O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.
Carregando em…3
1 de 39

Auditorium Literature Study & Design Considerations



The presentation includes basic fundamentals to keep in mind while designing an Auditorium.
• National Building Code (NBC),
• Time Saver Standards-Building Types (TSS),
• Neufert
• IS Code - is.2526.1963

Audiolivros relacionados

Gratuito durante 30 dias do Scribd

Ver tudo

Auditorium Literature Study & Design Considerations

  1. 1. SUBMITTED BY: ISHA 75146034 KIRTI 75146040 VARTIKA 75146075
  2. 2. AUDITORIUM • An enclosure, covered or open, where people can assemble for watching a performance given on the stage. • An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres.
  3. 3. Types of Auditoriums:- • ARENA THEATRE Auditoriums with audience surrounded on all sides. • PROSCENIUM THEATRE Auditoriums with audience only on the front sides.
  4. 4. • FLEXIBLE THEATRE Auditoriums with flexible stage and seating arrangement. • THRUST THEATRE Auditoriums with audience surrounded on three sides.
  5. 5. History:- Fan Shaped most efficient.
  6. 6. Backstage Stage House Entrance/ Lobby Parts of Auditorium
  7. 7. TERMS USED IN AUDITORIUM  PROSCENIUM: A proscenium is the area of a theatre surrounding the stage opening. A proscenium arch is the arch over this area. A proscenium plane divides the performer and spectators.  HOUSE: It is the main seating area.  GANGWAYS: A passage between two rows of seats. The minimum gangway should be 1100 mm.  AISLE: The walkway between each area, row of seats to permit ease of passage. (>=45 mm)  DROP STAGE: A stage floor that moves vertically on an elevator usually so that one set can quickly replace another.  TORMENTOR: A curtain or framed structure used directly behind the proscenium at each side of the stage to screen the wings & sidelights from the audience.  APRON: The part of the stage floor in front of curtain line.  ORCHESTRA PIT: The space reserved for musicians usually in front.  BALCONY: A gallery that projects over the main floor of a theatre.  WING: The platform adjacent to the stage for keeping props.  BOX OFFICE: Where tickets are sold.  CYCLORAMA: It is the exterior of the backdrop. It is basically a distinction between backstage & main stage.  FIRE CURTAIN: A curtain or asbestos or other fire-proof material that can be lowered just inside the proscenium arch in case of fire.  GREEN ROOM: The green room is the space in a theatre, studio or similar venue which functions as a waiting room and lounge for performers before and after a performance, and during the show when they are not engaged on stage. Source: Wikipedia
  8. 8. General Principles of Design:- • The choice of site for an auditorium is governed by several factors which may be mutually conflicting, but a compromise has to be struck between the various considerations involved. The problem of noise is an important consideration. • In fact, the quietest possible condition should be provided so that intelligibility of speech does not suffer and even soft passages of music are heard.. 1. Site Selection and Planning • When air-conditioning is provided special care should be taken to attenuate the plant noise and the grill noise. For this purpose plant should be suitably isolated and ducts as well as the plenum should be so designed that noise gets adequately reduced so as to be within the permissible limits.
  9. 9. • The size should be fixed in relation to the number of audience required to be seated. • The floor area of the hall including, gangways (excluding the stage) should be calculated on the basis of 0.6 to 0.9 sq. m per person. • The height of the hall is determined by such considerations as ventilation, presence (or absence) of balcony and the type of performance. 2. Size and Shape The average height may vary from 6 m for small halls to 7·5 m for large halls.
  10. 10. • Ceiling may be flat but it is preferable to provide a slight increase in the height near the centre of hall. • The volume per person required to be provided should normally range between 3·5 to 5.5 cu. m. • Suitable volumes for different types of auditoriums are given below but it is recommended that higher values be adopted only in special cases: Cubic Metres per Person a) Public lecture halls 3·0 to 4.5 b) Cinemas or theatre 4.0 to 5·0 c) Musical hall. or concert halls 4.0 to 5.5 In the case of (c), the upper limit is suitable for musical performances while the lower limit may be chosen in the case of small general purpose auditoriums.
