PowerPoint Presentation on the topic "Artificial Intelligence" including the brief history,information about the founders and pioneers of the concept and the varied applications and future of Artificial Intelligence.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is usually
defined as the science of making
computers do things that require
intelligence when done by humans.
A.I is the study of ideas that enable
computers to be intelligent.
The collective attributes of a
computer, robot, or other device
capable of performing functions such
as learning, decision making, or other
intelligent human behaviors.
The real emergence of AI (in computer technology) came during the years 1945-
Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and J.C. Shaw
were founders and pioneers of Artificial Intelligence.
These innovators of AI broke away from conventional approaches and examined
how to implement human thought in computers.
The first term of Artificial Intelligence was first applied in 1956 by John McCarthy
during the Dartmouth Conference.
The Dartmouth Conference was the first gathering of all researchers to develop
and focus on applying intelligence to computers.
Logic Theorist was considered the first AI program. (In 1956)
• Although some all-purpose languages such as C, C++ and Java are used to create
intelligent software, two languages are specifically designed for AI: LISP and
• LISP (LISt Programming) was invented by John McCarthy in 1958. As the name
implies, LISP is a programming language that manipulates lists.
• PROLOG (PROGRAMMING IN LOGIC) is a language that can build a database of
facts and a knowledge base of rules. A program in PROLOG can use logical
reasoning to answer questions that can be inferred from the knowledge base.
Artificial intelligence works with the help of
Artificial Neurons (Artificial
• Artificial neural networks are composed
of interconnecting artificial neurons
(programming constructs that mimic the
properties of biological neurons).
Human Intelligence Artificial Intelligence
• Intuition, Common sense,
Judgement, Creativity, Beliefs
• The ability to demonstrate their
intelligence by communicating
• Plausible Reasoning and Critical
• Ability to simulate human
behavior and cognitive processes.
• Capture and preserve human
• Raise legal and ethical concerns.
• Humans are fallible.
• They have limited knowledge
• Information processing of serial
nature proceed very slowly in the
brain as compared to computers.
• Humans are unable to retain large
amounts of data in memory.
• No “common sense”.
• Cannot readily deal with
• May have high development
• Fast Response. The ability to
comprehend large amounts of
3 Main Components of A.I.:
2 Main Software/Programming languages:
The artificial creation of human speech through a speech synthesizer.
It then uses a process called text-to-speech which changes the text into speech.
The quality of speech synthesis is often judged by how well its understood, and
how well it resembles actual human speech.
Speech synthesis is also used with speech recognition in other A.I. technologies.
Converts audio signals into text, or takes spoken input and changes it to written
It maps the audio signals to form an abstract meaning of the spoken input.
Digital input is then
broken down in (x)
Program then compares the
phonemes to words in its
Program then decides what it
thinks the word is and displays
the best choice
*Phoneme-symbol or unit
that represents sounds of
The logical reasoning process calculates results from specific variables in the
More or less the variables have to be definite rather than a slight chance or good
chance of being accurate.
The only results suitable are those that logically follow the inputted variables.
• Google has been investing in a driverless car, and has completed over 480,000
autonomous-driving miles accident-free.
• Through the use of cameras, sensors and special software built into vehicles
manufacturers have been able to build cars that park themselves at the touch of a
• Driverless trains carry passengers from city to city in Japan without the need for
• Google’s driverless car relies on lasers and sensors to spot obstacles, interpret signs
and interact with traffic and pedestrians.
• Artificial intelligence takes away the responsibility from the drivers, and also
eliminates the danger of distracted driving and boasts a reaction time much faster
than that of any human.
• Some countries have put smart robots to work disabling land mines and handling
radioactive materials in order to limit the risk to human workers.
• Ford is using an Artificial Intelligence based approach for vehicle assembly process
planning, ergonomics analysis, and a system that uses machine translation to
translate assembly-build instructions for assembly plants that don't use English.
• Other Companies such as GM have developed robots with Artificial Intelligence
techniques to inspect cars made by humans.
• Cedars-Sinai Medical Center relies on special
software to examine the heart and stop heart
attacks before they occur
• Artificial muscles feature smart technology that
allows them to function more like real muscles.
• Penelope, a Robotic Surgery Assistant
developed at Columbia University can not only
pass the correct tools to doctors, but also keep
track of these tools and learn about a doctor's
preferences through artificial intelligence.
• The most advanced surgical robots are
programmed to perform the entire surgery on
their own, except for the suturing or the cutting.
In these operations, a surgeon stands by just in
case something goes wrong.
• Miniature intelligent robots are being
developed for eye surgeries.
Right now, A.I. is at level comparable to less
intelligent animals or insects.
Is it possible to go farther, to reach human
“Cognitivists”, who believe the human
conscious can be simulated, and “Anti-
Cognitivists” who believe it to be impossible.
2050: Estimated date of the emergence of the
Singularity, or greater-than-human super-
At this point, it’s thought that certain machines
will exceed the human brain in terms of
It’s believed that this breakthrough will lead to a
rapid advancement in technology, as super
intelligent A.I. designs new computers and
machines at a rate no human could
Virtual Reality refers to a high-end user
interface that involves real-time simulation
and interactions through multiple sensorial
Virtual reality must allow the user to
view the environment from any point
at any angle.
VR should allow the user to interact
with the environment.