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Level your Proficiency in English

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Level your Proficiency in English

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCE STUDY AND RESEARCH WORK (IJASRW) Organizes 2 Days Online Certificate Course LEVEL YOUR PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH Module 1 Course Instructor : Mr.T.VISHNUPRIYAN, ASSOCIATE EDITOR & ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH
  2. 2. Lesson 1 Articles
  3. 3. ● Articles are used to indicate whether or not we expect our listeners to know which things or people we are referring to ● Articles help to indicate particular people/things or people/things in general ● There are 2 types of articles: ❖ Indefinite articles = A/An ❖ Definite article = The What are Articles?
  4. 4. Indefinite Articles ● A/An = Indefinite articles ● A/An is usually used when: ❖ You mention a person/thing for the first time ❖ You are referring to people/things unknown to your listener ❖ You are referring to people/things which are general or not unique ● Examples: ❖ Look! There’s a cat under my car. ❖ I’m going to a party tonight. ❖ Would you like a biscuit?
  5. 5. Indefinite Articles ● A is used before words that DO NOT begin with a vowel sound ● An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound Vowels V.S. Vowel Sounds ● There are 5 vowels in the alphabet: A E I O U ● Written vowels are NOT pronounced with a vowel sound all the time ● The pronunciations of these vowels differ according to the word
  6. 6. ● Words beginning with a vowel sound: ■ Apple [ae] - An apple ■ Umbrella [ah] - An umbrella ■ Honest [au] - (“H”is silent here) An honest man ● Words beginning with a written vowel but NOT a vowel sound: ■ University [you] - A university ■ European [you] - A European country ■ One [wa] - A one-man band Indefinite Articles
  7. 7. Definite Article ● The = definite article ● The is used when: ■ You are talking about a particular person/thing ■ Your listener knows which person/thing you mean Examples ● Quiet! Here comes the principal. ● How did you do for the English test?
  8. 8. Lesson 2 Gerunds
  9. 9. Gerunds - Definition ● A gerund is a verbal that is used as a noun and has an – ing ending ● Typically, a gerund is used as a "thing" or an "idea," and gerunds always end in "-ing". ● They can function as subjects, direct objects, objects of the preposition, and predicate nouns.
  10. 10. Lesson 3 Synonyms & Antonyms
  11. 11. Synonym ● A synonym is a word or words that mean the same thing or nearly the same thing as another word. ● For example, "close" is a synonym of "shut".
  12. 12. Examples Action ● Run — dash, escape, elope, flee, hasten, hurry, race, rush, speed, sprint ● Hurry — rush, run, speed, race, hasten, urge, accelerate, bustle ● Hide — conceal, cover, mask, cloak, camouflage, screen, shroud, veil
  13. 13. Antonym ● Antonyms are words which have the opposite (or nearly opposite) meaning. ● For example "bad" is an antonym of "good".
  14. 14. Examples ● Achieve - Fail ● Giant - Dwarf ● Random - Specific ● Afraid - Confident ● Gloomy - Cheerful
  15. 15. Lesson 4 Preposition
  16. 16. What is Preposition? ● Prepositions are function words that show relationship between subjects and objects. ● Prepositions also describe location or position by showing where or what. ● A preposition must have an object (noun or pronoun) following it called the object of the preposition. ● The combination of the preposition and its object is called a prepositional phrase.
  17. 17. Lesson 5 Homophones
  18. 18. Homophones ● Homophones are pairs of words that sound the same, but have distinctly different meanings and different spellings. ● Understanding homophones is an essential part of mastering the English language, both for vocabulary building and spelling.
  19. 19. Examples ● brake/break: When teaching my daughter how to drive, I told her if she didn't hit the brake in time she would break the car's side mirror. ● cell/sell: If you sell drugs, you will get arrested and end up in a prison cell. ● cent/scent: I won't spend one cent on a bottle of perfume until I know that I love the scent.
  20. 20. Frequently Confused Homophones ● accept/except: Accept is a verb that means to take or receive. Except is used as a preposition or conjunction to mean but or exclude. ● affect/effect: Affect is a verb (in most cases) and indicates influence. Effect is a noun (in most cases) and is the result of an action or change. ● compliment/complement: Compliment means to say something nice about someone or something. Complement means something that enhances or completes.
  21. 21. Lesson 6 Idioms and Phrases
  22. 22. ● An idiom is a word or phrase that means something different than you would think from the individual words. ● For Example: devil's advocate Meaning: one who presents a counter argument. Example: Hey Jack! You're always playing devil's advocate! Give it a rest and mind your own business. Idioms and Phrases
  23. 23. ● A phrase is a group of words, without a subject and verb, that functions in a sentence as one part of speech. ● Examples- 1. He is laughing at a joker. 2. She is making tea for the guests Idioms and Phrases
  24. 24. Lesson 7 One Word Substitution
  25. 25. One Word Substitution ● One word substitute as the phrase indicates itself are the words that replace group of words or a full sentence effectively without creating any kind of ambiguity in the meaning of the sentences. For Example: ● Triumvirate: A group of three powerful people. ● Demagogue: A political leader appealing to popular desires and prejudices.
  26. 26. Lesson 8 Tenses
  27. 27. Lesson 9 Voice
  28. 28. VOICE What is Voice? The voice of a verb tells whether the subject of the sentence performs or receives the action. i) Birds build nests. ii) Nests are built by birds.
  29. 29. Types of Voice Active Voice: The subject performs the action expressed by the verb. Usage: When more clarity and straightforward relation is required between verb and subject. Passive Voice: The subject receives the action expressed by the verb. Usage: When the action is the focus, not the subject or when the doer is unknown.
