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UX STRAT USA 2016 Workshop: Jim Kalbach, "Mapping Experiences"


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UX STRAT USA 2016 Workshop: Jim Kalbach, "Mapping Experiences"

  2. 2. @JimKalbach
  3. 3. AGENDA 2:00 Overview 2:30 Initiate 3:30 Investigate 3:45 Break 4:00 Illustrate 5:00 Align & Envision 5:30 End
  4. 4. “Value-centered design starts a story about an ideal interaction between an individual and an organization and the benefits each realizes from that interaction.” Jess McMullin, “Searching For The Center of Design,“ Boxes and Arrows
  5. 5. Individuals Organization Value
  6. 6. Customer Journey Maps Experience Maps Service Blueprints Mental Model Diagrams Ecosystem models … ALIGNMENT DIAGRAMS
  8. 8. Individual CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAP
  9. 9. Individual Organization CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAP
  10. 10. Individual Organization Interactions CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAP
  12. 12. Individual Organization Interactions EXPERIENCE MAP
  13. 13. Individual Organization Interactions
  15. 15. Individual Organization Interactions MENTAL MODELS
  16. 16. Paul Kahn, “Information Architecture for the Web: Applied IA“ http://www.slideshare.net/pauldavidkahn/04-appled-ia SPATIAL MAP
  17. 17. STORY INTERACTION INDIVIDUALS ORGANIZATION Experience Map Chronological Interactions Goals, actions, thoughts, feelings, pain points Physical, artifacts, opportunities, recommendations Customer Journey Map Chronological Touchpoints Actions, thoughts, feelings, moments of truth, pain points Customer facing artifacts and roles, opportunities Service Blueprint Chronological Line of Interaction Stages, artefacts Front-line services, back- office systems, gaps Mental Model Hierarchical Center Line Tasks, intent, feelings, philosophy Support, features, gaps Spatial Map Spatial Overlays Content usage, categories Data systems, departments, workflow
  19. 19. Holism Experiences, not products Multiplicity Multiple facets of activity Interaction Touchpoints between people and a system Visualization Provide a graphical overview Self Evidence Little or no explanation Relevance Address business problems Validity Grounded in investigation and evidence http://experiencinginformation.wordpress.com/2012/01/04/principles-of-alignment-diagrams PRINCIPLES
  20. 20. “Visualizations don’t provide answers outright, they foster conversations. Diagrams are compelling artifacts that draw interest and attention from others in the organization. They are a means to engage others in discourse.”
  22. 22. CO-CREATION
  24. 24. GENERAL PROCESS It‘s the journey and the destination
  25. 25. 1. INITIATE
  26. 26. What is the difference between: Customer Journey Map Experience Map Service Blueprint ?
  27. 27. BREATH v DEPTH / FOCUS
  28. 28. What is an experience WHAT IS AN EXPERIENCE? Holistic Personal Situational
  29. 29. Point of View Focus Scope Structure Frame the Effort
  30. 30. 1. Point of View 2. Focus 3. Scope 4. Structure 5. Use DEFINE THE MAPPING EFFORT
  32. 32. Focus
  33. 33. Scope
  34. 34. by nForm (CA)
  35. 35. Structure
  36. 36. Network
  37. 37. Emirates Journey Mapping Case Study: http://www.kendeo.com/industry/airline/emirates-study
  38. 38. STRUCTURES
  39. 39. 1. Point of view – whose experiences? Which experiences? 2. Scope – where do you begin and end? 3. Focus – which aspects are highlighted? 4. Structure – how will you arrange elements? 5. Use – what will you do with the diagram? 1. DEFINE THE EFFORT
  40. 40. Five things businesses care about: 2. ALIGN TO BUSINESS GOALS • Increase revenue • Decrease cost • Increase new business • Increase existing business • Increase shareholder value Jared Spool: “UX means business” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEyUe4q_pOk Growth=
  41. 41. Pirate Metrics • Acquire • Activate • Retention • Referral • Revenue Dave McClure: http://500hats.typepad.com/500blogs/2007/09/startup-metrics.html 2. ALIGN TO BUSINESS GOALS
  42. 42. The Providence Tourism Office (PTO) would like to improve the overall experience guests have when visiting the city, particularly holiday travelers. They already have some ideas what to do, but need to see the big picture in order to prioritize funding and to focus on areas that will have the most impact. First, the PTO is planning to significantly overhaul its website. The site has grown organically over the past decade, and there are many complaints about finding information. In particular, the federated reservations system for hotels is incomplete, outdated and hard to use. Second, the PTO wants to offer mobile services and apps for travelers. With so many options in the mobile arena, they are not sure where the best place to start would be. Finally, PTO believes partnering with key service providers would improve the travel experience of visitors. PTO already has information kiosks in tourist areas, but they are looking to integrate more with partner services. You work for a research agency specializing in experience mapping. The PTO has hired you to investigate and identify the most salient ways to bring the most value to visitors. They are also looking for new opportunities previously overlooked. The insight they hope to gain will help structure a multi-year program for improvement. SCENARIO
