Guidance is a process of letting an individual discover himself i.e. his
endowments, potentialities, aptitudes, etc. and then to provide proper
environment to help individuals to arrange for the proper accomplishment
and utilizations of those potentialities to the best advantage of the
individual and the state.
Counselling is an interactive process characterized by a unique
relationship between counsellor and client that leads to change in one or
more of the following areas:-
2. Beliefs and values
3. levels of emotional distress
3. DIFFERENT AREAS OF GUIDANCE AND
1. Pre college guidance
2. Educational guidance
3. Vocational guidance
4. Occupational guidance
5. Guidance for populations with special needs
• Disadvantaged Groups: Social, Economical and Educational (Over Achievers and Under
• Women: Exploitation at Home and Work
• Senior Citizens: Emotional, social and Physical Problems
6. Avocational guidance
7. Social guidance
8. Moral guidance
9. Health guidance
4. 1. Personal counselling
2. Genetic counselling
3. Rehabilitation counselling
4. Behavioural counselling
5. Adult counselling
6. School counselling
7. Online counselling
8. Marriage counselling
9. Counselling for special need children and their parent
10. Career guidance and counselling
5. Pre college guidance
Assisting students in reaching their full potential requires the cooperative efforts of
school administrators, teachers, community representatives, government officials,
parents, and the students themselves, as well as a trained staff of school
counsellors who are able to facilitate student development and achievement.
Of particular importance to student success is access to a strong precollege
guidance and counselling program that begins early in the student’s school career.
Early planning (e.g., secondary school course selection and precollege enrichment
programs) can insure that students pursue the most challenging curriculum that
results in enhanced postsecondary educational options.
6. Educational guidance
Educational guidance is related to every aspect of education school /
colleges, the curriculum, the methods of instruction, other curricular
activities, disciplines etc.
Educational guidance is the assistance given to the individual
To understand his/her potentialities
Have a clear cut idea of the different educational opportunities and their
To make wise choices as regards to school, colleges, the course : curricular and
7. Some of the aims and objectives of educational guidance are:
• To assist the pupil to understand him/herself i.e. to understand his/her
potentialities, strength and limitations.
• To help the child make educational plans consist with his/her abilities, interests
• To enable the student to know detail about the subject and courses offered.
• To assist the student in making satisfactory progress in various school/ college
• To help the child to adjust with the schools, its rules, regulations, social life
connected with it.
• To help the child in developing good study habits.
• To help the child to participate in out of class educational activities in which he
can develop leadership and other social qualities.
8. Vocational guidance
Vocational guidance is a process of assisting the individual to choose an
occupation, prepare for it, enter upon it and progress in it.
It is concerned primarily with helping individuals make decisions and
choices involved in planning a future and building a career.
The purpose behind assisting the youth to choose, prepare, enter and
progress in a vocation is the optimum growth of the individual.
9. Some of the aims and objectives of vocational guidance are:
• Assisting pupil to discover his/her own abilities and skills to feet them into general
requirements of the occupation under consideration.
• Helping the individual to develop an attitude towards work that will dignify whatever
type of occupation she/he may wish to enter.
• Assisting the individual to think critically about various types of occupations and to learn
a technique for analysing information about vocations.
• Assisting pupils to secure relevant information about the facilities offered by various
educational institutions engaging in vocational training
• At the elementary stage, although no formal guidance programmes are needed, the
orientation to vocation can be initiated at this stage. At this stage some qualities and
skills which have grater vocational significance viz.
love and respect for manual work
training in use of hands
spirit of cooperative work
appreciation for all works
good interpersonal relationship are to be developed.
10. Avocational Guidance
The individual student spends only a small portion of his time i.e. 4 t0 6 hours per
day in school.
The rest of the time needs to be effectively managed and utilized by the child for
his/her progress and development.
Avocational guidance helps the child to judiciously utilize the leisure time. The
other co-curricular activities play an important role in all-round development of the
But many parents, teachers and children put secondary importance to these
The students need to be properly guided for effective participation in varied types
of avocational pursuits so that they are able to shape their interpersonal behaviour
in desirable direction and widen their outlook.
11. Social Guidance
School/educational institution is a miniature society and pupil from different socio-
economic status, linguistic and socio-cultural background read there.
Students some time may face problems in adjustment and social relationship. It is
very important that the students to be helped in acquiring in feeling of security and
being accepted by the group in developing social relationship and in becoming
tolerant towards others.
This is the task of social guidance. Formally social guidance can be given by
educational institutions whereas informal guidance may be provided by Family,
religious institutions, Media etc.
12. Moral Guidance
Moral values occupy an important place in our life.
Some times due to influence of diverse factors students tell lies and indulge in
Moral guidance helps in bringing these students in to proper track and help in their
all round development.
13. Health Guidance
Health is regarded as the wealth.
Total health i.e. preventive and curative is the goal of health guidance.
The health guidance may be a cooperative effort of Principal, Doctors,
Counsellor/psychologist, Teachers, Students and parents.
