Journal Entries ...........pptx

Vikash Barnwal
Vikash Barnwalasst. professor em GOVT.POLYTECHNIC NIRSA
FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS
PRESENTED BY:
VIKASH BARNWAL
ASST. PROFESSOR
K.K UNVERSITY
ACCOUNTING
 Accounting is the language of business, it discuss
about financial performance, position and cash flow
operation of business.
 Accounting is a systematic process of identifying
recording measuring classify verifying some rising
interpreter and communicating financial information.
 It reveals profit or loss for a given period and the
value and the nature of a firm’s assets and liabilities
and owners’ equity.
HISTORY OF ACCOUNTING
(FIRST PERSON ACCOUNTANT: ITALIAN ROOT)
DIFINATION OF ACCOUNTING
 According to Bierman and Drebin:” Accounting may
be defined as identifying, measuring, recording and
communicating of financial information.”
 Components of Basic Accounting
1. Recording
2. Summarising
3. Reporting
4. Analyzing
5. Interpreting
6. Communicating
TYPES OF ACCOUNTS
 Personal Accounts
 Real Accounts
 Nominal Accounts
Personal Accounts :
 Accounts are the ones that are related with
individuals, companies, firms, group of associations
etc.
 These persons could include natural persons,
artificial persons or representative persons.
 Natural Person: These accounts relate to natural
persons such as Veer’s A/c, Ayan’s A/c, Karen’s A/c etc.
 Artificial Accounts: These accounts relate to
companies and institutions such as Kapoor Pvt Ltd A/c,
Booker’s Club A/c etc. Thus, companies and institutions
are the entities that exist in the eyes of law.
 Representative Accounts: Accounts that are a
representative of some person are called as
representative accounts. These include Outstanding
Interest A/c, Outstanding Wages A/c, Prepaid Expense
A/c etc.
 Golden Rule Related To The Personal Account
Debit the Receiver
Credit the Giver
2. REAL ACCOUNT
 Real Accounts are the ones that are related with
properties, assets or possessions.
 These properties can be both physically existing as well
as non physical in nature.
Real Accounts can be of two types:
 Tangible Real Accounts
 Intangible Real accounts.
 Golden Rule Related To The Personal Account
Debit What Comes In,
Credit What Goes Out
3. NOMINAL ACCOUNT
 Nominal Accounts relate to income, expenses,
losses or gains. These include Wages A/c, Salary
A/c, Rent A/c etc.
Golden Rule Related To The Personal Account
 Debit All Expenses and Losses,
 Credit All Incomes and Gains
JOURNAL ENTRIES
 Journal entries are how transactions get recorded
in your company's books on a daily basis. Every
transaction that gets entered into your general
ledger starts with a journal entry that includes the
date of the transaction, amount, affected accounts,
and description.
DEFNITION
 According to M.J. Keeler, “A Journal is a
chronological record of financial transactions of a
business.”
 It is book of prime entry or original entry in which all
the business transactions are recorded the first in
the sequence in which the transactions had actually
occurred.
 According to Rowland, “The process of recording
the transactions into journal is called Journalising.”
CHARACTERISTICS OF JOURNAL ENTRIES
 It is a chronological record of financial transactions of a
business.
 It is a book of original entry which records all the details
of transactions from various source documents.
 It records both the aspects of a transaction i.e., debit
and credit using Double Entry System of Book Keeping.
 It gives complete details of a transaction in one entry.
 It forms the base for recording or transferring the
journalized transactions to the individual accounts
known as Ledger Accounts.
 Since, all the transactions are recorded for the first time
in a Journal, it is correctly known as a Book of Original
Entry.
ADVANTAGES:
 It provides complete accounting information in a
chronological order.
 It reduces the chances of errors in the accounting
records since the amount debited can be verified with the
amount of corresponding credit.
 It provides a base for recording or transferring the entries
in the individual ledger accounts.
 It helps in locating the errors in case of disagreement of
Trial Balance.
 It provides with the description of transaction that has
been recorded that helps identify reason for the record.
TYPES OF JOURNAL ENTRIES:
 Simple Journal Entry: It is the type of entry in
which only two accounts are affected where one
account is debited and another account is credited
with an equal amount.
 Compound Journal Entry: It is the type of entry
in which more than two accounts are affected
i.e., one or more accounts are debited and/or one
or more accounts are credited or vice versa.
JOURNAL ENTRIES
IN THE BOOKS OF………….
FOR THE YEAR …………….
Date
(1)
Particular`s
(2)
L/F
(3)
Amount Rs.