  43. 43. Based on the scenario, address the 5 questions for getting started: 1. What is your POINT OF VIEW? 2. What is the SCOPE of the experience? 3. What will you FOCUS on? 4. How will STRUCTURE the diagram? 5. What will you USE the map for? Time permitting, create a value chain diagram. 1. List all of the actors and entities involved 2. Create a concept diagram show the flow of value EXERCISE 1: VALUE CHAIN (20 minutes)
  45. 45. 2. INVESTIGATE
  46. 46. INVESTIGATE Gather existing sources Qualitative & quantitative 1
  47. 47. Interview internally Sketch experience Identify knowledge gaps Gather existing sources Qualitative & quantitative 1 2 INVESTIGATE
  49. 49. Interview internally Sketch experience Identify knowledge gaps Gather existing sources Qualitative & quantitative Interview externally Contextual interviews Surveys, quantitative data 1 2 3 INVESTIGATE
  50. 50. Who might you want to interview? Internal interview participants External interview participants _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ EXERCISE 2: INTERVIEW PARTNERS (5 MINUTES)
  51. 51. What themes or topics might you include in a guide for interviews internally at the HTO and externally with travellers? Internal interview themes External interview themes _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ EXERCISE 3: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (5 MINUTES)
  52. 52. 3. ILLUSTRATE
  53. 53. ANALYSE DATA
  54. 54. Text coding software, e.g., MaxQDA ANALYSE DATA
  55. 55. ANALYSE DATA – Short Way
  56. 56. ANALYSE DATA – Short Way
  57. 57. Guideline Example 1 Example 2 Start with insights Research cluster 1: People indicated they sometimes hesitate and reconsider during the customer acquisition phase because of our premium pricing model Research cluster 2: There is a clear pain point around deploying the solution, primarily due to lack of necessary technical knowledge. Use natural language People reconsider when making a purchase because they may be nervous or anxious about the high cost Users struggle to install the software for the first time if they don’t have the required technical skills Keep voice consistent I reconsider when making a purchase because I’m anxious and nervous about the high cost I struggle to install the software for the first time because I don’t have the necessary technical skills. Omit pronouns and articles Reconsider when making purchase due to anxiousness and nervousness over high cost Struggle to install software for first time without the necessary technical skills. Focus on the root cause Feel anxious and nervous when making purchase due to high cost, and then reconsider Struggle during installation due to lack of necessary technical skills Be concise Feel anxious during purchase about cost, and then reconsider Struggle due to lack technical skills during installation Use abbreviations sparingly “” Struggle due to lack of tech skills during installation Rely on context of map anxious about cost (In the cell for the column for “purchase” and row for “feelings”) Reconsider (In the cell of a column for “purchase” and a row for “actions”) Struggle due to lack of tech skills OR Lack tech skills (assuming a column for “installation” and a row for “pain points”)
  58. 58. Consider different layouts
  59. 59. by nForm (CA)
  60. 60. www.businessmodelcreativity.net
  61. 61. Emirates Journey Mapping Case Study: http://www.kendeo.com/industry/airline/emirates-study
  62. 62. LAYOUT TYPES
  63. 63. STRIVE FOR CLARITY (negative example)
  64. 64. CONSISTENT REPRESENTATION CONTENT • Actions: Start each with a verb, • Thoughts: Phrase as a question • Feelings: Use adjectives • Pain points: start each with a gerund • Touchpoints: Use nouns • Opportunities: Begin with verb of change, e.g., increase the ease of installation VISUAL • Fit to space • Font selection • Color coding • Icons and shapes
  66. 66. EXERCISE 4: ILLUSTRATE (45 MINUTES) In groups, create a draft diagram for the PTO scenario Use the following phases • Plan Trip • Travel • Arrive • Stay • Depart • Return Home • Visit Again Include the following aspects • Customer • Actions • Thoughts • Feelings • Pain points • Channels / Touchpoints • PTO • Role + Activity • Goals
  67. 67. 4. ALIGN & ENVISION
  68. 68. “Diagrams are compelling documents that invite engagement by others.”