For promoting preventive care the conditions of school hostel, canteen needs to
be checked. Similarly health education through formal classes and information is
essential in school education stages.
In the present day the concern of health guidance also pertains to guidance in
HIV/AIDs, sexually transmitted diseases
14. Guidance for populations with special needs
Disadvantaged Groups: Social, Economical and Educational (Over Achievers and Under
• Overachieving and underachieving are two conditions which are experienced by many
• These are most commonly noticed in children, in terms of academics, sports and other
activities which they take part in.
• Over-and-underachieving are issues that must be addressed by confidence building.
• There are various ways helping a child become more confident, and these should be
seriously considered if parents hope to see him or her grow into well-balanced
15. Senior citizens: emotional, social and physical problems
• Senior citizens provide much needed comfort and wisdom to their families and
communities, but there are also times when they need assistance.
• The guidance centre can help them with certain needs.
• If a senior citizen is struggling to pay his or her rent, a worker at the guidance centre can
point him or her to local non-profit groups that may offer utility vouchers
16. Genetic Counselling
Genetic counselling is a process by which patients or relatives at risk of an inherited
disorder are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the
probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in
management and family planning.
This complex process can be separated into diagnostics(the actual estimation of
risk ) and supportive aspects.
Testing enables women and couples to make a decision as to whether or not a
continue with their pregnancy, and helps to provide information that can be used
to prepare for the birth of a child with medical issues.
17. Personal counselling
Personal counselling is an opportunity to resolve problems, improve
understandings and learn new skills.
It provides supportive and confidential environment where you can talk openly
about your concerns and feelings
The overall aim of personal counselling is to provide an opportunity for you to
work towards a more satisfying and resourceful experience of life.
Personal counselling is usually concerned with
Personal development issues
Addressing and resolving specific issues
Coping with individual or family crisis /stress/ anxiety/psychological trauma
Developing personal insight and knowledge
Working through feelings of inner conflict
Improving relationships with others
18. Rehabilitation counselling
It focuses on helping people who have disabilities to achieve their personal, career,
and independent living goals.
Most rehabilitation counsellors focus on vocational services, in some states they
qualify as both a certified rehabilitation counsellor and a licensed professional
counsellor, enabling them to focus on psychotherapy.
These counsellors can also be placed in social service agencies as administrators
and at the collegiate levels as disability counsellors or specialist
19. Behavioural Counselling
In behaviour counselling, we try to reduce those types of behaviour that are
inappropriate or non-productive and increase those that help children get along
well with others and feel good about their accomplishments.
Our role in behavioural counselling is to be a coach or helper, rather than to tell
children what to do or not do.
If there are ways that we can change the environment to make it easier for children
to achieve their goals, we do that as well.
As counsellors, we help children make connections between the way they would
like their lives to be and the types of behaviour that will help them achieve their
Behavioural counselling can be given to the following
Drug addicted children or adults
And many more
20. Counselling for adults adopted as children
Adoption is often considered a solely positive event that ensures a child grows up
in a family and at the same time allows the creation or extension of a family.
Adults who were adopted as children often find that they struggle which they need
support from counsellors who understand adoption.
This counselling is also for those adults who as children were permanently placed
in a family other than their birth family, yet not adopted.
21. School counselling
School counsellors provide appropriate psychological services to students that address
educational , social, emotional, and behavioural needs, either individually or in groups.
Counsellors have a range of skills that enable them to assist students, parents, teachers
with issues that can affect the student’s educational progress and adjustment including,
Special education services
Grief and loss
Secondary subject choice and career advice
Gifted and talented students
22. Online counselling
Online counselling is simply communicating with a qualified, professional
counsellor/therapist by email or chat through your computer, Instead of having to
make a visit to your counsellor‘s office, you can receive the same professional care
in the comfort of your own home.
If you have a microphone, you can speak to each other through the computer.
Advantages of using Online Counselling
Convenient - any time, any place, whatever suits you
Flexible - you control everything, receive help when you want it
Can deal with embarrassing issues without having to see anyone
Your anonymity is protected
23. Get to the root of the problem quicker as writing lets you get in touch with your feelings
More cost and time effective as you can deal with more issues in a session
No need to take time off work
Receive specialized help no matter where you live in the world.
Convenience - takes place in your home or wherever you are 24 hours a day 7 days a week
24. Marriage Counselling
Some reasons to seek marriage counselling
Communication has become negative
When one or both partners consider having an affair
When the couples are just occupying the same space.
When the partners do not know how to resolve their differences
When one partner begins to act out on negative feelings
When the only resolutions appears to be separation
When a couple is staying together for the sake of the children
25. Counselling for special need children and
It is given for 4 reasons
To accept their condition
Personal wellness health and rehabilitation
Anger management and impulse control
Parenting and care giving
School and employment barriers
Community access and inclusion
Trauma associated with acquired disabilities and post medical treatment