  30. 30. Rules of Conversion from Active to Passive Voice 1. Identify the subject, the verb and the object: S+V+O 2. Change the object into subject. 3. Put the suitable helping verb or auxiliary verb. 4. Change the verb into past participle of the verb. 5. Add the preposition "by“ 6. Change the subject into object. Example: Active Voice: Sameer wrote a letter. (Subject) + (verb) + (object). Passive Voice: A letter was written by Sameer. (Object) + (auxiliary verb) + (past participle) + (by subject).
  31. 31. Passive Voice for all tenses The rules for using Auxiliary verb for Passive Voice is different for each tense. 1.Simple Present Tense: Active Voice: She writes a letter. Passive Voice: A letter is written by her. 2.Present Progressive Tense: Active Voice: They are eating oranges. Passive Voice: Oranges are being eaten by them. 3.Present Perfect Tense: Active Voice: Has she completed the work? Passive Voice: Has the work been completed by her? 4.Simple Past Tense: Active Voice: He did not buy a book. Passive Voice: A book was not bought by him. 5.Past Progressive Tense: Active Voice: She was washing a shirt. Passive Voice: A shirt was being washed by her.
  32. 32. 6.Past Perfect Tense: Active Voice: They had won the match. Passive Voice: The match had been won by them. 7.Simple Future Tense: Active Voice: She will write a poem. Passive Voice: A poem will be written by her. 8.Future Perfect Tense: Active Voice: He will have received the letter. Passive Voice: The letter will have been received by him. [Note: Passive voice cannot be formed for active voice sentences in the Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous or Future Perfect Continuous.]
  33. 33. Tips on using VoiceTip 1: Let If the given sentence in the active voice is in the imperative form, to get the passive voice use ‘Let’. Formation of Passive Voice = Let + Object + be + Past Participle Examples: Active: Help me. Passive: Let me be helped. Active: Open the door. Passive: Let the door be opened. Tip 2: Helping verbs like am, is, are, was, were, will, have, should, could, will If the question in the Active Voice begins with a Helping verb the Passive voice must also begin with a suitable helping verb. Active: Are you writing a letter? Passive: Is a letter being written by you? Active: Will you write a letter? Passive: Will a letter be written by you? What, When, Who, Why, How:
  34. 34. If the question begins with ‘Wh’ or How’ form (what, when, how, etc.) the Passive Voice must begin with the same. Only ‘who’ gets replaced by ‘By whom’. Active: Why did you break the box? Passive: Why was the box broken by you? Active: Who broke the window? Passive: By whom was the window broken? Tip 3: Gerund, Infinitive When used in passive form, gerund and Infinitive are formed differently. Infinitive: passive is formed as ‘to be + past participle’ Active: I want to shoot the tiger. Passive: I want the tiger to be shot. Gerund: passive is formed as ‘being + past participle’ Active: I remember my father taking me to the theatre. Passive: I remember being taken to the theatre by my father.
  35. 35. Tip 4: Direct and Indirect Object If a sentence contains two objects namely Indirect Object and Direct Object in the Active Voice, two forms of Passive Voice can be formed. Active: She brought me a cup of coffee. Passive: (I) I was brought a cup of coffee by her. Passive: (II) A cup of coffee was brought to me by her. Object Complement: When made passive, these objects complements become subject complements; they come after the verb. Active: They elected him their leader. Passive: He was elected their leader. Tip5: Cases where ‘by’ is not used With: use with in place of ‘by’ to talk about an instrument used by the agent/subject. Active: Somebody hit the dog with a stick. Passive: (I) The dog was hit by with a stick. Passive: (II) The dog was hit by a boy. Impersonal Passive: In scientific / technical / business writing, the emphasis is usually on the action or process. So the ‘by’ phrase is generally omitted. Active: One finds mosquitoes everywhere. Passive: Mosquitoes are found everywhere.
  36. 36. Tip 6: Cases where no passive form exists Present perfect Continuous: She has been writing a letter. Past perfect Continuous: He had been cleaning the house. Future Continuous: I will be filing all the documents tomorrow. Future Perfect Continuous: I will have been serving tea for customers at this hotel for twenty years by then. Intransitive verb which do not take objects: · I eat. · I am living here. · I have travelled by train. · I went there. · I waited for a long time.
  37. 37. Lesson 10 Direct and Indirect Speech
  38. 38. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH Direct and indirect speech can be a source of confusion for English learners. Let's first define the terms, then look at how to talk about what someone said, and how to convert speech from direct to indirect or vice-versa. • by repeating the words spoken (direct speech) • by reporting the words spoken (indirect or reported speech). DIRECT SPEECH Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks (" ") and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that's being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), or telling someone later about a previous conversation. Examples She says, "What time will you be home?" She said, "What time will you be home?" and I said, "I don't know! “
  39. 39. INDIRECT SPEECH Reported or indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like 'say', 'tell', 'ask', and we may use the word 'that' to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are not used. She said, "I saw him." (direct speech) = She said that she had seen him. (indirect speech) 'That' may be omitted: She told him that she was happy. = She told him she was happy.
  40. 40. 'SAY' AND 'TELL' Use 'say' when there is no indirect object: He said that he was tired. Always use 'tell' when you say who was being spoken to (i.e. with an indirect object): He told me that he was tired. 'TALK' AND 'SPEAK' Use these verbs to describe the action of communicating: He talked to us. She was speaking on the telephone. Use these verbs with 'about' to refer to what was said: He talked (to us) about his parents.
  41. 41. THANK YOU https://www.linkedin.com/in/vishnu-priyan-42b956167 https://www.linkedin.com/in/priyanka-gupta-19004954 https://www.linkedin.com/company/international-journal-of-advance-study-and-research-work-ijasrw

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