Debit
(4)
Credit
(5)
1. Date: Date of the transaction is entered in the first column.
This date is entered only once unless and until there is change
in the date of transaction. It should be entered in a proper
sequence.
2. Particulars: Each business transaction has two accounts-
debit and credit. In the first line of the particular column, name
of the debit account is written along with word “Dr.” at the end. In
the second line, start with the word “To” and after some space from
the margin, the name of the credit account is written.
3. Narration: Explanation of the transaction is provided within
the brackets after each journal entry is called narration.
4. Ledger Folio: All journal entries are posted
later into the ledger accounts. The page
number or folio number of the ledger is recorded
in the L.F. column of the journal. Till then, the
column remains blank.
5. Debit: The amount of the account being
debited is written in this column.
6. Credit: The amount of the account being
credited is written in this column.
LIMITATIONS:
 As the numbers of transactions in a business are large, journal
becomes bulky and voluminous and therefore is not suitable in case
of such large volume of transactions.
 o It is considered as a difficult process as recording of journal entries
requires proper identification of accounts and correct compliance of
the accounting concepts and conventions.
 Cash transactions are usually recorded in a separate book called
‘cash book’. Those transactions are not recorded in journal.
 After recording journal entries, separate ledger account is required to
be prepared for individual account balances. Therefore, a Journal
can never be used as a substitute to ledger.
STEPS IN JOURNALISING:
 i. Determine the two accounts involved in the transaction.
 ii. Classify the accounts into assets, liabilities, capital,
expenses and incomes.
 iii. Apply the rules of debit and credit for the above two
accounts and identify which account is to
 be debited and credited.
 iv. Record the date of transaction, particulars of transaction
and mention the respective debit and
 credit amounts against each item.
 v. Write a brief description of the transaction recorded within
brackets in the next line in the
 particulars column. Such description is termed as narration.
 vi. Draw a line across the particulars column to divide one
journal entry from the other.
 Casting (Totalling) and Carry Forward:
 The process of totaling the amounts in the debit and
credit columns on each page of a journal is termed as
Casting or Totalling.
 This is required when the transactions of a business are
voluminous and requires a number of pages of Journal.
 After totalling the amounts on each page, in the
particulars column, against the total, the words
‘Total c/f’ (carried forward) are written. This shows the
amount that has been carried forward to the next page.
On the next page, in the particulars column, against the
amount brought forward, the words ‘Total b/f’ (brought
forward) are written. This shows the amount that has
been brought forward from the previous page.
POINTS TO DETERMINE CASH AND CREDIT
TRANSACTIONS:
 If the name of the seller or purchaser is mentioned in a
transaction stating that cash is transacted, then it is accounted
as a cash transaction.
 If the name of the seller or purchaser is mentioned in a
transaction without stating that cash is transacted, it is
accounted as a credit transaction.
 If the transaction relates to sales or purchases and the name
of the seller or purchaser is not given, it is accounted as a
cash transaction.
 In case of expenses, even if the name of the party receiving or
making payment is given, it is accounted as expense incurred
in cash and personal account of the person receiving the
amount is not debited.
 Any amount introduced as capital in the business by the
proprietor is credited to his/her Capital Account whereas
withdrawal of cash or goods for his/her personal use is
debited to Drawings Account.
UNDERSTANDING PURCHASE AND SALE OF
GOODS:
 It is important to understand the meaning of goods before
understanding the purchase and saleof goods. Goods are
those items that are purchased for manufacture or for the
purposes of resale and not for the purpose of using it in the
business. The items that are purchased to use in the various
business activities for a longer period of time are assets and
not goods.
 o It is necessary to have an idea of the accounts associated
with purchase and sale of goods as follows:
 i. PurchaseAccount: This account is debited when the goods
are purchased by following rule for Expenses Account i.e.,
Increase in expense is debited and decrease in expense is
credited’.
 ii. Sales Account: This account is credited when the goods are
sold by following rule for Revenue Account i.e., Increase in
revenue is credited and decrease is debited.
 iii. Purchases Return Account: It is credited when the
goods purchased are returned by the firm. In the event
of finalising the accounts, such purchase return account
is deducted from the Purchase Account to show the
purchases at net amount.
 iv. Sales Return Account: It is debited when the goods
sold are returned to the firm. In the event of finalizing the
accounts, such Sales Return Account is deducted from
the Sales Account to show the sales at net amount.
 v. Closing Stock Account: It shows the value of the
unsold stock. It is the net balance of Opening Stock +
Net Purchases – Net Sales which is valued at Cost or
Net Realisable Value (Market Value), whichever is less.