  69. 69. COLLABORATE • Hold a workshop • Invite diverse group • Assess performance • Engage in exercises
  70. 70. EMPATHIZE
  71. 71. ASSESS
  72. 72. OPPORTUNITIES 1. Gaps 2. Weaknesses 3. Efficiencies 4. Competitors
  73. 73. Author Involvement Levels
  74. 74. The Ask
  75. 75. circa 1886 Scientific American Supplement, No. 530, February 27, 1886 “A NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS” This apparatus consists of a box containing a camera, A, and a frame, C, containing the desired number of plates, each held in a small frame of black Bristol board. The camera contains a mirror, M, which pivots upon an axis and is maneuvered by the extreme bottom, B. This mirror stops at an angle of 45°, and sends the image coming from the objective to the horizontal plate, D, at the upper part of the camera. The image thus reflected is righted upon this plate. As the objective is of short focus, every object situated beyond a distance of three yards from the apparatus is in focus. In exceptional cases, where the operator might be nearer the object to be photographed, the focusing would be done by means of the rack of the objective. The latter can also slide up and down, so that the apparatus need not be inclined when buildings or high trees are being photographed. The door, E, performs the role of a shade. When the apparatus has been fixed upon its tripod and properly directed, all the operator has to do is to close the door, P, and raise the mirror, M, by turning the button, B, and then expose the plate. The sensitized plates are introduced into the apparatus through the door, I, and are always brought automatically to the focus of the objective through the pressure of the springs, R. The shutter of the frame, B, opens through a hook, H, with in the pocket, N. After exposure, each plate is lifted by means of the extractor, K, into the pocket, whence it is taken by hand and introduced through a slit, S, behind the springs, R, and the other plates that the frame contains. All these operations are performed in the interior of the pocket, N, through the impermeable, triple fabric of which no light can enter. An automatic marker shows the number of plates exposed. When the operations are finished, the objective is put back in the interior of the camera, the doors, P and E, are closed, and the pocket is rolled up. The apparatus is thus hermetically closed, and, containing all the accessories, forms one of the most practical of systems for the itinerant photographer.—La Nature.
  76. 76. [EASTMAN] recognized that his roll film could lead to a revolution if he focused on the experience he wanted to deliver, an experience captured in his advertising slogan, “You press the button, we do the rest.”
  78. 78. THE ASK Solutions that merely please, serve, meet the needs/specs, or delight customers don’t go far enough. They represent yesterday’s marketing and design paradigms. They misunderstand innovation’s real impact – transforming customers.
  80. 80. Who does Google ask us to become?