  11. 11. Floor plans of various shapes are used, but the one which is considered to give satisfactory results without introducing complications in the acoustical treatment of the hall is the FAN-SHAPED PLAN. a. The proscenium may bear any suitable ratio with the height of the hall to suit stage requirements and considerations of visibility. b. The side walls should be arranged to have an angle of not more than 100 degrees with the curtain line. In the case of talking pictures synchronisation of sound with lip movement is most essential. c. Also, in the case of theatres a person with normal vision should be able to discern facial expressions of the performers. In order to satisfy these conditions, it is recommended that the distance of the farthest seat from the curtain line should not normally exceed 23 metres. Shoe box Fan Diamond Horse shoe Different Shapes of Halls
  12. 12. Different Seating Arrangements in Auditoriums
  13. 13. Note 1. Concentric seating is found to be more efficient in auditoriums instead of straight linear seating. 2. Multiple Aisle System of seating is found to be more efficient.
  14. 14. • The auditorium rear walls) should be either flat or convex in shape. • This should not be concave in shape, but where it cannot be avoided, the acoustical design shall indicate either the surface to be splayed or convex corrugations given in order to avoid any tendency for the sound to focus into the hall. Rear Wall • Where the side walls are non-parallel as in the case of a fan-shaped hall, the walls may remain reflective and may be architecturally finished in any manner required, if sound absorbing material is not required from other considerations. • Where the side walls are parallel they may be left untreated to a length of about 7.5 m from the proscenium end. In addition, any of the surfaces, likely to cause a delayed echo or flutter echo should be appropriately treated with a sound absorbing material. Difference between the direct path and the path reflected from aide wall. shall not exceed 15m. Side Wall
  15. 15. • For good visibility as also for good listening conditions, the successive rows of seats have to r be raised over the preceding ones with the result that the floor level rises towards the rear. • The elevation is based on the principle that each listener shall be elevated with respect to the person immediately in front of him so that the listener's head is about 12 cm above the path of sound which would pass over the head of the person in front of him. It is possible to reduce this to 8 cm, if the seats are staggered. • As an empirical rule the angle of elevation of the inclined floor in an auditorium should not be less than 8 degrees. Floor
  16. 16. Horizontal Cone of Vision
  17. 17. Vertical Cone of Vision
  18. 18. The size of the stage depends upon the type of performance the hall is to cater for. It would be large for theatres, while it would be comparatively small for cinema halls which again depends on the size of the screen. Stage
  19. 19. PROPORTIONS OF AN AUDITORIUM • These are obtained from spectator’s psychological perception and viewing angles, as well as requirement for good view from all seats . • Head movement should be acc. To the following:- • 30 - No movement • 60 - Slight eye movement • 110 - Slight eye and head movement • 150 - Head movement 90 degree. • 360 - Full head and shoulder movement
  20. 20. • SEATING CAPACITY: It depends on the format selected. • LENGTH OF ROWS: Max. no. of 16 seats per aisle. 25 seats per aisle is permissible if one side exit door of 1m width is provided per 3-4 rows. • EXIT , ESCAPE ROUTES : 1m wide per 150 people (min. width .8m)
  21. 21. SIGHT LINES:- • A sightline, sight line or visual axis, is a normally unobstructed line-of-sight between an intended observer (or spectator) and a stage, arena, or monument. • For example. Sightlines are a particularly important consideration in theatre and stadium design, road junction layout and urban planning. • In cities such as London, construction within sightlines is restricted to protect the key views of famous landmarks.
  22. 22. 150 Introduction to Auditorium Seating The seats should be arranged in concentric arcs of circles drawn with the centre located as much behind the centre of the curtain line as its distance from the auditorium rear wall.
  24. 24. • Important factor in the auditorium design are clear and unobstructed sight lines to the screen, the vertical position of the screen being one of the controlling factors. • To provide best visibility from any seat, no patron should sit exactly in front of any other patron. • Staggering is accomplished by the non- uniform placement of seats varying width in succeeding rows. STAGGERED SEATING
