive & diagnostic study includes following steps
  14. 14. Difference between exploratory & Descriptive / diagnostic study Type of study EXPLORATORY STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STUDYRESEARCH DESIGN Overall design flexible design Rigid design Sampling design Non probability Sampling design Probability Sampling design Statistical design No preplanned design for analysis Preplanned design for analysis Observational design Unstructured instruments for collection of data Structured instruments for collection of data Operational design No fixed decision about operational procedure Advanced decision about operational procedure
  15. 15. Experimental research study  In this study researcher tests the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables.  It is also called hypothesis- testing research study  The investigator planning an experiment has many experimental design option to choose.
  16. 16. A Comparison of Basic Research Designs Objective: Characteristics: Methods: Discovery of ideas and insights Flexible, versatile Often the front end of total research design Expert surveys Pilot surveys Case studies Secondary data: qualitative analysis qualitative research Describe market characteristics or functions Marked by the prior formulation of specific hypotheses Preplanned and structured design Secondary data: quantitative analysis Surveys Panels Observation and other data Determine cause and effect relationships Manipulation of independent variables, effect on dependent variables Control mediating variables Experiments Exploratory Descriptive Causal Table 3.2
  17. 17. End of Topic

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