2. Organic Products
• Without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
• Environmentally and socially responsible approach
• India’s rank : World’s Organic Agricultural land was 9th
• And terms of total number of producers was 1st as per 2018 data
(Source: FIBL & IFOAM Year Book 2018)
3. Why Quality of Organic farming is assessed?
• Authenticity before they receive certification
• A certification is a guarantee that the organic foods have
been produced and processed without the use of
pesticides and chemical fertilizers and they do not
contain any contaminants.
4. • Services of organic food testing laboratories are often
used to analyze organic foods for their nutrition content
and the accrued health benefits they might claim.
• Food testing assures consumers that the products they
are purchasing, often at premium prices, are authentically
5. • Food testing laboratories provide food testing services to
ensure that organic food production, as well as the
processed products, are free of chemical and microbial
• Before certifying the foods the Certifying Authorities like
NPOP and PGS-India will also need analysis report from
organic food testing labs, which state that the foods
contain no residues of pesticides, heavy metals,
• Food contaminants are unwanted and harmful
substances in food that can cause consumer illness.
• These substances may be present in food as a result of the
various stages of its production, packaging, transport or
holding or from the external environment.
7. Microbial food testing
• Organic foods like any other foods can be subject to
microbial contamination like E. coli, Salmonella and
• Microbial food testing for the presence of these
pathogens is a food safety requirement for organic foods.
9. Allergen testing
• Organic foods are susceptible to allergens, which can
enter these foods through cross-contamination.
• Some of these organic foods are also used as ingredients
in food products like peanuts, wheat, milk, soy, etc. so
processed organic foods will require food testing to
ensure they are free of allergens.
10. Mycotoxin testing
• Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungi of the
groups of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, which
are found in food products.
• Regular laboratory testing for mycotoxins in organic foods
is equally important as crops can be contaminated with
mycotoxins during growth cycle or because of poor
storage after harvesting due to damp or moisture.
11. • The mycotoxins produced by certain moulds play an
important role in the analysis of organic foodstuff.
• Patulin is significant in fruits and can be found mainly in
apples but also in peaches and pears.
• It is also sensible to test for ochratoxin and aflatoxins in
food such as nuts, seeds and dried fruit.
• Use of fungicides in organic farming is prohibited.
12. • Spadaro et al., (2006) and Versari et al., (2007) confirmed lower
amounts of mycotoxins in organic products compared to
• Even if the level of mycotoxins in organic products is higher, the
differences are small and do not exceed acceptable levels
(Gottschalk et al., 2007; Jestoi, 2004; Pussemier, 2004; Maeder et al.,
• According to Lairon (2010), organic cereals contain similar levels of
mycotoxins as conventional cereals.
13. S. No Name of the
Article of Food Limit μg/kg
1 Aflatoxin All articles of food 30
2 Aflatoxin M1 Milk 0.5
3 Patulin Apple juice & Apple
juice ingredients in
4 Ochratoxin A Wheat, barley & rye 20
14. Pesticide residue testing
• The FSSAI has fixed the maximum limits of residues of
insecticides/pesticides in organic foods.
• These are 5% of the maximum limits prescribed or Level
of Quantification (LoQ) whichever, is higher.
• All the available studies show that the great majority of
organic products contains no residues of the pesticides
permitted in conventional agriculture.
15. • For example, according to the German Organic Processors
and Traders Association, organic produce must have
pesticide residue below 0.01 mg/kg, with no more than
two pesticides present.
16. S.No. Name of Insecticides Food Tolerance limit
1 Aldrin, dieldrin Foodgrains
Fruits and Vegetables
2 Carbaryl Foodgrains
3 D.D.T./D.D.D./D.D.E. Carbonated Water 0.001
4 Dimethoate Fruits and Vegetables 2.0
5 Endosulfan Fruits and Vegetables 2.0
6 Heptachlor Foodgrains
7 Malathion Foodgrains
8 Parathion Fruits and Vegetables 0.5
9 Captan Fruits and Vegetables 15.0
10 Phorate Foodgrains 0.05
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, 2011
17. Antibiotics testing
• Antibiotic residues like ractopamine have become a global problem
as the antibiotic residues in food are consumed and they could make
people resistant to those antibiotics.
• Laboratory testing of organic foods for antibiotic residues is
important for animal origin organic products like chicken, fish,
shellfish, fish, meat, dairy products, and honey
19. Heavy metal testing
• Most food labs test organic foods for suspected chemicals
which could be present in food from the environment like
water and soil.
• Food testing labs must be equipped for detection of heavy
metals like arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper,
zinc, etc. that are present even in very low or trace levels.
20. • Sources of heavy metal contamination caused during
cultivation include nearby industrial sites and
motorways, as well as the use of leaded fuel in
• For most fresh fruit or vegetables the limit for lead
contamination is 0.10 mg/kg and for cadmium 0.050
21. S.No. Name of the contaminants Parts per Million
metal by weight
1 Lead 0.5-10.0
2 Copper 1.5-15.0
3 Arsenic 0.5-5.0
4 Tin 0.5-5.0
5 Zinc 5.0-25
6 Mercury 0.5-1.0
7 Cadmium 0.1
8 Nickel 1.5
9 Chromium 20 ppb
10 Methyl Mercury 0.25
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, 2011
23. • No differences between organic and conventional
produce concerning the content of heavy metals have
been reported (Magkos et al., 2006;Hoogenboom et al.,
2008; Smith-Spangler et al., 2012).
• Hoogenboom et al. (2008) and Barański et al. (2014)
reported that organic produce contained a lower level of
cadmium (Cd) compared to conventional produce.
24. Nitrates testing
• Nitrates accumulate in plants through the effects of
several factors (sunshine, temperature, rainfall,
irrigation, use of nitrogenous fertilisers).
• The organic system allows using organic fertilizers, which
also contain nitrogen, but in organically bound form.
25. • A number of studies clearly indicate a higher content of
nitrates and nitrites in conventionally produced crops
compared to organic ones.
• According to Lairon (2010) organic vegetables contain
approximately 50% lower levels of nitrites when
compared to conventional ones.
• A specific maximum level of 2,000 mg 𝑵𝑶−𝟑/kg applies
for frozen spinach.
• FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS (CONTAMINANTS, TOXINS AND RESIDUES)
REGULATIONS, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India,2011
• EVALUTION OF CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES AND THE CONTAMINATION OF
MERCURY, LEAD, AND CADMIUM, Sixteenth Report, WHO, 1972
• MANUAL OF METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF FOODS ANTIBIOTICS AND
HORMONE RESIDUES, Food Safety And Standards Authority Of India
Ministry Of Health And Family Welfare Government Of India, 2016
• Food quality assessment in organic vs. conventional agricultural produce:
Findings and issues, Tiziano Gomiero, Applied Soil Ecology, 2017