UNDERSTANDING DISCOUNT AND REBATE
 Discount: It is the amount of reduction in the
price of goods and/or services or a reduction in
the total amount payable for such goods or
services. Such discount is further classified as
Trade Discount and Cash Discount:
1 de 23

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Journal Entries ...........pptx

  • 1. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS PRESENTED BY: VIKASH BARNWAL ASST. PROFESSOR K.K UNVERSITY
  • 2. ACCOUNTING  Accounting is the language of business, it discuss about financial performance, position and cash flow operation of business.  Accounting is a systematic process of identifying recording measuring classify verifying some rising interpreter and communicating financial information.  It reveals profit or loss for a given period and the value and the nature of a firm’s assets and liabilities and owners’ equity.
  • 3. HISTORY OF ACCOUNTING (FIRST PERSON ACCOUNTANT: ITALIAN ROOT)
  • 4. DIFINATION OF ACCOUNTING  According to Bierman and Drebin:” Accounting may be defined as identifying, measuring, recording and communicating of financial information.”  Components of Basic Accounting 1. Recording 2. Summarising 3. Reporting 4. Analyzing 5. Interpreting 6. Communicating
  • 5. TYPES OF ACCOUNTS  Personal Accounts  Real Accounts  Nominal Accounts Personal Accounts :  Accounts are the ones that are related with individuals, companies, firms, group of associations etc.  These persons could include natural persons, artificial persons or representative persons.
  • 6.  Natural Person: These accounts relate to natural persons such as Veer’s A/c, Ayan’s A/c, Karen’s A/c etc.  Artificial Accounts: These accounts relate to companies and institutions such as Kapoor Pvt Ltd A/c, Booker’s Club A/c etc. Thus, companies and institutions are the entities that exist in the eyes of law.  Representative Accounts: Accounts that are a representative of some person are called as representative accounts. These include Outstanding Interest A/c, Outstanding Wages A/c, Prepaid Expense A/c etc.  Golden Rule Related To The Personal Account Debit the Receiver Credit the Giver
  • 7. 2. REAL ACCOUNT  Real Accounts are the ones that are related with properties, assets or possessions.  These properties can be both physically existing as well as non physical in nature. Real Accounts can be of two types:  Tangible Real Accounts  Intangible Real accounts.  Golden Rule Related To The Personal Account Debit What Comes In, Credit What Goes Out
  • 8. 3. NOMINAL ACCOUNT  Nominal Accounts relate to income, expenses, losses or gains. These include Wages A/c, Salary A/c, Rent A/c etc. Golden Rule Related To The Personal Account  Debit All Expenses and Losses,  Credit All Incomes and Gains
  • 9. JOURNAL ENTRIES  Journal entries are how transactions get recorded in your company's books on a daily basis. Every transaction that gets entered into your general ledger starts with a journal entry that includes the date of the transaction, amount, affected accounts, and description.
  • 10. DEFNITION  According to M.J. Keeler, “A Journal is a chronological record of financial transactions of a business.”  It is book of prime entry or original entry in which all the business transactions are recorded the first in the sequence in which the transactions had actually occurred.  According to Rowland, “The process of recording the transactions into journal is called Journalising.”
  • 11. CHARACTERISTICS OF JOURNAL ENTRIES  It is a chronological record of financial transactions of a business.  It is a book of original entry which records all the details of transactions from various source documents.  It records both the aspects of a transaction i.e., debit and credit using Double Entry System of Book Keeping.  It gives complete details of a transaction in one entry.  It forms the base for recording or transferring the journalized transactions to the individual accounts known as Ledger Accounts.  Since, all the transactions are recorded for the first time in a Journal, it is correctly known as a Book of Original Entry.
  • 12. ADVANTAGES:  It provides complete accounting information in a chronological order.  It reduces the chances of errors in the accounting records since the amount debited can be verified with the amount of corresponding credit.  It provides a base for recording or transferring the entries in the individual ledger accounts.  It helps in locating the errors in case of disagreement of Trial Balance.  It provides with the description of transaction that has been recorded that helps identify reason for the record.
  • 13. TYPES OF JOURNAL ENTRIES:  Simple Journal Entry: It is the type of entry in which only two accounts are affected where one account is debited and another account is credited with an equal amount.  Compound Journal Entry: It is the type of entry in which more than two accounts are affected i.e., one or more accounts are debited and/or one or more accounts are credited or vice versa.
