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• Poisoning occurs when any substance
interferes with normal body functions after it
is swallowed, inhaled, injected, or absorbed.
• The branch of medicine that deals with the
detection and treatment of poisons is known
• Nearly above 100 plants are toxic to humans.
• Latin name -Vera
• Latin name - Cannabis Sativa
There are three types of effects;
• Mood lift, Euphoria
• Increased giggling and laughing
• May interrupt cluster sequences in
those suffering from cluster
• Feeling more emotionally sensitive
• General change in consciousness
• Sleepiness, lethargy
• Pupil dilation.
• Intense feelings of fear, nausea, confusion
• Mild to severe anxiety, dizziness,.
• Mushroom poisoning (also known
• Refers to harmful effects from ingestion
of toxic substances present in
• They are unique.
• They are neither animal or plant.
• The Kingdom of “ Fungi”
1. Cyclopeptide – containing mushrooms -
2. Mono methyl hydrazine - Gyromitra species
3. Muscarine containing mushrooms – Inocybe
4. Coprine – coprinus – Atramentarius
5. Gastroenteritis including mushrooms –
USES OF MUSHROOMS
• Production of foodstuffs like wine and
• Mushrooms has immune system
• Used for dyeing wool and other natural
• Used as a antioxidant.
Fly agaric or fly amanita
Poisonous and psychoactive basidiomycete
fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita.
A large conspicuous mushroom
Fly agaric fruiting bodies emerge from the
soil looking like a white egg, covered in the
white warty material of the universal veil.
• Amatoxins are potent and selective inhibitors of RNA
polymerase II, a vital enzyme in the synthesis
of messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA, and small
nuclear RNA (snRNA).
• Without mRNA, which is the template for protein
synthesis, cell metabolism stops and cytolysis ensues.
• The RNA polymerase of Amanita phalloides is
insensitive to the effects of amatoxins; thus, the
mushroom does not poison itself.
• Fatal dose – 2 to 3 mushrooms
Early symptom category - 6 hours
• Allergic, and neurologic syndromes
(Hallucinations, Convulsions,coma )
Late symptom category – 6 and 24 hours
• Hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic.
Delayed symptom category – After 24 hours
• Jaundice, hypoglycemia, MODS followed by
• Kidney damage, Kidney failure & Death
• Don't believe that boiling, salting, or
drying mushrooms will purified ones
• Don't use alcohol. Some edible
mushrooms can cause an abnormal
reaction when taken with alcohol.
• Arterial blood gas analysis may demonstrate
hypoxia and acidosis.
• Electrolyte disturbances (eg, hypokalemia)
may occur in patients with severe
• LFT & RFT
• Monitoring BGL
• Detection of toxins in gastric aspirate,
serum, urine, stool.
• Liver & kidney biopsies has to done.
• Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
(ELISA) analysis of urinary amanitin appears
to be efficacious in diagnosing amatoxin
• GLC and
• The initial treatment is supportive.
• Control the ABCs
• Hydration with intravenous fluid is essential to
maintain a strong blood pressure.
• Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, packed RBC is
• Oxygen therapy and, if necessary, a breathing
machine (mechanical ventilator) can be used.
• Decontamination of GUT (A+ charcoal, emesis,
catharsis, forced diuresis, hemoperfusion)
• BENZYL PENICLLIN :
• DOSE : 300000 – 1,000,000units/day is effective.
• M.O.A : By binding to specific penicillin-binding
proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall,
penicillin G inhibits the third and last stage of
bacterial cell wall synthesis.
• Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall
autolytic enzymes such as autolysis.
How to get infect from
Eat poisonous mushroom.
Eat rotten mushroom.
Eat mushrooms sprayed with
Eat mushrooms if the person is
Eat safe mushrooms but have a
Tips For Identifying
• Should never pick little brown mushrooms or umbrella-
capped ones with white gills.
• Always leave out the mushroom that has a bulbous cap or
sac around its base.
• This ring or ‘annulus’ is a clear indication of the toxicity of a
• Just bite into its fleshy cap and wait for 24 hours to see
any possible signs of poisoning.
• Also, avoid eating wild mushrooms in raw form or in large
quantities as these are difficult to digest.