10. Pragmatism & Education
Pragmatism supports for progressive trends in
Pragmatism has influenced the modern
According to pragmatism “activity” lies at the
center of all educative process. Education is a
continuous process which is progressive and
11. Pragmatism & Education
It stands for freedom and worth of the
individual. It works on the principle of democracy
and education as a social necessity.
According to this school of thought education
should help an individual to meet human needs
and solve problems and thereby enable an
individual to lead a happy life.
12. Pragmatism & Aims of Education
1. Creation of new values.
2. Activity and experience
3. Personal and social judgement
4. Reconstruction of experience
5. All round development
13. New Values
Pragmatism has no fixed aims or goals
of education. According to Ross, the
general education aim of pragmatism
is “creation of new values”.
14. Activity and Experience
Activity and experience are essential to
create new values. Therefore the
educational system aims at providing the
learner, physical, intellectual, moral and
15. Personal and Social Judgement
Pragmatism lays stress on an individual solving
problems of life.
Pragmatism emphasizes adaptation to
environment, construction and reconstruction of
experience and development of capacities to
control the environment.
16. All Round Development
The most important aim of education
is “all around development”. An
individual must develop physically,
mentally, socially, morally and
17. Pragmatism and Curriculum
Pragmatism do not advocate a fixed curriculum
in advance. Only an outline of the activities may
be kept in mind at the start of he programme.
Curriculum should be evolved according to the
requirement of situations. Thus, pragmatism
advocates a flexible curriculum. Hence, the
nature of the learner has to e taken into
19. Learning by Doing
Pragmatism believes in experimenting
with new methods of teaching. These
methods of teaching are devised by the
teacher in the real light of real life
20. Provision of Real Life Situation
Pragmatism stresses on action rather than
reflection. The learner has to be put in to the
real situation which will result in purposeful
creative activity and problematic acts.
21. Project Method
Project method is the most important
contribution of pragmatism. It is referred to
as the “problematic act carried to completion
in its natural setting.
22. Pragmatism and Teacher
The main function of a pragmatic teacher is to
create a real life situation in which some problems
may emerge and guide the child in solving the
Thus, the teacher puts the pupil in the position of
discoverer and experimenter.
The teacher is a friend and a helper and a person
who provides opportunities for experimentation.
26. It is the modern philosophical view which takes
the TAO as its starting point.
It is subjective.
Humans possess free will and stand in an
absurd and meaningless world or universe.
Every individual is unique.
Individuals have to take responsibility for their
own actions and and shapes their own
27. Emphasis on human responsibility and
judgement in ethical matters.
The individual is the sole judge of his
or her own actions.
Human freedom is understood
precisely as the freedom to choose.
“Existence precedes essence.’
28. Human persons do not possess the essence,
they make choices that create their own
Choice is vital and inevitable to human
existence, even the refusal to choose is a
Freedom of choice entails risk, responsibility
30. The values of existentialism are:
Freedom of choice
31. Factors that affect freedom of choice
( Calderon, 2004)
Influence of family especially the parents
Influence of peers and associates
Psychological traits especially intelligence
Health and physical fitness
39. To help students understand and appreciate
themselves as unique individuals who accept
complete responsibility for their thoughts,
feelings and actions.
To educate the whole person, not just the mind,
since feeling is not divorced from reason in
40. Learning is self-paced, self- directed.
Students are given a wide variety of options from
which to choose.
Students are afforded great latitude in their choice of
The humanities are given emphasis to provide
students with vicarious experiences that will help
unleash their own creativity and self- expression.
41. Composed of fine arts, drama, creative expression,
literature and philosophy.
Vocational education is seen more as a means of
teaching students about themselves and their
potentials than that of earning a livelihood.
42. Focus is on the individual
In teaching history, existentialist
focus on the actions of historical
individuals who provide possible models
for the students’ own behavior rather
than emphasizing historical events.
43. In arts, existentialism encourages
individual creativity and imagination more
than copying and imitating established
In teaching values, teachers employ
values clarification strategy to help students
know themselves and their place in society
44. To help students define their own essence
by exposing them to various paths they
take in life.
To create an environment in which they
freely choose their own preferred way.
To relates with each student openly and
45. To freely choose what subject/s
they want to study along as they
interested in it.
To define their own essence or
meaning of life.