  81. 81. Kodak = Camera > Photographers eBay = Trading Platform > Entrepreneurs Google = Search Engine > Expert Researchers
  82. 82. WIERDO
  83. 83. Supersize UNHEALTHY
  84. 84. Kodak = Camera > Photographers eBay = Trading Platform > Entrepreneurs Google = Search Engine > Expert Researchers but… Segway = New Vehicle > Weirdo on Scooter Super Size = Value for Money > Unhealthy person
  85. 85. THE ASK & DIAGRAMS 1. At each phase ask: Who do we want our customers to become? 2. Use metaphors. These are often experts 3. Reframe solutions to transform users
  86. 86. VIP Club Member House guest Royalty FriendFoodie
  87. 87. CitizenExplorer Documentary Filmmaker Activist Reporter
  88. 88. 1. In groups, discuss who you want your customer to become. 2. Together, brainstorm ideas that will transform you customers. If we want our customer to become <the ask>, then they need these <solutions, services> EXERCISE 5: ALIGN
  89. 89. ARTICULATE IDEAS 1. Written stories 2. Storyboards 3. Sketches 4.Prototypes
  91. 91. PROTOTYPES
  92. 92. EVALUATION
  93. 93. ITERATE
  94. 94. WORK RAPIDLY
  98. 98. “[Mapping] will add context to your project and highlight opportunities you may have otherwise missed.” DESIGN SPRINTS
  99. 99. IDEAS ARE OVERRATED @JimKalbach
  100. 100. VALLEY OF DEATH @JimKalbach
  101. 101. BUSINESS VALUE EXPERIMENTS 5x5 Framework • 5 people • 5 days • 5 experiments • $5k • In 5 weeks (i.e., small bets…) @JimKalbach
  105. 105. Danke schön! @JimKalbach Jim.Kalbach@Gmail.com www.experiencinginformation.com
  106. 106. FINAL WORD
  107. 107. MODELS
  108. 108. EVANGALISE
  109. 109. What are some benefits of alignment diagrams? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ EXERCISE 7: ADVANTAGES (5 MINS)
  110. 110. • Longevity of information • Common big picture • Continuity in vision • Diagnosis of problems • Indicate where to create value • Opportunities for growth BENEFITS not product research
  111. 111. Objection Argument I was in our target group. Just ask me. You’ve internalized processes and may not express them freely. Also, different people have different ways of doing things. We want to look beyond what we already know. We regularly listen to customers Listening to customers is good, but it is not enough. We also need alignment throughout the organization. Also remember the 90-9-1 rule: Only 1% of people will send such an email. We already do market research. Market research and Diagramming are different. Marketing understands what people will buy so we can sell more. This work seeks to uncover fundamental needs and activities for innovation. We don’t have time or budget Alignment diagrams needn’t be expensive or time consuming. For the cost of a usability test or marketing survey, we can conduct an alignment project. A focus group would be easier By taking people out of their contexts, much of the situational and environmental cues are missing. People also don’t remember exactly how they work without the actual tool or artefact present. Focus groups sometimes lead to group opinions. KNOW THE OBJECTIONS
  112. 112. • Key elements of an elevator pitch 1. What problem are your solving? 2. What is the value proposition? • Characteristics of elevator pitch • Be succinct • Easy to understand • Greed inducing • Irrefutable – leave no questions CREATE A PITCH
  113. 113. You’d like to grow into a new markets to move beyond maintaining your current offerings. You’ll have better understand the needs and behaviour of this segment quickly. Alignment Diagrams reflect a modern technique that more and more companies are using to improve their customer understanding, such as Intel and Microsoft. By visually aligning various aspects of customer behaviour with business processes, you’ll be better able to understand how to create, deliver and capture value. It will also give you insight in to creating innovative products and services that outperform competitors and help business growth. With relatively little investment, alignment diagramming provides you with the strategic insight you need to keep up in today’s fast changing marketplaces. EXAMLE PITCH
  114. 114. Men are moved by two levers only: fear and self interest - Napoleon Bonaparte
  115. 115. On Techniques • Mental Models, Indi Young • ‘Locating Value with Alignment Diagrams,’ James Kalbach & Paul Kahn • Google: – ‘customer journey mapping’ – ‘mental models’ – ‘service blueprint’ READ LITERATURE On Business Relevance • Game Changer, A.G Lafley & Ram Charan • Subject to Change, Peter Merholz et al. • Business Model Generation, Alexander Osterwalder • Harvard Business Review articles • Forrester Reports
  116. 116. • Find case studies • Find out what competitors are doing • Do a small study ‘under the wire’ • Demonstrate the value first hand • Find champion in management CONVINCE
  117. 117. 1. Know the benefits 2. Know the objections 3. Prepare arguments 4. Read the literature 5. Pitch and convince SUMMARY