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5. perception

  1. 1. Perception: The Creation of Experience
  2. 2. Perception • Different people may experience the same sensory information in radically different ways because PERCPETION IS AN ACTIVE, CREATIVE PROCESS in which raw sensory data are organized & given meaning
  3. 3. Processing Functions to create Perception • Bottom-up processing – the system takes in individual elements of the stimulus & then combines them into a unified perception • Top-down processing – sensory info is interpreted in light of existing knowledge, concepts, ideas & expectations
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERCEPTION
  5. 5. Perception is Selective: The Role of Attention • Attention involves 2 processes of selection: focusing on certain stimuli & filtering out other incoming info • Shadowing
  6. 6. Perception is Selective: The Role of Attention • Inattentional blindness – the failure of unattended stimuli to register in consciousness • Environmental & Personal Factors in Attention – Intensity, novelty, movement, contrast & repetition – Motives & interest – Stimuli that represent a threat to our well-being
  7. 7. Perception have Organization & Structure • How do we organize the separate parts of our perceptual field into a unified & meaningful whole? • Figure-ground relations – tendency to organize stimuli into a central or foreground figure & a background • Gestalt principle of perceptual organization
  8. 8. Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization • Law of similarity – says that when parts of configuration are perceived similar, they will be perceived as belonging together • Law of proximity – elements that are near each other are likely to be perceived as part of the same configuration • Law of closure – people tend to close the open edges of a figure or fill in gaps in an incomplete figure so that their identification of the form is more complete than what is actually there • Law of continuity – people link individual elements together so they form continuous line or pattern that makes sense
  9. 9. Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
  10. 10. Perception involves Hypothesis Testing • Perceptual schema – a mental representation or image containing the critical & distinctive features of a person, object, event or other perceptual phenomenon
  11. 11. Perception is Influenced by Expectations: Perceptual Sets • Perceptual set – a readiness to perceive stimuli in a particular way
  12. 12. Stimuli are Recognizable under Changing Conditions: Perceptual Constancies • Perceptual constancies – allow us to recognize familiar stimuli under varying conditions – Shape constancy – allows us to recognize people & other objects from many different angles – Brightness constancy – the relative brightness of objects remains the same under different conditions of illumination – Size constancy – the perception that the size of objects remains relatively constant even though images on our retina change in size with variations in distance
  13. 13. PERCEPTION OF DEPTH, DISTANCE & MOVEMENT
  14. 14. Depth & Distance Perception • Retina receives info in 2D; brain translates it in 3D • Monocular depth cues – require only one eye • Binocular depth cues – require both eyes
  15. 15. Monocular Depth Cues • Patterns of light & shadow • Linear perspective – perception to that parallel lines converge as they recede into the distance • Interposition – in which objects closer to us may cut off part of our view of more distant objects • Height in the horizontal plane
  16. 16. Monocular Depth Cues • Texture • Clarity • Relative size • Motion parallax – nearby objects appear to move faster in the opposite direction than do faraway ones
  17. 17. Binocular Depth Cues • Binocular disparity – each eye sees a slightly different image • Convergence – produced by feedback from the muscles that turn your eyes inward to view a close object
  18. 18. Perception of Movement • Stroboscopic movement (phi phenomenon) – illusory movement when a light is briefly flashed in darkness & then a few milliseconds later, another light is flashed nearby (aka phi phenomenon)
  19. 19. Illusion: False Perceptual Hypotheses
  20. 20. EXPERIENCE, CRITICAL PERIODS & PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT

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