  25. 25. Proscenium line >950 >950>950 Sight lines in Staggered seating House 1100 150 Note: All dimensions in mm.
  26. 26. Note Minimum two mandatory wheelchair spaces are to be provided for physically challenged.
  27. 27. BACKSTAGE • The area of a theatre not open to the public, where the performance is prepared. • It mainly includes green room with attached toilets, rehearsal rooms, workshops and a store room. • Its size is based on the scale of stage and how many performers have to be accommodated.
  29. 29. SERVICES IN AUDITORIUM • Stage lighting • Light control • Curtain system-motorised & vertical system • Cyclorama screen • Dimmers • Escape and exit route • Parking • Circulation
  30. 30. FIRE PROTECTION 1.Stage Fire Protection • A fire curtain or water curtain is to be provided to contain smoke/fire within the stage. • The fire curtain is required to be designed and installed to prevent a glow from a fire being visible to the audience. • The curtain is required to be activated by rate-of-rise heat detectors operating at a temperature rise of 15 to 20 °F per minute (9 to 11 °C per minute) and by manual operation. 2.Sprinklers • Sprinklers are required to be provided under a roof. If galleries over the stage are more than 4 feet in width, the sprinklers must be provided over the stage. • It is noted that these requirements are not required for the stages in which the stage area is 1000 ft² (93 m²) or less, the stage height is 50 ft or less, and curtains, scenery, or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically.
  31. 31. 3. Fire and Life Safety Proper: Notification systems, lighting, and signage are required to facilitate safe and speedy evacuations during an emergency in the Auditorium spaces. Step lights recessed into floor risers at each seating tier and wall mounted low light level sconce lights along side walls are typical. Sprinklers should be provided per code and under stage platforms to suppress fires 4. Raised Floor : The recommended system for distribution of HVAC in auditorium spaces is ducted supply through floor vents with ducted ceiling return air vents in auditorium and lobby. In other spaces, ducted ceiling supply with return air ceiling plenum is recommended. Note that there should be transfer ducts at all acoustically rated partitions.
  32. 32. 5. Stage Ventilation • The requirements with regard to stage ventilation for stages greater than 50 feet in height or larger in area than 1000 ft² are as follows: Natural means of exhaust • Two or more roof vents are required to be provided; • Aggregate clear area of the openings is to be no less than 5% of the stage area; • Vents are required to be located near the center and above the highest part of the stage area; • The vents are to be activated by heat-activated devices and by manual means. Mechanical means of exhaust • A mechanical exhaust system is to be activated by the operation of sprinkler system protecting the stage and manual means that are readily accessible to the fire department. • A smoke layer must be maintained at greater than 6 ft above the highest level of the seating or maintained above the top of the proscenium opening
  33. 33. SOUND INSULATION A high quality acoustical treatment offers clarity to the original sound thus the quality of sound remains uniform throughout the auditorium and every audience sitting there get to hear the best quality sound regardless of his or her seating location. Use of Acoustical Panels For Soundproofing Of Auditorium Soundproofing in an auditorium can be obtained by using wall and ceiling sound panels. Acoustical panels offer great results by absorbing the reflections and echoes within the auditorium, thus producing the better quality of sound. Another soundproofing product that is diffusion panel can also provide a great deal of help in dispersing the reflected sound waves to bring out a balance among the live and dead spots in the room.
  34. 34. The materials generally used may be broadly classified into the following categories: a) Acoustic plaster (a plaster which includes granulated insulation material with cement }; b) Compressed cane or wood fibreboard, unperforated and perforated; c) Wood particle board; d) Compressed wood woo); e) Mineral/glass wool quilts and mats; f) Mineral/compressed glass wool tiles; g) Composite units of perforated hardboard backed by perforated fibreboard; h) Composite units of perforated board (hardboard, asbestos board or metal sheet) backed by mineral or glass wool quilt or _ slab; and i) Special absorbers constructed of hardboard, teak ply, etc, backed by air. Sound Insulation Materials used in Auditoriums