  • 14. JOURNAL ENTRIES IN THE BOOKS OF…………. FOR THE YEAR ……………. Date (1) Particular`s (2) L/F (3) Amount Rs. Debit (4) Credit (5)
  • 15. 1. Date: Date of the transaction is entered in the first column. This date is entered only once unless and until there is change in the date of transaction. It should be entered in a proper sequence. 2. Particulars: Each business transaction has two accounts- debit and credit. In the first line of the particular column, name of the debit account is written along with word “Dr.” at the end. In the second line, start with the word “To” and after some space from the margin, the name of the credit account is written. 3. Narration: Explanation of the transaction is provided within the brackets after each journal entry is called narration.
  • 16. 4. Ledger Folio: All journal entries are posted later into the ledger accounts. The page number or folio number of the ledger is recorded in the L.F. column of the journal. Till then, the column remains blank. 5. Debit: The amount of the account being debited is written in this column. 6. Credit: The amount of the account being credited is written in this column.
  • 17. LIMITATIONS:  As the numbers of transactions in a business are large, journal becomes bulky and voluminous and therefore is not suitable in case of such large volume of transactions.  o It is considered as a difficult process as recording of journal entries requires proper identification of accounts and correct compliance of the accounting concepts and conventions.  Cash transactions are usually recorded in a separate book called ‘cash book’. Those transactions are not recorded in journal.  After recording journal entries, separate ledger account is required to be prepared for individual account balances. Therefore, a Journal can never be used as a substitute to ledger.
  • 18. STEPS IN JOURNALISING:  i. Determine the two accounts involved in the transaction.  ii. Classify the accounts into assets, liabilities, capital, expenses and incomes.  iii. Apply the rules of debit and credit for the above two accounts and identify which account is to  be debited and credited.  iv. Record the date of transaction, particulars of transaction and mention the respective debit and  credit amounts against each item.  v. Write a brief description of the transaction recorded within brackets in the next line in the  particulars column. Such description is termed as narration.  vi. Draw a line across the particulars column to divide one journal entry from the other.
  • 19.  Casting (Totalling) and Carry Forward:  The process of totaling the amounts in the debit and credit columns on each page of a journal is termed as Casting or Totalling.  This is required when the transactions of a business are voluminous and requires a number of pages of Journal.  After totalling the amounts on each page, in the particulars column, against the total, the words ‘Total c/f’ (carried forward) are written. This shows the amount that has been carried forward to the next page. On the next page, in the particulars column, against the amount brought forward, the words ‘Total b/f’ (brought forward) are written. This shows the amount that has been brought forward from the previous page.
  • 20. POINTS TO DETERMINE CASH AND CREDIT TRANSACTIONS:  If the name of the seller or purchaser is mentioned in a transaction stating that cash is transacted, then it is accounted as a cash transaction.  If the name of the seller or purchaser is mentioned in a transaction without stating that cash is transacted, it is accounted as a credit transaction.  If the transaction relates to sales or purchases and the name of the seller or purchaser is not given, it is accounted as a cash transaction.  In case of expenses, even if the name of the party receiving or making payment is given, it is accounted as expense incurred in cash and personal account of the person receiving the amount is not debited.  Any amount introduced as capital in the business by the proprietor is credited to his/her Capital Account whereas withdrawal of cash or goods for his/her personal use is debited to Drawings Account.
  • 21. UNDERSTANDING PURCHASE AND SALE OF GOODS:  It is important to understand the meaning of goods before understanding the purchase and saleof goods. Goods are those items that are purchased for manufacture or for the purposes of resale and not for the purpose of using it in the business. The items that are purchased to use in the various business activities for a longer period of time are assets and not goods.  o It is necessary to have an idea of the accounts associated with purchase and sale of goods as follows:  i. PurchaseAccount: This account is debited when the goods are purchased by following rule for Expenses Account i.e., Increase in expense is debited and decrease in expense is credited’.  ii. Sales Account: This account is credited when the goods are sold by following rule for Revenue Account i.e., Increase in revenue is credited and decrease is debited.
  • 22.  iii. Purchases Return Account: It is credited when the goods purchased are returned by the firm. In the event of finalising the accounts, such purchase return account is deducted from the Purchase Account to show the purchases at net amount.  iv. Sales Return Account: It is debited when the goods sold are returned to the firm. In the event of finalizing the accounts, such Sales Return Account is deducted from the Sales Account to show the sales at net amount.  v. Closing Stock Account: It shows the value of the unsold stock. It is the net balance of Opening Stock + Net Purchases – Net Sales which is valued at Cost or Net Realisable Value (Market Value), whichever is less.
  • 23. UNDERSTANDING DISCOUNT AND REBATE  Discount: It is the amount of reduction in the price of goods and/or services or a reduction in the total amount payable for such goods or services. Such discount is further classified as Trade Discount and Cash Discount: