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the-digestive-system-powerpoint-1227698045024899-8.pdf

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the-digestive-system-powerpoint-1227698045024899-8.pdf

  1. 1. The Digestive System The Digestive System Prepares food for use by all Prepares food for use by all body cells. body cells.
  2. 2. Digestion Digestion The chemical breakdown of complex The chemical breakdown of complex biological molecules into their component biological molecules into their component parts. parts. – Lipids to fatty acids Lipids to fatty acids – Proteins to individual amino acids Proteins to individual amino acids – Carbohydrates into simple sugars Carbohydrates into simple sugars
  3. 3. Function Function Produces various chemicals to Produces various chemicals to break down the food. break down the food. Filters out harmful substances. Filters out harmful substances. Gets rid of solid wastes. Gets rid of solid wastes.
  4. 4. Digestion Digestion Mechanical Mechanical –Changes the physical form of food Changes the physical form of food Chew Chew Tear Tear Grind Grind Mash Mash Mix Mix
  5. 5. Digestion Digestion Chemical Chemical – Changes the chemical composition of food Changes the chemical composition of food with the aid of digestive enzymes with the aid of digestive enzymes Carbohydrate Carbohydrate Protein Protein Lipid Lipid – Digestive enzymes are special proteins that Digestive enzymes are special proteins that help break up large molecules of food into help break up large molecules of food into very tiny molecules that can be absorbed and very tiny molecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells in the form of nutrition. used by the cells in the form of nutrition.
  6. 6. Phases of Digestion Phases of Digestion Ingestion Ingestion Movement Movement Digestion Digestion Absorption Absorption Further digestion Further digestion
  7. 7. The Digestive Tract The Digestive Tract A long muscular A long muscular tube with many tube with many sections and sections and areas. areas. Begins with the Begins with the mouth and ends mouth and ends with the anus. with the anus.
  8. 8. The Digestive Tract The Digestive Tract Parts of the Digestive Parts of the Digestive Tract Tract – Mouth Mouth – Pharynx Pharynx – Esophagus Esophagus – Stomach Stomach – Small Intestine Small Intestine – Large Intestine Large Intestine
  9. 9. Accessory Parts Accessory Parts Organs that are not in the digestive tract Organs that are not in the digestive tract but helps in the digestion but helps in the digestion – Teeth Teeth – Tongue Tongue – Salivary glands Salivary glands – Liver Liver – Gall bladder Gall bladder – Pancreas Pancreas
  10. 10. Mouth Mouth Functions: Functions: – Food enters in the mouth or oral Food enters in the mouth or oral cavity cavity – Tasting Tasting – Mechanical breakdown of food Mechanical breakdown of food – Secretion of salivary glands Secretion of salivary glands (salivary amylase) (salivary amylase)
  11. 11. Mouth Mouth Structures in the mouth that aids digestion: Structures in the mouth that aids digestion: Teeth – cut, tear, crush and grind food. Teeth – cut, tear, crush and grind food. Salivary glands – produce and secrete Salivary glands – produce and secrete saliva into the oral cavity. saliva into the oral cavity. – Parotid (beneath the cheeks) Parotid (beneath the cheeks) – Submaxillary (below the jaw bone) Submaxillary (below the jaw bone) – Sublingual (below the tongue) Sublingual (below the tongue) – – saliva moistens the saliva moistens the food and contains enzymes ( food and contains enzymes (ptyalin ptyalin or or salivary salivary amylase amylase) that begins digestion ) that begins digestion of starch into smaller polysaccharides. of starch into smaller polysaccharides.
  12. 12. Mouth Mouth Tongue Tongue – Mixes and rolls food into tiny Mixes and rolls food into tiny mashed up bits mashed up bits ( (Bolus Bolus) ) – Pushes the bolus toward the Pushes the bolus toward the pharynx and into the esophagus pharynx and into the esophagus when swallowing. when swallowing.
  13. 13. Anatomy of the Mouth and Anatomy of the Mouth and Throat Throat
  14. 14. Human Deciduous and Human Deciduous and Permanent Teeth Permanent Teeth
  15. 15. Mechanism of Swallowing Mechanism of Swallowing Swallowing is a coordinated activity of the Swallowing is a coordinated activity of the tongue, soft palate, pharynx and esophagus. tongue, soft palate, pharynx and esophagus. Phases Phases – Food is pushed into the Food is pushed into the pharynx pharynx by the by the tongue. (voluntary) tongue. (voluntary) – Tongue blocks the mouth Tongue blocks the mouth – Soft palate closes off the nose Soft palate closes off the nose – Larynx (Adam’s Apple) rises so the Larynx (Adam’s Apple) rises so the Epiglottis Epiglottis (a flap of tissue) can close the (a flap of tissue) can close the opening of the trachea. opening of the trachea.
  16. 16. Esophagus Esophagus A straight muscular tube that is about 10 inches A straight muscular tube that is about 10 inches (25 cm) long which connects the mouth with the (25 cm) long which connects the mouth with the stomach stomach Food takes about 4 to 8 seconds as it passes Food takes about 4 to 8 seconds as it passes through to the stomach. through to the stomach. Its walls contain smooth muscles that contracts Its walls contain smooth muscles that contracts in wavy motion ( in wavy motion (Peristalsis Peristalsis). ). Peristalsis propels food and liquid slowly Peristalsis propels food and liquid slowly down the esophagus into the stomach. down the esophagus into the stomach. Cardiac Sphincter (ring-like valve) relaxes to Cardiac Sphincter (ring-like valve) relaxes to allow food into the stomach. allow food into the stomach.
  17. 17. Peristalsis Peristalsis
  18. 18. Stomach Stomach J-shaped muscular sac J-shaped muscular sac Has inner folds ( Has inner folds (rugae rugae) that increases the ) that increases the surface area of the stomach. surface area of the stomach. Churns and grinds together the bolus into Churns and grinds together the bolus into smaller pieces. smaller pieces. Food is mixed with gastric juices Food is mixed with gastric juices (hydrochloric acid and enzymes) secreted (hydrochloric acid and enzymes) secreted by the stomach walls. by the stomach walls. HCL helps break down food and kills HCL helps break down food and kills bacteria that came along with the food. bacteria that came along with the food.
  19. 19. Stomach Stomach
  20. 20. Stomach Stomach Pepsin Pepsin – major enzyme; converts – major enzyme; converts proteins into peptides in the presence of proteins into peptides in the presence of HCL. HCL. Mucus Mucus – lubricates food and protects the – lubricates food and protects the gastric lining from strong digestive juices. gastric lining from strong digestive juices. Converts the bolus into a liquid Converts the bolus into a liquid ( (chyme chyme) ) after 4 hrs of mechanical and after 4 hrs of mechanical and chemical digestion chemical digestion Chyme passes through the Chyme passes through the pyloric pyloric sphincter sphincter into the small intestine. into the small intestine.
  21. 21. Movements in Stomach Movements in Stomach
  22. 22. Small Intestine Small Intestine Long (20 ft), coiled tube beneath the Long (20 ft), coiled tube beneath the stomach. stomach. Has three parts: Has three parts: Duodenum – upper part; about 10 in; connected to Duodenum – upper part; about 10 in; connected to the stomach. the stomach. – – where the digestive juices from the where the digestive juices from the pancreas and the liver combine with chyme pancreas and the liver combine with chyme making it thin and watery. making it thin and watery. Jejunum – about 8 ft Jejunum – about 8 ft Ileum – about 12 ft Ileum – about 12 ft
  23. 23. Small Intestine Small Intestine Site of greatest amount of digestion and absorption Site of greatest amount of digestion and absorption
  24. 24. Small Intestine Small Intestine Takes about 4 – 8 hrs to complete its journey. Takes about 4 – 8 hrs to complete its journey. Mucosa (inner wall) – secretes several enzymes Mucosa (inner wall) – secretes several enzymes that acts on the food. that acts on the food. Where the pancreatic enzymes are emptied into. Where the pancreatic enzymes are emptied into. Digested nutrients are absorbed through Digested nutrients are absorbed through intestinal walls. intestinal walls. Absorbed materials cross the mucosa into the Absorbed materials cross the mucosa into the blood then other parts of the body for storage or blood then other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change. further chemical change.
  25. 25. Small Intestine Small Intestine Has folded inner walls covered with Has folded inner walls covered with fingerlike projections ( fingerlike projections (villi villi; sing. – villus) ; sing. – villus) Each villus has tinier projections called Each villus has tinier projections called microvilli microvilli that absorbs digested food. that absorbs digested food. Villi and microvilli increases the surface Villi and microvilli increases the surface area of the small intestine for greater area of the small intestine for greater absorption. absorption. Peristalsis moves the undigested food to Peristalsis moves the undigested food to the large intestine. the large intestine.
  26. 26. Movement in small intestine: Movement in small intestine: Mixing: Segmental contraction that occurs in small intestine Mixing: Segmental contraction that occurs in small intestine Secretion: Lubricate, liquefy, digest Secretion: Lubricate, liquefy, digest Digestion: Mechanical and chemical Digestion: Mechanical and chemical Absorption: Movement from tract into circulation or lymph Absorption: Movement from tract into circulation or lymph Elimination: Waste products removed from body Elimination: Waste products removed from body
  27. 27. Large Intestine Large Intestine a.k.a. Colon a.k.a. Colon larger diameter, but shorter (5 ft) larger diameter, but shorter (5 ft) Water is absorbed from the Water is absorbed from the undigested food making the waste undigested food making the waste harder until it becomes solid. harder until it becomes solid. Waste stays for 10 – 12 hours. Waste stays for 10 – 12 hours.
  28. 28. Large Intestine Large Intestine
  29. 29. Large Intestine Large Intestine Waste is pushed into the expanded Waste is pushed into the expanded portion (rectum) of the large intestine. portion (rectum) of the large intestine. Solid waste stays in the rectum until it Solid waste stays in the rectum until it is excreted through the anus as is excreted through the anus as feces. feces. Appendix hangs on the right side of Appendix hangs on the right side of the large intestine. the large intestine.
  30. 30. Accessory Organs Accessory Organs Produce or store enzymes that helps in Produce or store enzymes that helps in digestion. digestion. Liver Liver – Largest gland of the body Largest gland of the body – Stores vitamins A,D,E,K Stores vitamins A,D,E,K – Stores sugar and glycogen Stores sugar and glycogen – Produces Produces bile bile (watery, greenish (watery, greenish substance) substance) – Secretes bile to the gall bladder via the Secretes bile to the gall bladder via the hepatic duct and cystic duct. hepatic duct and cystic duct.
  31. 31. Accessory Organs Accessory Organs Gall bladder Gall bladder – Stores bile in between meals Stores bile in between meals – Secretes bile to the duodenum through Secretes bile to the duodenum through the bile duct during mealtime. the bile duct during mealtime. Bile contains bile salts, pigments, Bile contains bile salts, pigments, cholesterol and phospholipids. cholesterol and phospholipids. Bile is an emulsifier NOT an enzyme. Bile is an emulsifier NOT an enzyme. Emulsifier – dissolves fat into the Emulsifier – dissolves fat into the watery contents of the intestine. watery contents of the intestine.
  32. 32. Accessory Organs Accessory Organs Pancreas Pancreas – Produces a juice that contains Produces a juice that contains enzymes ( enzymes (amylase and insulin amylase and insulin) to ) to break down carbohydrates, fats break down carbohydrates, fats and protein. and protein. – Secretes the juice into the Secretes the juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duodenum through the pancreatic duct. duct.
  33. 33. Path of Digestion Path of Digestion Mouth Mouth Pharynx Pharynx Esophagus Esophagus Stomach Stomach Small Intestine Small Intestine Large Intestine Large Intestine Anus Anus
  34. 34. The Excretory System The Excretory System Gets rid of wastes and other Gets rid of wastes and other substances that the body doesn’t substances that the body doesn’t need. need.
  35. 35. Two Types of Wastes Two Types of Wastes Solid Waste – from the Digestive System Solid Waste – from the Digestive System in the form of feces. in the form of feces. Metabolic Wastes – produced by chemical Metabolic Wastes – produced by chemical reactions like respiration, hydrolysis, reactions like respiration, hydrolysis, synthesis and neutralization. synthesis and neutralization. – Water Water – Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide – Salts Salts – Urea Urea
  36. 36. Removal of Wastes Removal of Wastes Egestion Egestion – removal of digestive waste. removal of digestive waste. Excretion Excretion – removal of metabolic waste. removal of metabolic waste.
  37. 37. Organs of Excretion Organs of Excretion Skin Skin –Allows water, salt and urea to Allows water, salt and urea to diffuse from the blood (capillaries) diffuse from the blood (capillaries) into the sweat glands. into the sweat glands. –Releases sweat from the sweat Releases sweat from the sweat glands through the sweat ducts out glands through the sweat ducts out to the skin pores. to the skin pores.
  38. 38. Organs of Excretion Organs of Excretion Lungs Lungs – Excretes the waste product of Excretes the waste product of respiration during exhalation. respiration during exhalation. – Carbon Dioxide and Water Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor. Vapor.
  39. 39. Organs of Excretion Organs of Excretion Liver Liver –Part of the digestive, circulatory and Part of the digestive, circulatory and excretory systems. excretory systems. –Removes excess amino acids from Removes excess amino acids from the body. the body. –Breaks down the amino acids Breaks down the amino acids through through deamination deamination to form the to form the urea which is excreted in the urine. urea which is excreted in the urine.
  40. 40. Organs of Excretion Organs of Excretion Kidneys Kidneys – Major excretory organs of the body Major excretory organs of the body which removes most of the body which removes most of the body wastes. wastes. – Purify blood by filtering out water, salts, Purify blood by filtering out water, salts, digested food particles and urea in the digested food particles and urea in the form of urine. form of urine. – Urine passes out through the urinary Urine passes out through the urinary tract. tract.
  41. 41. Urinary System Urinary System
  42. 42. Excretion of Urine Excretion of Urine Kidney Kidney Ureter – a tube that transports urine to the Ureter – a tube that transports urine to the urinary bladder. urinary bladder. Urinary Bladder – a sac of tissue that has Urinary Bladder – a sac of tissue that has the ability to expand as it fills with urine. the ability to expand as it fills with urine. Urethra – a tube at the bottom of the Urethra – a tube at the bottom of the bladder where urine passes out of the bladder where urine passes out of the body. body.
  43. 43. Assignment Assignment Research and make a table about the different Research and make a table about the different Digestive Enzymes. Digestive Enzymes. Follow the following format: Follow the following format: Intestinal Glands Pancreas Gastric Glands Salivary Glands Products Substrates Enzymes Digestive Gland

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